# Introductory Physical Science (Period Length) The Final Exam

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Test taking strategy advice!1. Read all questions carefully and try to eliminate choices that are obviously wrong. 2. Use a scrap paper to interact with the test – make notes, show your work, make your presence known and give yourself something to come back and double-check if you have time at the end. 3. If stuck on a question, skip it for now and come back later (answer each Q eventually). 4. Always ask for clarification from the Read moreteacher if something is unclear to you. Don’t be shy!5. Take your time and do your best. You’ll never regret doing the best that you can.

• 1.

• 2.
• 3.

• 4.

### What does mass measure?

• A.

How much matter you have.

• B.

How much space the matter you have takes up.

• C.

How dense the matter you have is.

• D.

The point at which a sample of matter changes from a solid to a liquid.

• E.

The strength with which gravity pulls on a piece of matter.

A. How much matter you have.
Explanation
Mass is a measurement of the amount of matter in an object. It is a fundamental property of matter and is independent of factors such as volume or density. The greater the mass of an object, the more matter it contains. Therefore, the correct answer is "How much matter you have."

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• 5.

### What does volume measure?

• A.

How much matter you have.

• B.

How much space the matter you have takes up.

• C.

How dense the matter you have is.

• D.

The point at which a sample of matter changes from a solid to a liquid.

• E.

The strength with which gravity pulls on a a piece of matter.

B. How much space the matter you have takes up.
Explanation
Volume is a measurement that determines how much space an object or substance occupies. It is a physical quantity that quantifies the three-dimensional extent of an object or the capacity of a container. In this context, volume measures the amount of space that the matter occupies, regardless of the amount or density of the substance.

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• 6.

### What does weight measure?

• A.

How much matter you have.

• B.

How much space the matter you have takes up.

• C.

How dense the matter you have is.

• D.

The point at which a sample of matter changes from a solid to a liquid.

• E.

The strength with which gravity pulls on a piece of matter.

E. The strength with which gravity pulls on a piece of matter.
Explanation
Weight is a measure of the force of gravity acting on an object. It is determined by the mass of the object and the acceleration due to gravity. Therefore, the correct answer is "The strength with which gravity pulls on a piece of matter." This explanation aligns with the definition of weight and how it is calculated.

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• 7.

### What are the units for mass?

• A.

Cubic centimeters or milliliters (they are equivalent)

• B.

Grams or kilograms

• C.

Grams per cubic centimeters

• D.

Degrees Celsius

• E.

Degrees Fahrenheit

B. Grams or kilograms
Explanation
The units for mass are grams or kilograms. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object, and it is commonly measured using the metric system. Grams and kilograms are both units of mass in the metric system, with kilograms being the larger unit. Cubic centimeters or milliliters are units of volume, not mass. Grams per cubic centimeters is a unit of density, not mass. Degrees Celsius and degrees Fahrenheit are units of temperature, not mass.

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• 8.

### What are the units for volume?

• A.

Cubic centimeters or milliliters (they are equivalent)

• B.

Grams or kilograms

• C.

Grams per cubic centimeter (or grams per milliliter)

• D.

Degrees Celsius

• E.

Degrees Fahrenheit

A. Cubic centimeters or milliliters (they are equivalent)
Explanation
The units for volume are cubic centimeters or milliliters, which are equivalent measurements. Both units represent the amount of space occupied by an object or substance. Cubic centimeters (cm³) is commonly used in scientific and mathematical calculations, while milliliters (mL) is commonly used in everyday measurements of liquids.

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• 9.

### What are the units for density?

• A.

Cubic centimeters or milliliters (they are equivalent)

• B.

Grams or kilograms

• C.

Grams per cubic centimeter

• D.

Degrees Celsius

• E.

Degrees Fahrenheit

C. Grams per cubic centimeter
Explanation
The units for density are grams per cubic centimeter. Density is a measure of how much mass is contained within a given volume. It is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume. In the given options, grams per cubic centimeter is the only unit that represents the ratio of mass to volume, which is the definition of density.

