Pha 334 Exam 3 Part I

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Pha 334 Exam 3 Part I - Quiz

PHA 334 Exam 3 Part I Sample questions covering Incompatibilities


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Advantages of administering medications by I.V. infusion include

    • A.

      Replacement of essential fluids

    • B.

      Drug can be administered over an extended period in order to maintain a constant concentration in the body

    • C.

      Drug is less concentrated when it contacts the walls of the veins and is therefore, less irritating.

    • D.

      All of the Above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the Above
    Explanation
    Administering medications by I.V. infusion has several advantages. Firstly, it allows for the replacement of essential fluids in the body. Secondly, it enables the drug to be administered over an extended period, ensuring a constant concentration in the body. Lastly, when the drug contacts the walls of the veins, it is less concentrated and therefore less irritating. Therefore, all of the above advantages are true for administering medications by I.V. infusion.

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  • 2. 

      Intravenous (I.V.) drug therapy in large-volume fluids is only a common practice in inpatient but not outpatient settings

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Intravenous (I.V.) drug therapy in large-volume fluids is not only a common practice in inpatient settings but also in outpatient settings. This means that it is not true that it is only a common practice in inpatient settings and not in outpatient settings.

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  • 3. 

      In general, it is OK to mix solutions of parenterals even though there is the potential for incompatibility

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    "In general, it is not recommended to mix solutions of parenteral because of the potential for incompatibility"

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  • 4. 

     Stability – a product or combination of drugs that retain ____% of its original potency during the life span of the product

    • A.

      70

    • B.

      80

    • C.

      90

    • D.

      95

    Correct Answer
    C. 90
    Explanation
    Stability refers to the ability of a product or combination of drugs to maintain its original potency over its lifespan. In this case, the correct answer is 90%, which means that the product or drug combination will retain 90% of its original potency throughout its entire lifespan. This indicates a high level of stability, as a significant portion of the drug's effectiveness is maintained over time.

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  • 5. 

    This term is usually applied to chemical reactions that are continuing without interruption, irreversible, and result in distinctly different chemical entities (degradation products) that can be both therapeutically inactive and possibly exhibit toxicity

    • A.

      Stable

    • B.

      Instable

    • C.

      Volatile

    • D.

      Predictable

    Correct Answer
    B. Instable
    Explanation
    The term "instable" is the correct answer because it describes chemical reactions that are continuing without interruption, irreversible, and result in distinctly different chemical entities (degradation products). These degradation products can be both therapeutically inactive and possibly exhibit toxicity. The term "instable" suggests that these reactions are not stable and can lead to undesirable outcomes.

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  • 6. 

    This term generally refers to physiochemical phenomena such as concentration-dependent precipitation and acid-base reactions with the products of reaction manifested as a change in physical state or protonation-deprotonation equilibria

    • A.

      Incompatible

    • B.

      Compatible

    • C.

      Stable

    • D.

      Instable

    Correct Answer
    A. Incompatible
    Explanation
    The term "incompatible" is used to describe physiochemical phenomena that result in a change in physical state or protonation-deprotonation equilibria. This can include concentration-dependent precipitation and acid-base reactions. Incompatibility refers to substances or conditions that cannot coexist without causing a reaction or change in state, indicating that they are not compatible with each other.

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  • 7. 

    These occur when two drugs combine in a solution to produce a change in the appearance of that solution

    • A.

      Chemical incompatibilities

    • B.

      Physical incompatiblities

    • C.

      Chemical change

    • D.

      Physcial change

    Correct Answer
    B. Physical incompatiblities
    Explanation
    Physical incompatibilities refer to the changes in the appearance of a solution when two drugs combine. This can include alterations in color, clarity, or the formation of precipitates or particles. Unlike chemical incompatibilities, where a chemical reaction occurs between the drugs, physical incompatibilities do not involve a chemical change. Instead, they involve changes in the physical properties of the solution. Therefore, the correct answer is physical incompatibilities.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is not a visual change that might indicate a  physical incompatibility is taking place?

    • A.

      Change in color

    • B.

      Development of a haze

    • C.

      Change in odor

    • D.

      Evolution of a gas

    • E.

