AP Human Geography Quiz Test 8

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AP Human Geography Quiz Test 8 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Conflicting claims to the Arctic are mostly due to

    • A.

      The potential for energy resources.

    • B.

      Old Cold War grudges.

    • C.

      Colonial expansion.

    • D.

      Shifting sea ice formations.

    • E.

      The proximity of South American and African countries.

    Correct Answer
    A. The potential for energy resources.
    Explanation
    The conflicting claims to the Arctic are mostly due to the potential for energy resources. The region is believed to have vast reserves of oil, gas, and minerals, which has attracted the attention of several countries. As the ice in the Arctic melts due to climate change, it becomes more accessible for exploration and exploitation of these resources. This has led to competing territorial claims and disputes between countries, as they seek to secure their economic and strategic interests in the region.

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  • 2. 

    The most populous country that is not a member of the United Nations is

    • A.

      Taiwan.

    • B.

      South Korea.

    • C.

      Antarctica.

    • D.

      Vatican City.

    • E.

      Monaco.

    Correct Answer
    A. Taiwan.
    Explanation
    Taiwan is the correct answer because although it is a highly populated country, it is not a member of the United Nations. Due to political reasons, Taiwan is not recognized as a separate country by the UN, and instead, it is considered a part of China. Therefore, it is the most populous country that is not a member of the United Nations.

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  • 3. 

    Over the past half century, the number of sovereign states in the world

    • A.

      Has remained approximately the same.

    • B.

      Has increased by a couple of dozen.

    • C.

      Has decreased by a couple of dozen.

    • D.

      Has increased by more than a hundred.

    • E.

      Has increased by more than a thousand.

    Correct Answer
    D. Has increased by more than a hundred.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "has increased by more than a hundred." This is because the question is asking about the change in the number of sovereign states in the world over the past half century. The options "has remained approximately the same," "has increased by a couple of dozen," and "has decreased by a couple of dozen" suggest small changes in the number of states, which is not consistent with the time frame of half a century. The options "has increased by more than a hundred" and "has increased by more than a thousand" suggest larger increases, but since the correct answer is "has increased by more than a hundred," it indicates that the number of sovereign states has increased significantly over the past fifty years.

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  • 4. 

    The world's largest state is

    • A.

      China.

    • B.

      Canada.

    • C.

      Russia.

    • D.

      Alaska.

    • E.

      India.

    Correct Answer
    C. Russia.
    Explanation
    Russia is the correct answer because it is the largest country in the world by land area. It spans across both Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, covering a vast territory. With a land area of over 17 million square kilometers, Russia is larger than any other country. China, Canada, Alaska, and India are all large countries, but they are not as large as Russia in terms of land area.

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  • 5. 

    In 2002 the Organization of African Unity was replaced by

    • A.

      The African Union.

    • B.

      The African National Party.

    • C.

      The African Treaty Organization.

    • D.

      The Organization of African OPEC States.

    • E.

      The Organization for African Economic Cooperation.

    Correct Answer
    A. The African Union.
    Explanation
    In 2002, the Organization of African Unity was replaced by the African Union. The African Union is a continental union consisting of 55 member states in Africa. It was established to promote unity, cooperation, and development among African nations. The African Union has a broader mandate than its predecessor and aims to enhance political and economic integration, promote peace and security, and advance the socio-economic development of Africa.

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  • 6. 

    As indicated on the maps of economic and political alliances, in the late 20th century Austria

    • A.

      Was a member of NATO and the European Community.

    • B.

      Was a member of NATO but not the European Community.

    • C.

      Was a member of the European Community but not NATO.

    • D.

      Remained nonaligned with either NATO or the Warsaw Pact.

    • E.

      Was a member of the Warsaw Pact and COMECON.

    Correct Answer
    D. Remained nonaligned with either NATO or the Warsaw Pact.
    Explanation
    The question states that Austria was a member of NATO and the European Community, but the correct answer states that Austria remained nonaligned with either NATO or the Warsaw Pact. This means that Austria did not align itself with either of these alliances during the late 20th century.

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  • 7. 

