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Which of the following statements about Bechtel is true?
A.
Even though Bechtel is over 100 years old, the Kuwaiti oil fields was its first "project."
B.
Bechtel is the world's premier manager of massive construction and engineering projects.
C.
Bechtel's competitive advantage is supply chain management.
D.
While its projects are worldwide, its network of suppliers is largely in the U.S.
E.
All of the above are true.
Correct Answer B. Bechtel is the world's premier manager of massive construction and engineering projects.
Explanation Bechtel is known as the world's premier manager of massive construction and engineering projects. This means that they are highly regarded and recognized for their expertise in handling large-scale construction and engineering projects. This statement implies that Bechtel has a successful track record in managing such projects and is considered a leader in the industry.
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2.
A code of ethics especially for project managers
A.
Has been established by the Project Management Institute
B.
Has been formulated by the Federal government
C.
Has been formulated by the World Trade
Organization
D.
Is inappropriate, since everyone should use the
same guidance on ethical issues
E.
Does not exist at this time
Correct Answer A. Has been established by the Project Management Institute
Explanation The correct answer is "has been established by the Project Management Institute." This is because the Project Management Institute (PMI) is a professional organization that provides guidance and standards for project management professionals. As part of their efforts to promote ethical behavior in project management, PMI has developed a code of ethics that outlines the principles and standards that project managers should adhere to. Therefore, project managers can refer to this code of ethics as a guide for making ethical decisions and conducting themselves professionally.
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3.
Which of the following statements regarding Gantt charts is true?
A.
Gantt charts give a timeline and precedence relationships for each activity of a project.
B.
Gantt charts use the four standard spines of Methods, Materials, Manpower, and Machinery.
C.
Gantt charts are visual devices that show the duration of activities in a project.
D.
Gantt charts are expensive.
E.
All of the above are true.
Correct Answer C. Gantt charts are visual devices that show the duration of activities in a project.
Explanation Gantt charts are visual devices that show the duration of activities in a project. They provide a graphical representation of the project schedule, allowing stakeholders to see the timeline and duration of each activity. Gantt charts do not use the four standard spines of Methods, Materials, Manpower, and Machinery, and their cost can vary depending on the tools used to create them. Therefore, the correct statement is that Gantt charts are visual devices that show the duration of activities in a project.
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4.
Which of the following statements regarding critical paths is true?
A.
The shortest of all paths through the network is the critical path.
B.
Some activities on the critical path may have slack.
C.
Every network has exactly one critical path.
D.
On a specific project, there can be multiple critical paths, all with exactly the same
duration.
E.
The duration of the critical path is the average duration of all paths in the project network.
Correct Answer D. On a specific project, there can be multiple critical paths, all with exactly the same
duration.
Explanation The statement that is true regarding critical paths is that on a specific project, there can be multiple critical paths, all with exactly the same duration. This means that there can be more than one sequence of activities that are critical to the project's completion and have the same total duration. It is important to identify all critical paths in order to effectively manage the project and ensure timely completion.
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5.
A simple CPM network has three activities, A, B, and C. A is an immediate predecessor of B and of C. B is an immediate predecessor of C. The activity durations are A=4, B=3, C=8.
A.
The critical path is A-B-C, duration 15.
B.
The critical path is A-C, duration 12.
C.
The critical path is A-B-C, duration 13.5
D.
The critical path cannot be determined without
knowing PERT expected activity times.
E.
The network has no critical path.
Correct Answer A. The critical path is A-B-C, duration 15.
Explanation The critical path is determined by identifying the longest path in the network, which represents the minimum time required to complete the project. In this case, the critical path is A-B-C, with durations of 4, 3, and 8 respectively. Therefore, the total duration of the critical path is 15.
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6.
A simple CPM network has three activities, D, E, and F. D is an immediate predecessor of E and of F. E is an immediate predecessor of F. The activity durations are D=4, E=3, F=8.
A.
The critical path is D-E-F, duration 15.
B.
The critical path is D-F, duration 12.
C.
Slack at D is 3 units
D.