      Formation of a precipitate

    Correct Answer
    C. Change in odor
    Explanation
    A change in odor is not a visual change, but rather a change in the sense of smell. It indicates a chemical change or reaction taking place, rather than a physical incompatibility. Visual changes such as changes in color, development of a haze, evolution of a gas, or formation of a precipitate can indicate physical incompatibility.

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  • 9. 

    For drugs that are weak acids or bases, solubility is a direct function of

    • A.

      Solution pKa

    • B.

      Solution pH

    • C.

      Solution concentration

    • D.

      Drug concentration

    Correct Answer
    B. Solution pH
    Explanation
    solution pH along with DRUG pKa

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  • 10. 

    Drugs that are poorly water soluble are often formulated using water miscible cosolvent such as

    • A.

      Ethanol

    • B.

      Propylene glycol

    • C.

      Polyethylene glycol

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Drugs that are poorly water soluble can be difficult to formulate. One approach to improve their solubility is to use a water miscible cosolvent. Ethanol, propylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol are all examples of water miscible cosolvents that can be used to enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above."

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  • 11. 

    When mixing solutions that contain calcium and phophate, which should be added first?

    • A.

      Calcium

    • B.

      Phosphate

    • C.

      The order does not matter

    Correct Answer
    B. Phosphate
    Explanation
    Dr. Moore said to remember "ph-ph-phosphate... f-f-first!"

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  • 12. 

    The concentration of amino acids plays no role in the determination of calcium and phosphate precipitation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Concentration of amino acids and AA composition both play an important role.

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  • 13. 

    What is the term for when an intact drug is lost from solution by adsorption to the surface or absorption into the matrix of the container material, administration set or filter

    • A.

      Leaching

    • B.

      Reduction

    • C.

      Sorption

    Correct Answer
    C. Sorption
    Explanation
    Leaching is the opposite effect to adsorption and is when phthalate plasticizers leach out into the solution

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  • 14. 

    Chemical incompatabilites may not be visibly observable

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Chemical incompatibilities can occur between different substances, resulting in potentially dangerous reactions. However, these reactions may not always be visibly observable, meaning that there may not be any visible signs or indications of the incompatibility. This is why it is important to be aware of potential chemical incompatibilities and to follow proper safety protocols when handling different substances, even if there are no visible signs of incompatibility.

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  • 15. 

    Oxidation is

    • A.

      Electron loss that causes a negative increase in valence

    • B.

      Electron gain that causes a positive increase in valence

    • C.

      Electron loss that causes a positive increase in valence

    • D.

      Electron gain that causes a negative increase in valence

    Correct Answer
    C. Electron loss that causes a positive increase in valence
    Explanation
    Remember OIL RIG... Oxidation Is Loss... Reduction Is Gain

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following should not be used to try and control the process of oxidation?

    • A.

      Oxygen should always be included in the dosage form

    • B.

      PH may be adjusted.

    • C.

      Chelating agents may be incorporated into the solvent

    • D.

      Antioxidants may be added

    Correct Answer
    A. Oxygen should always be included in the dosage form
    Explanation
    Oxygen may be excluded from the dosage form

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  • 17. 

    A visual check for precipitation, turbidity or color change before administering the mixture guarantees compatibility

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that visually checking for precipitation, turbidity, or color change before administering the mixture guarantees compatibility. However, this is not true because visual checks may not always be accurate indicators of compatibility. Some incompatible mixtures may not exhibit visible changes. Therefore, relying solely on visual checks is not a reliable method to ensure compatibility.

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  • 18. 

    Drug incompatibility will result when an interaction occurs between

    • A.

      Unionized bases and unionized acids

    • B.

      Unionized bases and ionized acids

    • C.

      Ionized bases and ionized acids

    • D.

      Ionized bases and unionized acids

    Correct Answer
    C. Ionized bases and ionized acids
    Explanation
    This results in the formation of the molecular acid and base which are water insoluble

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is not true about molecular acids?

    • A.

      Molecular acids are strong

    • B.

      Must react with a strong base to relinquish their H+

    • C.

      When they react with a strong base they form basic salts

    Correct Answer
    A. Molecular acids are strong
    Explanation
    Molecular acids are relatively weak (pKa 3-8). Therefore, must force HB (the acid) to relinquish H+ by reacting with a strong base (e.g. NaOH, KOH, Al(OH)3, Ca(OH)2).

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  • 20. 

    WHich of the following is not a basic salt?

    • A.

      Sodium Phenobarbital

    • B.

