Organizational Behaviour Chapter 2

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Organizational Behaviour Chapter 2 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The forces within a person that affect their direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour.

    • A.

      Ability

    • B.

      Personality

    • C.

      Motivation

    • D.

      Competencies

    • E.

      Extroversion

    Correct Answer
    C. Motivation
    Explanation
    Motivation refers to the internal forces that drive a person's behavior, determining the direction, intensity, and persistence of their voluntary actions. It is the inner drive or desire that compels individuals to take action and achieve their goals. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as personal needs, desires, values, and external stimuli. It plays a crucial role in determining the level of effort and commitment individuals put into their tasks and ultimately affects their performance and success.

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  • 2. 

    The natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task.

    • A.

      Ability

    • B.

      Competencies

    • C.

      Power distance

    • D.

      Motivation

    • E.

      Personality

    Correct Answer
    A. Ability
    Explanation
    Ability refers to the natural aptitudes and learned capabilities that are necessary to successfully complete a task. It encompasses the skills, knowledge, and expertise that an individual possesses, which enables them to perform effectively in a specific area.

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  • 3. 

    Skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and other personal characteristics that lead to superior performance.

    • A.

      Role perception

    • B.

      Competencies

    • C.

      Ability

    • D.

      Personality

    • E.

      Motivation

    Correct Answer
    B. Competencies
    Explanation
    Competencies refer to the skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and personal characteristics that an individual possesses, which contribute to their superior performance in a particular role or task. These competencies can include technical skills, problem-solving abilities, communication skills, leadership qualities, and other attributes that are relevant to the specific job or field. By having the right competencies, individuals are better equipped to excel in their roles and achieve higher levels of performance compared to those who lack these essential qualities.

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  • 4. 

    The accuracy of how people understand their job duties assigned to them or expected of them.

    • A.

      Aptitudes

    • B.

      Motivation

    • C.

      Role perceptions

    • D.

      Competencies

    • E.

      Ability

    Correct Answer
    C. Role perceptions
    Explanation
    Role perceptions refer to how individuals understand and interpret their job duties and responsibilities. It is the accuracy with which people comprehend the tasks assigned to them or expected of them. This understanding is crucial for employees to effectively perform their roles and contribute to the organization. By having clear role perceptions, employees can align their actions and behaviors with their job requirements, leading to improved performance and productivity.

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  • 5. 

    The natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better.

    • A.

      Role perceptions

    • B.

      Ability

    • C.

      Aptitudes

    • D.

      Motivation

    • E.

      Competencies

    Correct Answer
    C. Aptitudes
    Explanation
    Aptitudes refer to the natural talents or abilities that individuals possess, which enable them to learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better. These aptitudes are inherent qualities that individuals possess and can contribute to their success in certain areas. In the context of the given question, aptitudes are the most suitable answer as they specifically address the natural talents that aid employees in learning tasks and performing them effectively.

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  • 6. 

    Time, people, budget, and physical work facilities - conditions beyond the employee's immediate control that constrain or facilitate behaviour and performance.

    • A.

      Neuroticism

    • B.

      Role perceptions

    • C.

      Situational factors

    • D.

      Power distance

    • E.

      Aptitudes

    Correct Answer
    C. Situational factors
    Explanation
    Situational factors refer to the external conditions that affect an employee's behavior and performance. These factors can include time constraints, the people they work with, the budget they have, and the physical work facilities available to them. These factors are beyond the employee's immediate control and can either facilitate or constrain their ability to perform effectively.

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  • 7. 

    The relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviours, that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind these characteristics.

    • A.

      Motivation

    • B.

      Extroversion

    • C.

      Personality

    • D.

      Openness to change

    • E.

      Situational factors

    Correct Answer
    C. Personality
    Explanation
    Personality refers to the relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person. It encompasses the psychological processes behind these characteristics, such as the way a person thinks, feels, and acts in various situations. Personality traits are believed to be relatively stable over time and across different situations, influencing how individuals perceive and interact with the world. Motivation, extroversion, openness to change, and situational factors are all factors that can influence personality, but personality itself is the broader concept that encompasses these elements.

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  • 8. 