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• 10.

### You measure a block, and find that its length is 2 cm, its width is 3 cm, and its height is 4 cm.  what is its volume in ?

• A.

4

• B.

9

• C.

12

• D.

24

• E.

48

D. 24
Explanation
The volume of a rectangular block can be calculated by multiplying its length, width, and height. In this case, the length is 2 cm, the width is 3 cm, and the height is 4 cm. Therefore, the volume is 2 cm * 3 cm * 4 cm = 24 cm³.

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• 11.

### We spent a lot of time studying The Law of Conservation of Mass.  Which of the following statements about the law is FALSE?

• A.

You can do whatever you want to matter (melt it, boil it, explode it, dissolve it), but as long as it happens in a closed container, the total mass will not change.

• B.

This law was discovered by scientists hundreds of years ago; it helped them to develop the idea that all matter is made of little particles called atoms.

• C.

When you eat, you get bigger and gain mass--this clearly violates (goes against) the law.

• D.

There is a very similar law about energy--The Law of Conservation of Energy.

• E.

The law ONLY holds true in closed systems, so nothing can escape or get in.

C. When you eat, you get bigger and gain mass--this clearly violates (goes against) the law.
Explanation
The Law of Conservation of Mass states that the total mass of a closed system remains constant, regardless of any physical or chemical changes that may occur within it. This means that matter cannot be created or destroyed, only rearranged. The statement that when you eat, you get bigger and gain mass violates this law because it suggests that mass is being created. In reality, when you eat, the mass of the food you consume is simply being added to your own mass.

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• 12.

### Why is there NOT  a Law of Conservation of Volume?

• A.

If you pour 50 mL of one liquid into 50 mL of another liquid, they may not add up to 100 mL.

• B.

If you heat up a gas, it becomes less dense, meaning it takes up more space and rises (this is how hot air balloons work).

• C.

If you cool down a solid, it takes up less space and becomes more dense (this is part of why doors don't stick as much in the winter as they do in the summer).

• D.

Volume just tells you how much space something takes up, not how much of it there is.

• E.

All of the above.

E. All of the above.
Explanation
The given answer is correct because all of the statements mentioned explain why there is not a Law of Conservation of Volume. The first statement explains that when two liquids are poured together, their volumes may not add up to the total volume due to differences in density. The second statement explains that when a gas is heated, it becomes less dense and takes up more space. The third statement explains that when a solid is cooled, it becomes more dense and takes up less space. Therefore, volume does not indicate the amount of substance present, but rather the amount of space it occupies.

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• 13.

### Which of the following statements about measurements is false?

• A.

Every measurement has some limit to its accuracy – for example, our balances can only estimate to the closest 0.01 g, and with rulers few students take the time or care to estimate beyond the nearest millimeter.

• B.

A measurement of ‘0’ can be important, and worth recording – for example, if there is no radioactivity present in a basement, that is worth knowing!

• C.

Since no single measurement is likely to be perfectly accurate, we often try to get multiple measurements in science, and look to see if they all ‘agree’.

• D.

It is usually OK to not include the units with your measurements; the reader should be smart enough to figure out what they are.

• E.

Each measurement should have a label, explaining what it is a measurement of.

D. It is usually OK to not include the units with your measurements; the reader should be smart enough to figure out what they are.
Explanation
The statement that is false is "It is usually OK to not include the units with your measurements; the reader should be smart enough to figure out what they are." This is incorrect because units are an essential part of any measurement and omitting them can lead to confusion and misinterpretation of the data. Units provide context and help to ensure that measurements are understood correctly.

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• 14.

### In which column of the histogram would an apparent loss of 0.2g appear?

• A.

I

• B.

II

• C.

III

• D.

IV

• E.

V

B. II
Explanation
An apparent loss of 0.2g would appear in column II of the histogram. This is because the histogram represents the distribution of data in different intervals or bins. Each column represents a specific range of values. Since the apparent loss is 0.2g, it would fall within the range represented by column II.

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• 15.