    As indicated on the maps of economic and political alliances, in 1980 Ireland

    • A.

      Was a member of NATO and the European Community.

    • B.

      Was a member of NATO but not the European Community.

    • C.

      Was a member of the European Community but not NATO.

    • D.

      Remained nonaligned with either NATO or the Warsaw Pact.

    • E.

      Was a member of the Warsaw Pact and COMECON.

    Correct Answer
    C. Was a member of the European Community but not NATO.
    Explanation
    In 1980, Ireland was a member of the European Community but not NATO.

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  • 8. 

    An area organized into an independent political unit is a

    • A.

      Colony.

    • B.

      Nationality.

    • C.

      Nation.

    • D.

      State.

    • E.

      Territory.

    Correct Answer
    D. State.
    Explanation
    An area organized into an independent political unit is referred to as a state. A state is a political entity with its own government, sovereignty, and control over its territory. It has the ability to make and enforce laws, maintain order, and represent itself in international affairs. Unlike a colony, which is typically controlled and governed by another country, a state has self-governance and autonomy. Nationality refers to the legal relationship between an individual and a state, while a nation is a group of people who share a common culture, language, or history. A territory refers to a geographical area without specific political connotations.

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  • 9. 

    The best example of a state among the following is

    • A.

      An island with a long history of self-rule and a homogeneous ethnic identity, although the island has been under the control of a colonial power for the last 30 years.

    • B.

      A group of islands inhabited by a homogeneous ethnicity, although the westernmost islands pertain to the territory of one country whereas the easternmost islands pertain to another country.

    • C.

      A mountainous region inhabited by heterogeneous ethnicities and divided up administratively among various independent countries.

    • D.

      A mountainous region inhabited by heterogeneous ethnicities which share responsibility for maintaining an independent government and a standing army.

    • E.

      A mountainous region inhabited by a mixture of peoples but recently colonized by a European nation-state.

    Correct Answer
    D. A mountainous region inhabited by heterogeneous ethnicities which share responsibility for maintaining an independent government and a standing army.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a mountainous region inhabited by heterogeneous ethnicities which share responsibility for maintaining an independent government and a standing army. This option describes a state that is characterized by diverse ethnic groups living in a mountainous region. Despite their differences, these ethnicities work together to maintain an independent government and a standing army. This suggests a level of self-governance and cooperation among the different ethnic groups in the region.

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  • 10. 

    The best example of a nation among the following is

    • A.

      An island with a long history of self-rule and a homogeneous ethnic identity, although the island has been under the control of a colonial power for the last 30 years.

    • B.

      A group of islands inhabited by a homogeneous ethnicity, although the westernmost islands pertain to the territory of one country whereas the easternmost islands pertain to another country.

    • C.

      A mountainous region inhabited by heterogeneous ethnicities and divided up administratively among various independent countries.

    • D.

      A mountainous region inhabited by heterogeneous ethnicities which share responsibility for maintaining an independent government and a standing army.

    • E.

      A mountainous region inhabited by a mixture of peoples but recently colonized by a European nation-state.

    Correct Answer
    B. A group of islands inhabited by a homogeneous ethnicity, although the westernmost islands pertain to the territory of one country whereas the easternmost islands pertain to another country.
    Explanation
    The best example of a nation among the options is a group of islands inhabited by a homogeneous ethnicity, although the westernmost islands pertain to the territory of one country whereas the easternmost islands pertain to another country. This example represents a situation where a group of islands is inhabited by people who share a common ethnic identity. However, due to geopolitical factors, the islands are divided between two separate countries. This scenario demonstrates the concept of a nation with a distinct ethnic identity that is divided by political boundaries.

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  • 11. 

    The first states in ancient Mesopotamia were

    • A.

      City-states, which incorporated cities as well as their countryside.

    • B.

      Colonies, which incorporated cities as well as their countryside.

    • C.

      Empires, which incorporated dozens of unified colonies.

    • D.

      Nation-states, which incorporated city-states, colonies, and empires.

    • E.

      Patron-states ruled by sheiks.