    What determines an individual's personality. Thirty percent of temperament preferences can be attributed to a person's genetic characteristics. Also influenced by the person's socialization, life experiences, and other forms of interaction with the environment. As self-concept becomes clearer and more stable with age, behaviour and personality therefore become more stable.

    • A.

      Five-factor model

    • B.

      Situational factors

    • C.

      Conscientousness

    • D.

      Nature versus nurture

    • E.

      Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Correct Answer
    D. Nature versus nurture
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer, "nature versus nurture," is that it refers to the ongoing debate about whether an individual's personality is primarily determined by their genetic makeup (nature) or by their environment and experiences (nurture). The given information supports this answer by stating that 30% of temperament preferences can be attributed to genetics, while the rest is influenced by socialization, life experiences, and interaction with the environment. This indicates that both nature and nurture play a role in shaping an individual's personality.

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  • 9. 

    The abstract dimensions representing most personality traits; conscientiousnes, agreeableness, openness to experience, neuroticism, and extroversion.

    • A.

      Power distance

    • B.

      Situational factors

    • C.

      Five-factor model

    • D.

      Nature versus nurture

    • E.

      Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Correct Answer
    C. Five-factor model
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the five-factor model. The five-factor model refers to the theory that personality can be described using five broad dimensions: conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience, neuroticism, and extroversion. This model suggests that these dimensions capture the majority of personality traits and can be used to understand and predict individual differences in behavior and attitudes.

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  • 10. 

    A personality dimension describing people who are careful, dependable, and self-disciplined.

    • A.

      Neuroticism

    • B.

      Extroversion

    • C.

      Agreeableness

    • D.

      Openness to experience

    • E.

      Conscientiousness

    Correct Answer
    E. Conscientiousness
    Explanation
    Conscientiousness is the correct answer because it refers to a personality dimension characterized by traits such as being careful, dependable, and self-disciplined. People high in conscientiousness tend to be organized, responsible, and diligent in their actions and behavior. They are reliable, follow through on their commitments, and pay attention to details. This trait is often associated with being goal-oriented and having a strong work ethic.

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  • 11. 

    A personality dimension describing people with high levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, and self-conciousness.

    • A.

      Extroversion

    • B.

      Conscientiousness

    • C.

      Agreeableness

    • D.

      Openness to experience

    • E.

      Neuroticism

    Correct Answer
    E. Neuroticism
    Explanation
    Neuroticism is the correct answer because it describes individuals who exhibit high levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, and self-consciousness. This personality dimension encompasses traits associated with emotional instability and negative affectivity. People high in neuroticism tend to experience more frequent and intense negative emotions, have a higher susceptibility to stress, and may be prone to mood swings and irrational thoughts.

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  • 12. 

    The extent to which people are imaginative, creative, curious, and aesthetically sensitive.

    • A.

      Openness to experience

    • B.

      Neuroticism

    • C.

      Conscientiousness

    • D.

      Extroversion

    • E.

      Agreeableness

    Correct Answer
    A. Openness to experience
    Explanation
    Openness to experience refers to the extent to which individuals are imaginative, creative, curious, and aesthetically sensitive. It is a personality trait that reflects an individual's willingness to explore new ideas, seek out new experiences, and appreciate art and beauty. People who score high on openness to experience tend to be more open-minded, adventurous, and receptive to new experiences and ideas. They are often more imaginative and creative, and they enjoy exploring different perspectives and possibilities. This trait is associated with a broad range of interests, intellectual curiosity, and a preference for novelty and variety.

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  • 13. 

    A personality dimension describing people who are courteous, good-natured, empathic, and caring.

    • A.

      Extroversion

    • B.

      Agreeableness

    • C.

      Conscientiousness

    • D.

      Neuroticism

    • E.

      Openness to experience

    Correct Answer
    B. Agreeableness
    Explanation
    Agreeableness is the correct answer because it refers to a personality dimension that describes individuals who are courteous, good-natured, empathic, and caring. People who score high in agreeableness tend to be cooperative, friendly, and considerate towards others. They value harmony and are more likely to be sympathetic and understanding in their interactions. This dimension reflects traits such as kindness, compassion, and a willingness to help others, making it the most suitable option for the given description.

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  • 14. 

    A personality dimension describing people who are outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive.

    • A.

      Openness to experience

    • B.