### In which column of the histogram would an apparent increase of 0.3 g appear?

• A.

I

• B.

II

• C.

III

• D.

IV

• E.

V

E. V
Explanation
An apparent increase of 0.3 g would appear in column V of the histogram. This is because each column represents a specific range or interval, and column V would represent a range that includes the value of 0.3 g. Therefore, any increase of 0.3 g would fall within this range and be represented by column V.

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• 16.

### Assuming that the students who did this lab worked with the same materials and care that you did, what would the best conclusion to draw from this histogram?

• A.

When copper and sulfur react, sometimes there is a slight gain in mass, but more often there is a slight decrease in mass.

• B.

When copper and sulfur react, the outcome (in terms of change in mass) is unpredictable.

• C.

On average, when copper and sulfur react, there is a slight decrease in mass.

• D.

When copper and sulfur react, the most common result is no change in mass; small lab errors are probably to blame for any apparent changes in mass.

• E.

No conclusion can be drawn since the data are inconclusive.

D. When copper and sulfur react, the most common result is no change in mass; small lab errors are probably to blame for any apparent changes in mass.
Explanation
The best conclusion to draw from this histogram is that when copper and sulfur react, the most common result is no change in mass. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the peak of the histogram is centered around zero, indicating that the majority of the data points fall within a narrow range of no change in mass. The slight gains and decreases in mass that are observed can be attributed to small lab errors, as mentioned in the explanation.

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• 17.

### What is the “label” (as opposed to the units) on the x axis in this graph?

• A.

Change in Mass

• B.

G

• C.

Number of Cases

• D.

-0.5, -0.3, -0.1 etc.

• E.

0, 2, 4, 6 etc.

• F.

0, 2, 4, 6 etc.

A. Change in Mass
Explanation
The label on the x-axis in this graph is "Change in Mass".

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• 18.

### Which statement about characteristic properties of substances is false?

• A.

They help us to identify substances.

• B.

They hold true regardless of how much of a substance you have.

• C.

They sometimes depend on environmental conditions, such as temperature or air pressure.

• D.

They should be the same for a pure substance on any other planet in the universe, if you take into account things like temperature or air pressure.

• E.

They depend on the shape which the substance is in (for example, the gold in a gold ring will have different properties than the gold in a gold statue).

E. They depend on the shape which the substance is in (for example, the gold in a gold ring will have different properties than the gold in a gold statue).
Explanation
Characteristic properties of substances do not depend on the shape in which the substance is in. The properties of a substance remain the same regardless of its physical form or shape. For example, the gold in a gold ring and a gold statue will have the same characteristic properties such as density, melting point, and conductivity. The shape or form of the substance does not alter these characteristic properties.

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• 19.

### Which of the following is not a characteristic property of a substance?

• A.

Mass

• B.

Boiling point

• C.

Density

• D.

Solubility

• E.

A. Mass
Explanation
Mass is not a characteristic property of a substance because it can vary depending on the amount of the substance present. Characteristic properties, on the other hand, are intrinsic to a substance and do not change regardless of the amount. Boiling point, density, solubility, and radioactivity are all characteristic properties because they are unique to each substance and remain constant.

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• 20.

### A student carefully recorded the following measurements for three solid blocks:BlockMass (g)Volume (cm3)125152403232520 Which blocks could be made of the same material?

• A.

1 and 2 only

• B.

1 and 3 only

• C.

2 and 3 only

• D.

All of the blocks

• E.

None of the blocks

C. 2 and 3 only
Explanation
The blocks that could be made of the same material are 2 and 3 only. This can be determined by calculating the density of each block, which is mass divided by volume. The density of block 1 is 1.25 g/cm3, the density of block 2 is 1.6 g/cm3, and the density of block 3 is 1.25 g/cm3. Since the density of block 1 is different from the densities of blocks 2 and 3, block 1 cannot be made of the same material as blocks 2 and 3. Therefore, the correct answer is 2 and 3 only.

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• 21.