Slack at E is 3 units
E.
Both a and c are true
Correct Answer A. The critical path is D-E-F, duration 15.
Explanation The critical path is determined by identifying the longest path in the CPM network, which represents the sequence of activities that must be completed in order to minimize the project duration. In this case, the critical path consists of activities D, E, and F, with durations of 4, 3, and 8 respectively. The total duration of this critical path is 15. Therefore, the given answer "The critical path is D-E-F, duration 15" is correct.
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7.
A simple CPM network has five activities, A, B, C, D, and E. A is an immediate predecessor of C and of D. B is also an immediate predecessor of C and of D. C and D are both immediate predecessors of E.
A.
There are two paths in this network.
B.
There are four paths in this network.
C.
There are five paths in this network.
D.
There are 25 paths through this network.
E.
None of these statements is true.
Correct Answer B. There are four paths in this network.
Explanation In this CPM network, there are four paths. The paths are as follows: A-C-E, A-D-E, B-C-E, and B-D-E. Each path consists of a series of connected activities that lead from the start node (A or B) to the end node (E). Therefore, the correct answer is "There are four paths in this network."
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8.
Which of the following statements regarding CPM networks is true?
A.
There can be multiple critical paths on the same
project, all with different durations.
B.
The early finish of an activity is the latest early
start of all preceding activities.
C.
The late start of an activity is its late finish plus
its duration.
D.
If a specific project has multiple critical paths,
all of them will have the same duration.
E.
All of the above are true.
Correct Answer D. If a specific project has multiple critical paths,
all of them will have the same duration.
9.
Which of the following statements concerning CPM activities is false?
A.
The early finish of an activity is the early start of that activity plus its duration.
B.
The late finish is the earliest of the late start times of all successor activities.
C.
The late start of an activity is its late finish less its duration.
D.
The late finish of an activity is the earliest late start of all preceding activities.
E.
The early start of an activity is the latest early finish of all preceding activities.
Correct Answer D. The late finish of an activity is the earliest late start of all preceding activities.
Explanation The late finish of an activity is not necessarily the earliest late start of all preceding activities. It is the latest time that an activity can finish without delaying the project. The late finish is determined by considering the late start times of all successor activities.
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10.
The critical path for the network activities shown below is _____ with duration ______.
Activity Duration Immediate Predecessors
A 4 ---
B 2 A
C 7 --
D 4 A
E 5 B,C,D
A.
A-B-D; 10
B.
A-B-E; 11
C.
C-E; 12
D.
A-D-E; 13
E.
A-B-C-D-E; 22
Correct Answer D. A-D-E; 13
Explanation The critical path for the network activities shown is A-D-E with a duration of 13. This means that this path has the longest total duration among all possible paths in the network. The activities A, D, and E are all connected in sequence, with A being the immediate predecessor for both D and B, and D being the immediate predecessor for E. The duration of activity A is 4, activity D is 4, and activity E is 5, so the total duration of the critical path is 4 + 4 + 5 = 13.
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11.
The critical path for the network activities shown below is _____ with duration ______.
Activity Duration Immediate Predesssors
A 2 ------------------
B 4 --------------
C 6 A.B
D 1 A,B
E 2 B,C,D
A.
A-D-E; 5
B.
B-E; 6
C.
B-D-E; 7
D.
A-C-E; 10
E.
B-C-E; 12
Correct Answer E. B-C-E; 12
Explanation The critical path is the longest path in a project network diagram that determines the minimum time needed to complete a project. In this case, the critical path is B-C-E with a duration of 12. This means that if any activity on this path is delayed, it will delay the entire project. The activities on this path are B, C, and E, and their durations are 4, 6, and 2 respectively. Adding up these durations gives a total of 12, which is the duration of the critical path.
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12.
The critical path for the network activities shown below is _____ with duration ______.
Activity Duration Immediate Predesssors
A 10 ------------------
B 8 --------------
C 2 A
D 4 A
E 5 B,C,D
A.
A-C; 12
B.
A-D-E; 19
C.
B-E; 13
D.