      Agreeable

    • C.

      Conscientnousness

    • D.

      Extroversion

    • E.

      Neuroticism

    Correct Answer
    D. Extroversion
    Explanation
    Extroversion is the correct answer because it describes individuals who are outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive. This personality dimension is characterized by a preference for external stimuli, social interaction, and being energized by social situations. Extroverts tend to enjoy being around others, are comfortable in social settings, and are more likely to take charge in group situations. They are often seen as confident, expressive, and enthusiastic individuals.

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  • 15. 

    Swiss psychatrist Carl Jung proposed that personality is primarily represented by the individual's preferences regarding perceiving and judging information.

    • A.

      Nature versus nurture

    • B.

      Five-factor model

    • C.

      Personality

    • D.

      Achievement-nurturing orientation

    • E.

      Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Correct Answer
    E. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    Explanation
    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality assessment tool that is based on Carl Jung's theory of personality. It measures an individual's preferences regarding perceiving and judging information, which aligns with Jung's proposal that personality is primarily represented by these preferences. The MBTI categorizes individuals into different personality types based on their preferences for extraversion or introversion, sensing or intuition, thinking or feeling, and judging or perceiving. Therefore, the MBTI is a valid answer to the question as it aligns with Jung's theory and his proposal about the representation of personality.

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  • 16. 

    Involves perceiving information directly through the five senses. It relies on an organized structure to acquire factual and preferably quantitative details.

    • A.

      Judging

    • B.

      Intuition

    • C.

      Thinking

    • D.

      Feeling

    • E.

      Sensing

    Correct Answer
    E. Sensing
    Explanation
    Sensing involves perceiving information directly through the five senses. It relies on an organized structure to acquire factual and preferably quantitative details. This means that individuals who prefer sensing tend to rely on concrete and tangible information that they can observe and experience firsthand. They focus on gathering and processing information that is based on what is currently happening in the present moment, rather than relying on abstract concepts or future possibilities.

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  • 17. 

    Relies on insight and subjective experience to see relationships among people.

    • A.

      Thinking

    • B.

      Perceiving

    • C.

      Judging

    • D.

      Sensing

    • E.

      Intuition

    Correct Answer
    E. Intuition
    Explanation
    Intuition is the correct answer because it refers to relying on insight and subjective experience to see relationships among people. Intuition involves trusting one's gut feelings and relying on hunches and instincts rather than solely relying on logical analysis or concrete evidence. It allows individuals to perceive patterns and connections that may not be immediately apparent, making it a valuable tool for understanding and navigating social dynamics.

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  • 18. 

    Relies on rational cause-effect logic and systematic data to make decisions.

    • A.

      Thinking

    • B.

      Intuition

    • C.

      Perceiving

    • D.

      Feeling

    • E.

      Sensing

    Correct Answer
    A. Thinking
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "thinking" because this type of decision-making relies on logical reasoning and objective analysis of data. It involves evaluating cause and effect relationships and making decisions based on rationality and evidence. This approach is systematic and focuses on finding logical solutions rather than relying on emotions or subjective judgments.

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  • 19. 

    Relies on emotional responses to the options presented, as well as to how those choices affect others.

    • A.

      Intuition

    • B.

      Judging

    • C.

      Feeling

    • D.

      Thinking

    • E.

      Perceiving

    Correct Answer
    C. Feeling
    Explanation
    Feeling is the correct answer because it refers to a decision-making process that relies on emotional responses and considers how those choices will impact others. This means that individuals who use feeling as their dominant function are more likely to prioritize harmony, empathy, and personal values when making decisions. They tend to consider the emotional implications of their choices and are more concerned about maintaining positive relationships with others.

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  • 20. 

    People that are open, curious, flexible, prefer to adapt spontaneously to events as they unfold, and prefer to keep their options open.

    • A.

      Thinking

    • B.

      Perceiving

    • C.

      Intuition

    • D.

      Sensing

    • E.

      Judging

    Correct Answer
    B. Perceiving
    Explanation
    The given answer, perceiving, aligns with the description provided. People who are open, curious, flexible, and prefer to adapt spontaneously are more likely to have a perceiving preference. Perceivers tend to be more spontaneous and open-ended in their approach to life, preferring to keep their options open rather than making quick judgments or decisions. This preference is associated with being adaptable and open to new experiences, which matches the description given.