### Following the rules of ‘significant figures’, the density of an object which has a mass of 24.86 g and a volume of 6.3 cm3 is best expressed (in g/ cm3) as…

• A.

3.94603

• B.

3.946

• C.

3.95

• D.

3.9

• E.

4

D. 3.9
Explanation
The correct answer is 3.9. According to the rules of significant figures, the answer should be rounded to the same number of decimal places as the measurement with the fewest decimal places. In this case, the volume has the fewest decimal places (one decimal place), so the answer should also be rounded to one decimal place. Therefore, the correct answer is 3.9.

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• 22.

### When we measured the thickness of a piece of aluminum foil, we found it to be about 0.0017cm.  What would this number be in scientific notation?

• A.

17 x

• B.

17 x

• C.

1.7 x

• D.

1.7 x

D. 1.7 x
Explanation
The given number, 0.0017cm, can be written in scientific notation as 1.7 x 10^-3. This is because in scientific notation, the number is expressed as a decimal between 1 and 10 (in this case, 1.7) multiplied by a power of 10 (in this case, -3, indicating that the decimal point needs to be moved 3 places to the left to convert 0.0017 to 1.7).

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• 23.

### Which of these about solubility is FALSE?

• A.

It is a measurement of how much of one substance can dissolve into another substance.

• B.

The substance that dissolves into the other substance is called the solute. Salt, sugar, baking soda, and even oxygen are examples of solutes.

• C.

The substance that the solute dissolves into is called the solvent. Water is a very common and effective solvent.

• D.

To avoid confusion with density, the units for solubility are g/100cm3 (how many grams of substance can dissolve into 100 cm3 of water).

• E.

The solubility of a substance is always the same regardless of temperature.

E. The solubility of a substance is always the same regardless of temperature.
Explanation
Solubility refers to the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance. The given statement that the solubility of a substance is always the same regardless of temperature is false. Temperature has a significant effect on solubility. In general, as temperature increases, the solubility of most solid solutes in liquid solvents also increases. However, for some substances, such as gases, the solubility decreases with increasing temperature. Therefore, the solubility of a substance can vary depending on the temperature.

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• 24.

### Which of these about solubility is FALSE?

• A.

Limestone is soluble in the weak carbonic acid that forms when rain falls through carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, this helps form caves and sinkholes.

• B.

The solubility of gases (such as oxygen) goes up when the temperature goes up, this is part of why large fish are found in hot water.

• C.

If you try to dissolve more of a substance in water than it can dissolve, the extra undissolved substance will pile up on the bottom as what we call a ‘precipitate’.

• D.

If you shake things, they will dissolve faster – this is why dishwashers and washing machines use motion as part of their operating cycle.

• E.

Acid is made by dissolving substances such as hydrogen chloride in water; the more hydrogen chloride dissolved in, the stronger the acid.

B. The solubility of gases (such as oxygen) goes up when the temperature goes up, this is part of why large fish are found in hot water.
Explanation
The statement that the solubility of gases goes up when the temperature goes up is actually true, not false. According to Henry's law, the solubility of gases in a liquid increases with increasing temperature. This is why large fish are found in hot water, as they are able to absorb more oxygen from the water due to its increased solubility at higher temperatures.

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• 25.

### Based on the graph below, what would happen if you tried to dissolve 300 g of sugar into 100cm3 of water around room temperature (20 degrees C)?

• A.

It would all dissolve, but just barely.

• B.

It would all dissolve, with plenty of ‘room’ for more.

• C.

None of it would dissolve.

• D.

Only about half of it would dissolve.

• E.

Some of it would dissolve, but about 100 would not.

E. Some of it would dissolve, but about 100 would not.
Explanation
The graph shows that at 20 degrees C, the maximum solubility of sugar in water is around 200 g/100 cm3. Therefore, if you try to dissolve 300 g of sugar, only the maximum solubility of 200 g will dissolve completely, while the remaining 100 g will not dissolve and form a solid residue.

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• 26.