A-B-C-D-E; 29
E.
None of the above
Correct Answer B. A-D-E; 19
Explanation The critical path is the longest path in a project network, which determines the minimum time required to complete the project. In this case, the critical path is A-D-E with a duration of 19. This means that if there are any delays in these activities, the overall project duration will be extended. The other paths mentioned do not have the longest duration and therefore are not the critical path.
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13.
Which of the following statements regarding PERT times is true?
A.
Expected time is an estimate of the time an activity will require if everything goes as planned.
B.
The optimistic time estimate is an estimate of the maximum time an activity will require.
C.
The probable time estimate is calculated as t = (a+4m+b)/6.
D.
Pessimistic time estimate is an estimate of the minimum time an activity will require.
E.
Most likely time estimate is an estimate of the maximum time an activity will require.
Correct Answer C. The probable time estimate is calculated as t = (a+4m+b)/6.
Explanation The probable time estimate in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) is calculated using the formula t = (a+4m+b)/6. This formula takes into account the optimistic time estimate (a), the most likely time estimate (m), and the pessimistic time estimate (b) to calculate the expected time for an activity. It provides a weighted average that considers both the best-case and worst-case scenarios, giving a more realistic estimate of the time required for the activity.
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14.
The critical path of the following network is:
A.
1-3, 3-4, 4-5
B.
2-3, 3-4, 4-5
C.
2-3, 3-5
D.
1-4, 4-5
E.
Two of the Above
Correct Answer A. 1-3, 3-4, 4-5
Explanation The critical path of a network refers to the longest path in the network that determines the minimum time required to complete the project. In this case, the critical path is 1-3, 3-4, 4-5. This means that these activities are the most time-consuming and any delay in them will directly impact the overall project completion time.
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15.
Which of the following represents valid constraints in linear programming?
A.
2X ≥ 7X*Y
B.
2X*7Y≥500
C.
2X+7Y≥100
D.
2X2+7Y≥50
E.
All of the above are valid linear programming constraints.
Correct Answer C. 2X+7Y≥100
Explanation The equation 2X+7Y≥100 represents a valid constraint in linear programming because it is a linear inequality with variables X and Y, and it sets a lower bound on the values of X and Y that satisfy the constraint. In linear programming, constraints are used to define the feasible region, which is the set of all possible solutions that satisfy the given conditions. This constraint indicates that the sum of 2 times X and 7 times Y must be greater than or equal to 100 in order to be considered a valid solution.
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16.
Which of the following is not a requirement of a linear programming problem?
A.
An objective function, expressed in terms of linear equations
B.
Constraint equations, expressed as linear equations
C.
An objective function, to be maximized or minimized
D.
Alternative courses of action
E.
For each decision variable, there must be one constraint or resource limit
Correct Answer E. For each decision variable, there must be one constraint or resource limit
Explanation A requirement of a linear programming problem is that for each decision variable, there must be one constraint or resource limit. This means that each decision variable should have a corresponding constraint that limits its value. The other options listed are all requirements of a linear programming problem.
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17.
In linear programming a statement such as "maximize contribution" becomes a(n)
A.
Constraint
B.
Slack variable
C.
Objective function
D.
Violation of linearity
E.
Decision variable
Correct Answer C. Objective function
Explanation In linear programming, an objective function is used to represent the quantity that needs to be maximized or minimized. It defines the goal of the problem and specifies the variable(s) that need to be optimized. Therefore, the given correct answer, "objective function," accurately describes the statement "maximize contribution" in the context of linear programming.
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18.
An iso-profit line
A.
Can be used to help solve a profit maximizing linear programming problem
B.
Is parallel to all other iso-profit lines in the same problem
C.
Is a line with the same profit at all points
D.
None of the above
E.
All of the above
Correct Answer E. All of the above
Explanation An iso-profit line can be used to help solve a profit maximizing linear programming problem because it represents the combinations of inputs that yield the same profit. It is parallel to all other iso-profit lines in the same problem because they all represent the same profit level. Additionally, an iso-profit line is a line with the same profit at all points, as it represents the combinations of inputs that yield the same profit. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above."