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  • 21. 

    People that prefer order and structure, and want to resolve problems quickly.

    • A.

      Intuition

    • B.

      Thinking

    • C.

      Judging

    • D.

      Perceiving

    • E.

      Feeling

    Correct Answer
    C. Judging
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that people who prefer order and structure and want to resolve problems quickly are likely to have a judging preference. Judging individuals tend to be organized, decisive, and focused on achieving goals. They prefer structure and closure, and they enjoy making plans and sticking to schedules. They are often efficient problem solvers who like to resolve issues promptly.

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  • 22. 

    An individual's self-beliefs and self-evaluations. How a person feels about themselves, and guides their decisions and actions. The three concepts are complexity, consistency, and clarity.

    • A.

      Self-evaluation

    • B.

      Self-concept

    • C.

      Self-efficacy

    • D.

      Self-verification

    • E.

      Self-enhancement

    Correct Answer
    B. Self-concept
    Explanation
    Self-concept refers to an individual's perception and understanding of themselves. It includes their beliefs, thoughts, and feelings about their own identity, abilities, and characteristics. It plays a crucial role in shaping their self-beliefs and self-evaluations, which in turn influence their decisions and actions. The concepts of complexity, consistency, and clarity are all dimensions of self-concept. Complexity refers to the extent to which a person sees themselves as multifaceted and diverse. Consistency relates to the degree of coherence and stability in one's self-concept. Clarity refers to the level of self-awareness and understanding of one's own identity.

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  • 23. 

    When we are inherently motivated to promote and protect a self-view of being competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, or valued. How much a person is motivated by self-interest. Includes the pursuit of success (achievement) and dominance over others (power).

    • A.

      Self-efficacy

    • B.

      Self-verification

    • C.

      Self-concept

    • D.

      Self-evaluation

    • E.

      Self-enhancement

    Correct Answer
    E. Self-enhancement
    Explanation
    Self-enhancement refers to the motivation to promote and protect a positive self-view, including feelings of competence, attractiveness, luck, ethics, and value. It involves a person's pursuit of success and dominance over others. This motivation is driven by self-interest and the desire to maintain a positive self-concept. Self-enhancement can manifest in various ways, such as seeking out positive feedback, downplaying negative feedback, and comparing oneself favorably to others.

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  • 24. 

    When people are motivated to ensure and maintain their existing self-concept which provides an important anchor to guide our thoughts and actions.

    • A.

      Self-esteem

    • B.

      Self-enhancement

    • C.

      Self-verification

    • D.

      Self-efficacy

    • E.

      Locus of control

    Correct Answer
    C. Self-verification
    Explanation
    Self-verification refers to the motivation individuals have to seek confirmation of their existing self-concept. It is the desire to have others perceive and treat them in a way that is consistent with their own self-perception. This motivation stems from the belief that maintaining a consistent self-concept is important for guiding one's thoughts and actions. Essentially, individuals with a high need for self-verification seek validation from others to reinforce their self-identity and maintain a sense of stability in their lives.

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  • 25. 

    When people strive to have a positive self-concept. The three concepts are self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control.

    • A.

      Self-evaluation

    • B.

      Role perceptions

    • C.

      Self-verication

    • D.

      Personality

    • E.

      Self-enhancement

    Correct Answer
    A. Self-evaluation
    Explanation
    Self-evaluation refers to the process of assessing one's own qualities, abilities, and worth. When people strive to have a positive self-concept, they engage in self-evaluation to understand and evaluate their own self-image. This involves reflecting on their strengths, weaknesses, and overall value as an individual. Self-evaluation plays a crucial role in shaping self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control, which are all important aspects of one's self-concept. By engaging in self-evaluation, individuals can gain a better understanding of themselves and work towards improving their self-perception.

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  • 26. 

    A fundamental component of self-concept because it represents a global self-evaluation. People with this are less influenced by others and think more relationally.

    • A.

      Self-verification

    • B.

      Self-esteem

    • C.

      Self-efficacy

    • D.

      Motivation

    • E.