    Correct Answer
    A. City-states, which incorporated cities as well as their countryside.
    Explanation
    In ancient Mesopotamia, the first states were city-states. These city-states were not only composed of the cities themselves but also included the surrounding countryside. This means that the city-state not only governed the urban areas but also had control over the rural areas and agricultural lands surrounding the city. The city-states were independent political entities with their own governments and ruling classes. They were able to maintain control over their territories by incorporating both the urban and rural areas under their authority.

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  • 12. 

    The first widespread use of the nation-state concept came in

    • A.

      Mesopotamia.

    • B.

      The Roman Empire.

    • C.

      Western Europe.

    • D.

      The United States.

    • E.

      Southeast Asia.

    Correct Answer
    C. Western Europe.
    Explanation
    The first widespread use of the nation-state concept came in Western Europe. This region saw the emergence of nation-states in the late Middle Ages and early modern period. The concept of a nation-state involves a political entity where the state and the nation are congruent, meaning that the boundaries of the state align with the cultural, linguistic, and ethnic boundaries of the nation. Western Europe witnessed the rise of nation-states such as England, France, and Spain, which consolidated power and established centralized governments based on a shared sense of national identity.

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  • 13. 

    Among the world's largest multinational states are

    • A.

      Russia and the United States.

    • B.

      Australia and New Zealand.

    • C.

      Japan and Denmark.

    • D.

      Mexico and Russia.

    • E.

      Mexico and Japan.

    Correct Answer
    A. Russia and the United States.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Russia and the United States. This is because both countries have vast territories and diverse populations, making them multinational states. Russia is the largest country in the world, spanning across two continents and having a population composed of various ethnic groups. The United States is also a multinational state, with a diverse population consisting of people from different cultural, ethnic, and racial backgrounds.

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  • 14. 

    The Kurds are

    • A.

      A multinational state.

    • B.

      Divided among more than one state.

    • C.

      A religious minority in the Middle East.

    • D.

      Trying to unite with Turkey.

    • E.

      The majority population of Iraq.

    Correct Answer
    B. Divided among more than one state.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "divided among more than one state." This is because the Kurds are an ethnic group that is spread across several countries in the Middle East, including Iraq, Turkey, Syria, and Iran. They do not have their own independent state and are instead divided among these different nations.

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  • 15. 

    The attempt by one country to impose political control over another territory is

    • A.

      Colonialism.

    • B.

      Constitutionality.

    • C.

      Self-determination.

    • D.

      Sovereignty.

    • E.

      Suffrage.

    Correct Answer
    A. Colonialism.
    Explanation
    Colonialism refers to the act of one country exerting political control over another territory. It involves the establishment and maintenance of colonies, often for economic exploitation or strategic purposes. This can include the imposition of the colonizer's culture, language, and legal system on the colonized people. In contrast, constitutionality refers to the adherence to a country's constitution, self-determination refers to the right of a group to determine its own political status, sovereignty refers to the supreme authority of a state over its territory, and suffrage refers to the right to vote in political elections.

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  • 16. 

    The most populous remaining colony is ruled by

    • A.

      The United States.

    • B.

      The United Kingdom.

    • C.

      France.

    • D.

      China.

    • E.

      The Netherlands.

    Correct Answer
    A. The United States.
    Explanation
    The question asks about the most populous remaining colony, and the correct answer is the United States. This means that out of the given options, the United States has the largest population in its remaining colony compared to the other countries.

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  • 17. 

    The Commonwealth is primarily

    • A.

      An economic and cultural alliance of states once part of the British Empire.

    • B.

      An organization of culturally homogenous nations that opposed the Warsaw Pact.

    • C.

      Organized to increase availability of mineral resources in perforated states that are NATO allies.

    • D.

      A religious entity that sends missionaries to Africa from the United Kingdom.

    • E.

      An association of countries that were once members of COMECON and the Warsaw Pact.

    Correct Answer
    A. An economic and cultural alliance of states once part of the British Empire.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is an economic and cultural alliance of states once part of the British Empire. This is because the Commonwealth is a voluntary association of 54 countries, most of which were territories of the former British Empire. The main purpose of the Commonwealth is to promote economic cooperation, political dialogue, and cultural understanding among its member states.