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19.
Which of the following combinations of constraints has no feasible region?
A.
X+Y>15andX–Y
B.
X+Y>5andX>10
C.
X>10andY>20
D.
X+Y>100andX+Y
E.
All of the above have a feasible region.
Correct Answer D. X+Y>100andX+Y
Explanation The given combination of constraints, X+Y>100 and X+Y, has no feasible region because it contradicts itself. The first constraint states that the sum of X and Y must be greater than 100, while the second constraint states that the sum of X and Y must be equal to 0. These two constraints cannot be simultaneously satisfied, resulting in no feasible region.
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20.
The corner point solution method requires
A.
Finding the value of the objective function at the origin
B.
Moving the iso-profit line to the highest level that still touches some part of the feasible regio
C.
Moving the iso-profit line to the lowest level that still touches some part of the feasible region
D.
Finding the coordinates at each corner of the feasible solution space
E.
None of the above
Correct Answer D. Finding the coordinates at each corner of the feasible solution space
Explanation The corner point solution method involves finding the coordinates at each corner of the feasible solution space. This is done by graphing the constraints and identifying the points where the lines intersect. These corner points represent the different combinations of variables that satisfy all the constraints. By evaluating the objective function at each corner point, the optimal solution can be determined.
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21.
Which of the following sets of constraints results in an unbounded maximizing problem?
A.
X+Y>100andX+Y
B.
X+Y>15andX–Y
C.
X+Y5
D.
X
E.
All of the above have a bounded maximum.
Correct Answer B. X+Y>15andX–Y
Explanation The given set of constraints, X+Y>15 and X-Y
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22.
The region which satisfies all of the constraints in graphical linear programming is called the
A.
Area of optimal solutions
B.
Area of feasible solutions
C.
Profit maximization space
D.
Region of optimality
E.
Region of non-negativity
Correct Answer B. Area of feasible solutions
Explanation The area of feasible solutions refers to the region in graphical linear programming where all the constraints are satisfied. It represents the set of all possible solutions that meet the given constraints. This area is often used to find the optimal solution to a problem, as it narrows down the search space to only those solutions that are feasible.
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23.
For the two constraints given below, which point is in the feasible region of this maximization problem? (1)14x+6y<42 (2)x-y<3
A.
X = 2, y = 1
B.
X = 1, y = 5
C.
X = -1, y = 1
D.
X = 4, y = 4
E.
X = 2, y = 8
Correct Answer A. X = 2, y = 1
Explanation The point (x = 2, y = 1) satisfies both constraints: 14(2) + 6(1) = 28 + 6 = 34 < 42 and 2 - 1 = 1 < 3. Therefore, it is in the feasible region of this maximization problem.
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24.
For the two constraints given below, which point is in the feasible region of this minimization problem? (1)14x+6y>42 (2)x-y>3
A.
X = -1, y = 1
B.
X = 0, y = 4
C.
X = 2, y = 1
D.
X = 5, y = 1
E.
X = 2, y = 0
Correct Answer D. X = 5, y = 1
25.
What combination of x and y will yield the optimum for this problem? Maximize $3x + $15y, subject to (1) 2x + 4y < 12 and (2) 5x + 2y < 10.
A.
X = 2, y = 0
B.
X = 0, y = 3
C.
X = 0, y = 0
D.
X = 1, y = 5
E.
None of the above
Correct Answer C. X = 0, y = 0
Explanation The given problem is a linear programming problem with the objective of maximizing the expression $3x + 15y$. The problem also has two constraints: (1) $2x + 4y < 12$ and (2) $5x + 2y < 10$. To find the optimum solution, we need to find the values of x and y that satisfy both constraints and maximize the objective function. By substituting the values of x = 0 and y = 0 into the objective function, we get $3(0) + 15(0) = 0$. Since the objective function cannot be further increased, this is the optimum solution. Therefore, x = 0 and y = 0 yield the optimum for this problem.
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26.