### Say you have two white powdery substances that look the same under a microscope and both dissolve equally in water at room temperature.  Since they are powders and both dissolve in water, it’s hard to find their density.  You want to know for sure whether or not they are the same substances.  Which of the following tests would not help?

• A.

Hold them in a flame to see what color they burn. If they are similar colors, analyze them with a spectroscope to make certain.

• B.

Try to dissolve them into isopropyl alcohol (‘rubbing alcohol’) instead of water.

• C.

Try to dissolve them into hot or cold water to see if they still dissolve equally.

• D.

Try to melt them to find their melting points.

• E.

Try to boil them to find their boiling points.

• F.

Try to react them with chemicals such as acid to see if they react the same way.

• G.

Find their masses and see if they are equal.

G. Find their masses and see if they are equal.
Explanation
Finding the masses of the two substances would not help determine whether or not they are the same substances. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object, but it does not provide information about the chemical composition or identity of the substances. Even if the masses of the two substances are equal, it does not guarantee that they are the same. Therefore, this test would not be helpful in determining if the substances are the same.

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• 27.

### A sample of unknown liquid is boiled, and the condensed liquid is collected in another tube.  A record is made of the temperature of the vapor escaping from the liquid as a function of time.  Based on the graph of this data, which of the following statements is false?

• A.

The original unknown liquid is probably a mixture of two different substances.

• B.

The boiling points were 75º C and 100º C.

• C.

The liquid was around room temperature before it was heated.

• D.

You could have collected ‘pure’ substances during time intervals II and IV.

• E.

If you collected the liquid during time interval III you would have collected an impure mixture.

B. The boiling points were 75º C and 100º C.
Explanation
Based on the graph of the temperature of the vapor escaping from the liquid as a function of time, it is not possible to determine the boiling points of the unknown liquid. The graph does not provide any information about the boiling points of the substances present in the mixture. Therefore, the statement "The boiling points were 75º C and 100º C" is false.

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• 28.

### We spent a lot of time establishing that there are three ‘types’ of matter: mixtures, compounds, and elements.  Which of the following statements about these is false?

• A.

The parts of a mixture can be taken apart using their characteristic properties, and then you can mix them back together again.

• B.

A ‘compound’ is formed when two or more atoms chemically bond together. In bonding together, their characteristic properties change.

• C.

An element is one ‘type’ of atom, which can’t be broken down any further by chemistry (heating, dissolving, chemical reactions, etc).

• D.

You can only have mixtures of compounds, not of elements.

• E.

Compounds can only be broken down by breaking the bonds between their atoms – only high heat, electricity, or strong chemical reactions can do this.

D. You can only have mixtures of compounds, not of elements.
Explanation
Mixtures can actually consist of elements as well. A mixture is a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded together. These substances can be elements or compounds. Therefore, the statement that you can only have mixtures of compounds, not of elements, is false.

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• 29.

### Certain atoms will only combine with other atoms in definite ratios.  For example, each oxygen atom will combine with exactly two hydrogen atoms to form a water molecule.  Other atoms, such as helium, will not combine with other atoms at all.  According to the atomic model of matter, this is determined by:

• A.

The mass of the atoms.

• B.

The atoms’ thickness.

• C.

The number and arrangement of electrons around the outside of the atom.

• D.

The shape of the atom’s nucleus.

• E.

It is impossible to tell which atoms will combine with other atoms.

C. The number and arrangement of electrons around the outside of the atom.
Explanation
The number and arrangement of electrons around the outside of the atom determines whether certain atoms will combine with other atoms. This is because the outermost electrons, also known as valence electrons, are involved in chemical bonding. Atoms with incomplete electron shells tend to react with other atoms in order to achieve a more stable electron configuration. Therefore, the number and arrangement of electrons play a crucial role in determining the chemical reactivity and ability of atoms to combine with other atoms.

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• 30.

### Towards the end of the course, we did a lot of ‘modeling’ of atoms.  Which of the following statements about atomic modeling is false?

• A.

It is necessary because we cannot get clear images of atoms and their parts.