      Locus of control

    Correct Answer
    B. Self-esteem
    Explanation
    Self-esteem refers to an individual's overall evaluation and perception of themselves. It is a fundamental component of self-concept because it represents a global self-evaluation. People with high self-esteem have a positive perception of themselves and are less influenced by the opinions and judgments of others. They are more likely to think in terms of their relationships with others and have a strong sense of their own worth and abilities.

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  • 27. 

    A person's belief that he or she has the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, and favorable situation to complete a task successfully.

    • A.

      Self-vertification

    • B.

      Self-enhancement

    • C.

      Self-evaluation

    • D.

      Self-concept

    • E.

      Self-efficacy

    Correct Answer
    E. Self-efficacy
    Explanation
    Self-efficacy refers to a person's belief in their own ability to successfully complete a task. It encompasses their confidence, motivation, understanding of their role, and perception of the situation. This belief is crucial as it influences their level of effort, persistence, and resilience in the face of challenges. Self-efficacy is different from self-concept, which refers to a person's overall perception of themselves, and self-evaluation, which involves assessing one's own performance. Self-enhancement refers to the tendency to view oneself in a positive light, while self-verification involves seeking confirmation of one's self-concept.

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  • 28. 

    A person's general belief about the amount of power he or she has over personal life events. People with this have a more positive self-evaluation.

    • A.

      Locus of control

    • B.

      Social identity theory

    • C.

      Self-concept

    • D.

      Self-verification

    • E.

      Values and behaviour

    Correct Answer
    A. Locus of control
    Explanation
    Locus of control refers to a person's general belief about the amount of power they have over personal life events. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that they have control over their own lives and outcomes, while those with a high external locus of control believe that external factors or luck determine their outcomes. This belief in personal control can lead to a more positive self-evaluation because individuals feel empowered and responsible for their own actions and outcomes.

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  • 29. 

    When people define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment.

    • A.

      Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    • B.

      Self-evaluation

    • C.

      Social identity theory

    • D.

      Locus of control

    • E.

      Self-enhancement

    Correct Answer
    C. Social identity theory
    Explanation
    Social identity theory explains that when people define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment, they are more likely to exhibit certain behaviors and attitudes. This theory suggests that individuals derive a sense of self-worth and self-esteem from their group memberships, and they strive to maintain a positive social identity by conforming to the norms and values of their groups. This can lead to in-group favoritism, intergroup conflict, and the formation of stereotypes and prejudices. Social identity theory helps us understand how group membership influences individual behavior and perception.

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  • 30. 

    The extent to which a person is motivated to pursue innovative ways.

    • A.

      Values congruence

    • B.

      Self-enhancement

    • C.

      Openness to change

    • D.

      Conservation

    • E.

      Self-transcendence

    Correct Answer
    C. Openness to change
    Explanation
    Openness to change refers to the degree to which a person is motivated and willing to explore and embrace new ideas, experiences, and ways of doing things. It reflects an individual's willingness to take risks, adapt to new situations, and seek out innovative solutions. People who are high in openness to change are typically curious, creative, and open-minded, and they thrive in dynamic and evolving environments. They are more likely to challenge the status quo, embrace new technologies, and actively seek out opportunities for personal and professional growth.

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  • 31. 

    The extent to which a person is motivated to preserve the status quo. Includes the value clusters of conformity (adherence to social norms and expectations), security (safety and stability), and tradition (moderation and preservation of the status quo.)

    • A.

      Self-transcendence

    • B.

      Conservation

    • C.

      Values and individual behaviour

    • D.

      Openness to change

    • E.

      Self-enhancement

    Correct Answer
    B. Conservation
    Explanation
    Conservation refers to the extent to which a person is motivated to preserve the status quo. This includes valuing conformity, security, and tradition. People who prioritize conservation are likely to adhere to social norms and expectations, seek safety and stability, and prefer moderation and preservation of the current state of affairs. They are motivated to maintain the existing order and may be resistant to change or taking risks. This value cluster is associated with a focus on preserving and protecting the established way of doing things.

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  • 32. 

    The motivation to promote the welfare of others and nature. Includes the values of benevolence (concern for others in one's life) and universalism (concern for the welfare of all people and nature.)

    • A.

      Self-transcendence

    • B.

      Openness to change

    • C.

      Self-verification

    • D.

      Self-enhancement

    • E.