A maximizing linear programming problem has two constraints: 2X + 4Y < 100 and 3X + 10Y < 210, in addition to constraints stating that both X and Y must be nonnegative. The corner points of the feasible region of this problem are
A.
(0, 0), (50, 0), (0, 21), and (20, 15)
B.
(0, 0), (70, 0), (25, 0), and (15, 20)
C.
(20, 15)
D.
(0, 0), (0, 100), and (210, 0)
E.
None of the above
Correct Answer A. (0, 0), (50, 0), (0, 21), and (20, 15)
Explanation The given answer is correct because it includes all the corner points of the feasible region. The feasible region is determined by the intersection of the two constraint lines and the nonnegative constraints. The points (0, 0), (50, 0), (0, 21), and (20, 15) are the coordinates where the constraint lines intersect and satisfy the nonnegative constraints. Therefore, these points represent the corner points of the feasible region.
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27.
A linear programming problem has two constraints 2X + 4Y ≤ 100 and 1X + 8Y ≤ 100. Which of the following statements about its feasible region is true?
A.
There are four corner points including (50, 0) and (0, 12.5).
B.
The two corner points are (0, 0) and (50, 12.5).
C.
The graphical origin (0, 0) is not in the feasible region.
D.
The feasible region includes all points that satisfy one constraint, the other, or both.
E.
The feasible region cannot be determined without knowing whether the problem is to be
minimized or maximized.
Correct Answer A. There are four corner points including (50, 0) and (0, 12.5).
Explanation The feasible region of a linear programming problem is the set of all points that satisfy all the constraints. In this case, the constraints are 2X + 4Y ≤ 100 and 1X + 8Y ≤ 100. To find the corner points of the feasible region, we can plot the lines representing these constraints and find their intersection points. By solving the equations, we find that the corner points are (50, 0), (0, 12.5), (0, 0), and another point not mentioned in the options. Therefore, the statement "There are four corner points including (50, 0) and (0, 12.5)" is true.
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28.
A linear programming problem contains a restriction that reads "the quantity of X must be at least three times as large as the quantity of Y." Which of the following inequalities is the proper formulation of this constraint?
A.
3X≥Y
B.
X≤3Y
C.
X+Y≥3
D.
X–3Y≥0
E.
3X≤Y
Correct Answer D. X–3Y≥0
Explanation The given constraint states that the quantity of X must be at least three times as large as the quantity of Y. This means that X should be greater than or equal to 3Y. Rearranging the equation, we get X - 3Y ≥ 0. This inequality properly formulates the given constraint.
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29.
A firm makes two products, Y and Z. Each unit of Y costs $10 and sells for $40. Each unit of Z costs $5 and sells for $25. If the firm's goal were to maximize sales revenue, the appropriate objective function would be
A.
Maximize $40Y = $25Z
B.
Maximize $40Y + $25Z
C.
Maximize $30Y + $20Z
D.
Maximize 0.25Y + 0.20Z
E.
None of the above
Correct Answer C. Maximize $30Y + $20Z
Explanation The appropriate objective function to maximize sales revenue would be to maximize the total revenue generated by selling both products Y and Z. This can be represented by the expression $30Y + $20Z, where $30Y represents the revenue generated from selling product Y and $20Z represents the revenue generated from selling product Z. By maximizing this expression, the firm would be maximizing its overall sales revenue.
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30.
A linear programming maximization problem has been solved. In the optimal solution, two resources are scarce. If an added amount could be found for only one of these resources, how would the optimal solution be changed?
A.
The shadow price of the added resource will rise
B.
The solution stays the same; the extra resource can't be used without more of the other scarce
resource.
C.
The extra resource will cause the value of the objective to fall.
D.
The optimal mix will be rearranged to use the added resource, and the value of the objective
function will rise.
E.
None of the above
Correct Answer D. The optimal mix will be rearranged to use the added resource, and the value of the objective
function will rise.
Explanation If an added amount could be found for only one of the scarce resources, the optimal solution would be changed by rearranging the optimal mix to utilize the added resource. This would result in an increase in the value of the objective function.
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