• B.

It can help us to understand how atoms and their parts work.

• C.

The metal fasteners and rubber rings we used helped model how atoms react to form compounds only in ‘fixed ratios’ – this is called The Law of Constant Proportions.

• D.

The dice that we used helped model that the decay of radioactive elements is somewhat predictable – you can’t tell exactly when you’ll roll a six, but given enough rolls certain patterns (such as ‘half life’) start to appear.

• E.

The models of atoms shown in the next question (below) include one that shows exactly what atoms actually look like.

E. The models of atoms shown in the next question (below) include one that shows exactly what atoms actually look like.
• 31.

### Of the drawings below, which shows most recent/most current model of the atom?

• A.

Option 1

• B.

Option 2

• C.
• D.

Option 4

B. Option 2
Explanation
Option 2 shows the most recent/most current model of the atom because it depicts the electron cloud model, which is the currently accepted model of the atom. This model represents the electrons as a cloud of negative charge surrounding a nucleus containing protons and neutrons. Option 1 and Option 4 may depict older models of the atom, such as the Bohr model or the Thomson model, which have been replaced by the electron cloud model.

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• 32.

### Boron has 5 electrons.  How many electrons are in its outermost “energy shell”?

• A.

1

• B.

2

• C.

3

• D.

4

• E.

5

C. 3
Explanation
Boron has an atomic number of 5, which means it has 5 electrons. The electron configuration of boron is 2-3, with 2 electrons in the first energy shell and 3 electrons in the second energy shell. The outermost energy shell is the second energy shell, so boron has 3 electrons in its outermost energy shell.

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• 33.

### Which of the following statements about our current ‘model’ of the atom is false?

• A.

Most of the mass is found in the nucleus.

• B.

Protons are positively charged; neutrons are negatively charged.

• C.

Electrons are so tiny that we ignore them when finding the mass of an atom.

• D.

The movement of the electrons determines an awful lot about how atoms behave: what they react with (or don’t), what colors of light they absorb or reflect, and what colors of light they give off when heated.

• E.

The electrons have to be very far away from the nucleus to not be attracted to it.

B. Protons are positively charged; neutrons are negatively charged.
• 34.

### A piece of aluminum foil is cut in half, and then in half again.  This continues until the smallest possible piece of foil is obtained.  This tiny piece of foil will have the same ___________ as the original large piece of foil:

• A.

Density

• B.

Mass

• C.

Size

• D.

Volume

A. Density
Explanation
As the piece of aluminum foil is cut in half multiple times, the size and volume of the foil decrease. However, the mass of the foil remains the same because cutting it into smaller pieces does not change the amount of aluminum present. Therefore, the density of the tiny piece of foil will be the same as the original large piece of foil.

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• 35.

• A.

Beyond a certain size, all atoms become radioactive because they are fundamentally too large to hold together – they have too many protons in the nucleus, and since each is positively charged, they repel each other.

• B.

Alpha radiation is the type that can pass most easily through matter (such as paper, aluminum foil, and lead).

• C.

Each radioactive element has its own ‘half-life’ (rate at which it decays). These range from a few minutes to billions of years!

• D.

Radioactivity was discovered around 1900 when samples containing uranium and thorium were left on photographic film, and made a ‘mark’ on it.

• E.

The decay of radioactive elements, measured with Geiger counters, gives us a way to ‘count’ atoms, which would otherwise be ridiculously challenging.

B. Alpha radiation is the type that can pass most easily through matter (such as paper, aluminum foil, and lead).
Explanation
The statement that alpha radiation is the type that can pass most easily through matter is false. In reality, alpha radiation is the least penetrating type of radiation and can be stopped by a sheet of paper or a few centimeters of air. Beta and gamma radiation are more penetrating and can pass through materials such as aluminum foil and lead.

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• 36.

### Which of the following statements about ‘phase’ changes is false?

• A.

When a substance changes from a solid to a liquid we call it ‘melting’.

• B.

When a substance changes from a liquid to a gas we call it ‘boiling’.