      Potassium Penicillin V

    • C.

      Calcium hydroxide

    • D.

      Aluminum aspirin

    Correct Answer
    C. Calcium hydroxide
    Explanation
    Couple name of unionized acid with name of metal ion from the original metal hydroxide used to make the salt

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  • 21. 

    WHich of the following is not an acidic salt?

    • A.

      Morphine sulfate

    • B.

      Triplennamine citrate

    • C.

      Physostigmine maleate;

    • D.

      Atropine methylbromide

    • E.

      Ephedrine hydrobromide

    Correct Answer
    D. Atropine methylbromide
    Explanation
    to name an acid salt, Couple name of original unionized (molecular, :B) base with a modified name of the acid used to make the salt (HX) (e.g. Cl ---> chloride; H2SO4 ---> sulfate).

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  • 22. 

    __________reactions in aqueous solution are a major source of drug incompatibility

    • A.

      Electron transfer

    • B.

      Proton transfer

    • C.

      Uneven transfer

    Correct Answer
    B. Proton transfer
    Explanation
    Morphine sulfate + Cefazolin Sodium ----->
    (ionized acid) (H2O soluble) (ionized base) (H2O soluble)
    Morphine + Cefazolin + Na2SO4
    (mol. base) (H2O insol.) (mol. acid) (H2O insol.) (H2O sol.)
    The ionized acid (+1) donates a proton to the anionic (-1) base, generating the unionized conjugate base of the original acid and unionized conjugate acid of the original base, resulting in precipitation.

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  • 23. 

    You should wait an ample amount of time before administering an admixture to see if any precipitation forms before giving it to the patient.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Use solutions promptly after preparation in order to assure administration of the most stable product, since the degradation of many drugs is time dependent.

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  • 24. 

    Biological substances including blood products and insulin are prone to denaturation when exposed to variations in pH and osmolality

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    There are some compatibility studies for blood and insulin but not for newly marketed biologicals such as infliximab, interferons and recombinant coagulation factors, so mixing is not recommended.

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  • 25. 

    Injecting drugs through a running I.V. can be done while observing for any signs of incompatibility

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mix two bags of the drugs to be administered. Send one bag immediately to the floor and keep the second bag in the pharmacy. Call the nurse and explain that no drug compatibility information exists on combining these drugs in the same bag. The nurse should hang the bag immediately and observe for any signs of incompatibility. The bag in the pharmacy should also be observed carefully for any signs of incompatibility. Stop I.V. at the first sign of incompatibility.

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  • 26. 

    Some incompatibilities may be predictable from simple chemical knowledge

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Simple chemical knowledge allows us to understand certain properties and behaviors of chemicals. Based on this knowledge, we can make predictions about potential incompatibilities between different chemicals. For example, we may know that mixing an acid with a base will result in a neutralization reaction. Therefore, it is possible to predict some incompatibilities by applying basic chemical principles.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is not an example of chemical incompatibility?

    • A.

      Hyrolysis

    • B.

      Precipitation

    • C.

      Oxidation

    • D.

      Photolysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Precipitation
    Explanation
    Precipitation shows a physical incompatibility

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  • 28. 

    ___________ is a common mode of chemical decomposition causing the majority of drug instabilities

    • A.

      Oxidation

    • B.

      Reduction

    • C.

      Hyrdolysis

    • D.

      Photolysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Hyrdolysis
    Explanation
    Hydrolysis is a common mode of chemical decomposition that occurs when a compound reacts with water, resulting in the breakdown of chemical bonds. This process is a major cause of drug instabilities, as many drugs are susceptible to hydrolysis in the presence of moisture or under certain pH conditions. Hydrolysis can lead to the formation of degradation products, which may result in reduced potency or altered pharmacokinetics of the drug. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential for hydrolysis when formulating and storing pharmaceutical products.

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  • 29. 

    Neutral quaternary ammonium salts can either accept or donate proton

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Neutral quaternary ammonium salts can neither accept nor donate proton, and are compatible in solution with either ionized acids or ionized bases.

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  • 30. 

    Published data on incompatibility studies is complete

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Published data on incompatibility studies is complete" is false. This means that the available published data on incompatibility studies is not complete. The answer suggests that there is either missing or insufficient information in the published data regarding incompatibility studies.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 02, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Cdtiller

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