      Conservation

    Correct Answer
    A. Self-transcendence
    Explanation
    Self-transcendence refers to the motivation to promote the welfare of others and nature. It involves values such as benevolence, which is the concern for others in one's life, and universalism, which is the concern for the welfare of all people and nature. This motivation goes beyond self-interest and focuses on the greater good of society and the environment. It reflects a selfless and compassionate approach to life, prioritizing the well-being of others and the world around us.

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  • 33. 

    Habitual behaviour tends to be consistent with our values, but our everyday conscious decisions and actions apply our values much less consistently. There are three conditions: we are more likely to apply values when reminded of them, when we can think of specific reasons, and when work environments influence our behaviour.

    • A.

      Person-organization values incongruence

    • B.

      Individualism

    • C.

      Values and behavior

    • D.

      Values congruenece

    • E.

      Collectivism

    Correct Answer
    C. Values and behavior
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because it directly relates to the statement in the question that our everyday conscious decisions and actions apply our values much less consistently. It suggests that there is a connection between our values and our behavior, indicating that our behavior may not always align with our values.

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  • 34. 

    The extent to which a person values hierachy that is similar to the values hierarchy of another entity.

    • A.

      Values congruence

    • B.

      Values and behaviour

    • C.

      Power distance

    • D.

      Uncertainty avoidance

    • E.

      Person-organization values incongruence

    Correct Answer
    A. Values congruence
    Explanation
    Values congruence refers to the extent to which a person's values align with the values of another entity. It indicates the similarity or compatibility between the values hierarchy of an individual and an organization, for example. When there is values congruence, there is a higher likelihood of shared understanding, cooperation, and alignment between the individual and the entity.

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  • 35. 

    The extent to which we value independence and personal uniqueness.

    • A.

      Individualism

    • B.

      Person-organizational values incongruence

    • C.

      Values congruence

    • D.

      Collectivism

    • E.

      Values and behaviour

    Correct Answer
    A. Individualism
    Explanation
    Individualism refers to the extent to which individuals value independence and personal uniqueness. It is the opposite of collectivism, which emphasizes the importance of group harmony and conformity. In terms of values and behavior, individualism reflects a focus on personal goals and self-interest rather than societal or group goals. Person-organizational values incongruence refers to a mismatch between an individual's personal values and the values of the organization they belong to. Values congruence, on the other hand, refers to the alignment or similarity between an individual's values and the values of their organization.

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  • 36. 

    When the employee's and the organization's dominant values differ.

    • A.

      Uncertainty avoidance

    • B.

      Values congruence

    • C.

      Person-organization values incongruence

    • D.

      Power distance

    • E.

      Collectivism

    Correct Answer
    C. Person-organization values incongruence
    Explanation
    Person-organization values incongruence refers to a situation where the values held by employees differ from the values promoted by the organization. This can lead to conflicts and dissatisfaction among employees, as their personal beliefs and principles may not align with the organization's goals and culture. It can also result in a lack of commitment and engagement from employees, affecting their performance and overall organizational effectiveness.

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  • 37. 

    The extent to which we value our duty to groups which we belong and to group harmony.

    • A.

      Values congruence

    • B.

      Collectivism

    • C.

      Individualism

    • D.

      Person-organization values incongruence

    • E.

      Uncertainty avoidance

    Correct Answer
    B. Collectivism
    Explanation
    Collectivism refers to the extent to which individuals prioritize the needs and goals of the group over their own personal interests. It emphasizes group harmony and the importance of fulfilling one's duty to the groups they belong to. This aligns with the given statement about valuing our duty to groups and group harmony. Values congruence refers to the degree of similarity between an individual's personal values and the values of the organization they belong to. Individualism, on the other hand, emphasizes individual rights, autonomy, and self-interest. Person-organization values incongruence refers to a mismatch between an individual's values and the values of the organization they are a part of. Uncertainty avoidance relates to the extent to which individuals feel comfortable with ambiguity and uncertainty.

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  • 38. 

    When people in a culture accept unequal distribution of control in a society. They value obedience to authority and are comfortable receiving commands from their superiors. They prefer to resolve differences through formal procedures.

    • A.

      Power distance

    • B.

      Values congruence

    • C.

      Self-enhancement

    • D.

      Individualism

    • E.