• C.

When a substance changes from a gas to a liquid we call it ‘condensing’.

• D.

When a substance changes from a liquid to a solid we call it ‘freezing’.

• E.

Water boils at 100 degrees Fahrenheit.

E. Water boils at 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
Explanation
The statement "Water boils at 100 degrees Fahrenheit" is false. Water actually boils at 100 degrees Celsius, not Fahrenheit.

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• 37.

### Which of the following pictures below best represents an element in a solid form?

• A.

The figure on the left.

• B.

The figure in the center.

• C.

The figure on the right.

A. The figure on the left.
Explanation
The figure on the left best represents an element in a solid form because it shows a compact and tightly packed arrangement of particles. The particles are closely bound together and have a fixed shape and volume, which are characteristics of a solid. The figure in the center and the figure on the right do not show the same level of organization and compactness, indicating that they do not represent a solid form.

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• 38.

### Which of the types of radiation shown below is the least energetic?

• A.

• B.

Infrared

• C.

Blue light

• D.

Gamma rays

• E.

They all contain the same amount of energy

Explanation
Radio waves are the least energetic type of radiation among the options given. This is because radio waves have the longest wavelength and lowest frequency compared to the other types of radiation. In the electromagnetic spectrum, energy is inversely proportional to wavelength, so longer wavelengths correspond to lower energy levels. Therefore, radio waves have the least amount of energy among the given options.

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• 39.

### Which of the types of radiation shown above travels the fastest?

• A.

• B.

Infrared

• C.

Blue light

• D.

Gamma rays

• E.

They all travel at the same speed (about 300,000 km/s)

E. They all travel at the same speed (about 300,000 km/s)
Explanation
All types of radiation, including radio waves, infrared, blue light, and gamma rays, travel at the same speed, which is about 300,000 km/s. This is because the speed of light is constant in a vacuum and all forms of electromagnetic radiation are composed of photons, which are particles of light. Therefore, regardless of the wavelength or frequency of the radiation, they all travel at the same speed.

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• 40.

### Why do these words look black and the paper white?

• A.

The ink absorbs black light; the paper absorbs white light.

• B.

The ink reflects black light; the paper reflects white light.

• C.

The ink reflects all wavelengths of light; the paper absorbs them all.

• D.

The ink absorbs all wavelengths of light; the paper reflects them all.

D. The ink absorbs all wavelengths of light; the paper reflects them all.
Explanation
The explanation for the correct answer is that the ink absorbs all wavelengths of light, meaning it does not reflect any light back to our eyes. This is why it appears black. On the other hand, the paper reflects all wavelengths of light, including white light, which is a combination of all colors. This is why the paper appears white to us.

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• 41.

### Which statement about spectral analysis is false?

• A.

Each element has its own ‘spectra’, related to the ‘jumps’ its electrons can make between energy levels.

• B.

It allows us to identify elements, even in complex mixtures, even in tiny amounts.

• C.

It is how humans ‘discovered’ helium, when they saw a spectra around the sun that they had never seen before on Earth.

• D.

It provided the earliest evidence for the “Big Bang” theory, because almost everything in the universe seems to be moving apart from each other.

• E.

It can be done with the naked (unaided) eye, without any equipment.

E. It can be done with the naked (unaided) eye, without any equipment.
Explanation
Spectral analysis cannot be done with the naked eye without any equipment. Spectral analysis requires the use of instruments such as spectrometers or spectroscopes to separate and analyze the different wavelengths of light emitted or absorbed by elements. These instruments are necessary to detect and measure the specific spectral lines or patterns that are characteristic of each element.

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• 42.

### The first spectrum shown below represents the spectrum of a star not moving toward or away from the Earth.   Which of the choices best represents the spectrum of a star moving away from Earth?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

• E.

E

C. C
Explanation
The spectrum of a star moving away from Earth would exhibit a redshift, which means that the wavelengths of the light emitted by the star would be stretched towards longer wavelengths. In the given options, spectrum C shows a clear shift towards longer wavelengths, indicating that it represents the spectrum of a star moving away from Earth.

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• 43.

• A.

19.75 mL

• B.

21.00 mL

• C.

20.7 mL

• D.

20.35 mL

• E.

19.8 mL

C. 20.7 mL
• 44.

### Which of the following standard numerals is the same as 1.5 x 10-5 ?:

• A.

15,000

• B.

1,500,000

• C.

0.00015

• D.

0.000015

• E.

0.0000015

D. 0.000015
Explanation
The correct answer is 0.000015. This is because 1.5 x 10-5 can be written as 0.000015 in standard decimal notation.

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• 45.

### Why can CT scans (aka ‘cat’ scans, which are multiple x-rays all at once to generate a 3-D image of something in the human body) be more dangerous than microwaves?

• A.

They have shorter wavelengths; short enough to possibly give you cancer if you get too many of them (microwave wavelengths are too long to do this).

• B.

You use them for a shorter amount of time.

• C.

They can’t heat up your food.

• D.

They are a type of radiation, which means ‘energy moving through space.’

A. They have shorter wavelengths; short enough to possibly give you cancer if you get too many of them (microwave wavelengths are too long to do this).
Explanation
CT scans use X-rays, which have shorter wavelengths compared to microwaves. Shorter wavelengths carry more energy, and excessive exposure to X-rays can increase the risk of developing cancer. Microwaves, on the other hand, have longer wavelengths and do not carry enough energy to cause cancer. Therefore, CT scans can be more dangerous than microwaves due to the higher energy levels associated with the shorter wavelengths of X-rays.

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• 46.

### Why might some people be concerned about drinking out of a plastic water bottle left in the sun in a hot car for long periods of time?

• A.

The water might boil and explode.

• B.

Since solubility of solids goes up with temperature, as the temperature increases, there would be a higher chance of chemicals from the plastic dissolving into the water.

• C.

The water might get hot enough to decompose into pure hydrogen and oxygen.

• D.

Water tends to degrade over time.

B. Since solubility of solids goes up with temperature, as the temperature increases, there would be a higher chance of chemicals from the plastic dissolving into the water.
Explanation
When a plastic water bottle is left in the sun in a hot car for long periods of time, the temperature inside the car increases. As the temperature rises, the solubility of solids in the plastic also increases. This means that there is a higher chance of chemicals from the plastic bottle dissolving into the water. This can be a concern for some people as they may not want to consume these potentially harmful chemicals that could leach into the water.

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• 47.

### The volume in cm3 of the marbles alone is about:

• A.

100

• B.

62

• C.

38

• D.

27

• E.

10

B. 62
Explanation
The correct answer is 62. This means that the volume of the marbles alone is approximately 62 cm3.

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• 48.

### The volume in cm3 of the air between the marbles in the first graduated cylinder was:

• A.

100

• B.

62

• C.

38

• D.

27

• E.

0

C. 38
Explanation
The volume in cm3 of the air between the marbles in the first graduated cylinder was 38. This means that there was empty space between the marbles that occupied a volume of 38 cm3.

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• 49.

### The mass in grams of one of the marbles is about:

• A.

0.10

• B.

0.125

• C.

1.0

• D.

1.25

• E.

10

D. 1.25
Explanation
The mass of one of the marbles is approximately 1.25 grams.

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• 50.

### During a background measurement, a Geiger counter counted 1,440 counts in 60.0 minutes.  What was the background?

• A.

1,440 counts

• B.

1,440 counts/min

• C.

1,380 counts

• D.

24.0 counts

• E.

24.0 counts/min

E. 24.0 counts/min
Explanation
The Geiger counter counted 1,440 counts in 60.0 minutes. To find the background, we need to determine the count rate per minute. By dividing 1,440 counts by 60.0 minutes, we get a count rate of 24.0 counts/min. This means that on average, the Geiger counter detected 24.0 counts every minute during the background measurement.

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• Mar 22, 2023
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• Jun 05, 2014
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