      Person-organization values incongruence

    Correct Answer
    A. Power distance
    Explanation
    This answer refers to the concept of power distance. Power distance is a cultural dimension that measures the extent to which people in a society accept and expect unequal distribution of power and control. In cultures with high power distance, there is a strong emphasis on obedience to authority and a comfort with receiving commands from superiors. These cultures also prefer to resolve differences through formal procedures rather than informal means.

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  • 39. 

    When people in a culture tolerate ambiguity or feel threatened by ambiguity. Employees with this value structured situations where rules of conduct and decision making are clearly documented.

    • A.

      Utilitarianism

    • B.

      Individualism

    • C.

      Power distance

    • D.

      Uncertainty avoidance

    • E.

      Distributive justice

    Correct Answer
    D. Uncertainty avoidance
    Explanation
    Uncertainty avoidance refers to the extent to which individuals in a culture feel threatened by ambiguity and are willing to tolerate it. In cultures with high uncertainty avoidance, people prefer structured situations where rules of conduct and decision making are clearly documented. This value is reflected in the behavior of employees who seek stability, avoid risks, and prefer well-defined guidelines. Therefore, uncertainty avoidance is the best explanation for the given statement.

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  • 40. 

    Describing the degree to which people in a culture emphasize competitive versus cooperative relations with other people.

    • A.

      Distributive justice

    • B.

      Achievement-nurturing orientation

    • C.

      Collectivism

    • D.

      Ethical sensitivity

    • E.

      Utilitarianism

    Correct Answer
    B. Achievement-nurturing orientation
    Explanation
    People with a high achievement orientation value attractiveness, competitiveness, and materialism. In contrast, people in nurturing-oriented cultures emphasize relationships and the well-being of others.

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  • 41. 

    The greatest good for the greatest number of people.

    • A.

      Ethical sensitivity

    • B.

      Utilitarianism

    • C.

      Individual rights

    • D.

      Distributive justice

    • E.

      Moral intensity

    Correct Answer
    B. Utilitarianism
    Explanation
    One of the three ethical principles

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  • 42. 

    The belief that everyone has entitlements to let them act in a certain way and that everyone is granted as a moral norm of society.

    • A.

      Moral intensity

    • B.

      Distributive justice

    • C.

      Individual rights

    • D.

      Ethical sensitivity

    • E.

      Utilitarianism

    Correct Answer
    C. Individual rights
    Explanation
    One of the three ethical principles

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  • 43. 

    The belief that people who are similiar to other should receive similar benefits.

    • A.

      Individual rights

    • B.

      Ethical sensitivity

    • C.

      Distributive justice

    • D.

      Moral intensity

    • E.

      Achieve-nurturing orientation

    Correct Answer
    C. Distributive justice
    Explanation
    One of the three ethical principles

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  • 44. 

    The degree to which an issue demands the application of ethical principles.

    • A.

      Ethical sensitivity

    • B.

      Individual rights

    • C.

      Distributive justice

    • D.

      Moral intensity

    • E.

      Utilitarianism

    Correct Answer
    D. Moral intensity
    Explanation
    Moral intensity refers to the degree to which an issue or situation is perceived as ethically significant or morally important. It involves factors such as the potential harm or benefit to individuals or society, the social consensus on the issue, the immediacy of the consequences, and the moral norms and values involved. In other words, moral intensity determines the level of ethical concern and the extent to which ethical principles should be applied in addressing a particular issue.

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  • 45. 

    A personal characteristic that enables people to recognize the presence and determine the realtive importance of an ethical issue. Explains why good people do bad things in a situation in which the unethical conduct occurs. Situational factors do not justify unethical conduct.

    • A.

      Moral intensity

    • B.

      Distributive justice

    • C.

      Ethical sensitivity

    • D.

      Utilitarianism

    • E.

      Individual rights

    Correct Answer
    C. Ethical sensitivity
    Explanation
    Ethical sensitivity refers to a personal characteristic that allows individuals to recognize the presence of an ethical issue and determine its relative importance. It explains why good people may engage in unethical conduct in certain situations. This suggests that situational factors do not justify unethical behavior. Ethical sensitivity is important in making ethical decisions and considering the moral implications of one's actions.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 05, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Krista_500
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