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  • 18. 

    The only large land mass not part of a sovereign state is

    • A.

      Antarctica.

    • B.

      The Arctic.

    • C.

      Greenland.

    • D.

      Siberia.

    • E.

      Borneo.

    Correct Answer
    A. Antarctica.
    Explanation
    Antarctica is the correct answer because it is the only large land mass that is not part of a sovereign state. While the Arctic is a region, it is not a land mass. Greenland is an autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark, Siberia is a region within Russia, and Borneo is shared by three countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei). Therefore, Antarctica is the only option that is not part of any country's sovereignty.

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  • 19. 

    A feature of the physical environment commonly used to separate states includes all but which of the following?

    • A.

      Deserts

    • B.

      Geometry

    • C.

      Mountains

    • D.

      Lakes

    • E.

      Rivers

    Correct Answer
    B. Geometry
    Explanation
    Geography is often used to separate states based on natural features such as deserts, mountains, lakes, and rivers. However, geometry, which refers to the shape and boundaries of the land, is not a physical feature that is commonly used to separate states. Instead, it is often determined by human-made boundaries such as lines of latitude and longitude or political decisions.

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  • 20. 

    Cultural boundaries include all but which of the following?

    • A.

      Ethnic

    • B.

      Geometric

    • C.

      Religious

    • D.

      Linguistic

    • E.

      Geomorphic

    Correct Answer
    E. Geomorphic
    Explanation
    Cultural boundaries refer to the divisions between different cultures or groups of people. They are typically based on factors such as ethnicity, religion, and language. Geomorphic boundaries, on the other hand, are physical features of the Earth's surface, such as mountains or rivers, that can act as natural boundaries between regions. Therefore, geomorphic boundaries are not considered cultural boundaries because they are not based on cultural factors.

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  • 21. 

    The conflict over the Aozou Strip involves

    • A.

      Centripetal forces acting in the absence of any centrifugal forces.

    • B.

      A disputed border and Egypt's claims of sovereignty over the zone.

    • C.

      A disagreement regarding suffrage and a disputed border.

    • D.

      A disputed border and Libya's claims of sovereignty over the zone.

    • E.

      Aozou attempts to join the United Nations as a sovereign nation-state.

    Correct Answer
    D. A disputed border and Libya's claims of sovereignty over the zone.
    Explanation
    The conflict over the Aozou Strip involves a disputed border and Libya's claims of sovereignty over the zone. This suggests that there is disagreement and conflict between two parties regarding the ownership and control of the Aozou Strip. Libya claims that the strip belongs to them, while there is a dispute from the other party regarding the border. This conflict likely involves negotiations, legal arguments, and potential military tensions as both sides assert their claims over the territory.

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  • 22. 

    As shown on this map, the Aozou Strip

    • A.

      Is a zone of conflict between Russia and its neighbors in the Caucasus region.

    • B.

      Exists because of Egypt's past invasions of the Sinai Peninsula.

    • C.

      Disappeared when the disputed border between Egypt and Libya was overrun.

    • D.

      Is a disputed zone that abuts Niger on the west and Sudan on the east.

    • E.

      Forms an elongated strip of disputed land between Chad and Egypt.

    Correct Answer
    D. Is a disputed zone that abuts Niger on the west and Sudan on the east.
    Explanation
    The Aozou Strip is a disputed zone that is located between Niger and Sudan. It is an elongated strip of land that is claimed by both Chad and Egypt. The conflict over the Aozou Strip has resulted in tensions and disputes between these countries.

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  • 23. 

    As indicated on the maps in this chapter, the shape and size of the Aozou Strip make it an example of a

    • A.

      Prorupted boundary

    • B.

      Physical boundary.

    • C.

      Geometric boundary.

    • D.

      Mathematical frontier.

    • E.

      Perforated frontier.

    Correct Answer
    C. Geometric boundary.
    Explanation
    The Aozou Strip is described as having a specific shape and size, which suggests that it is an example of a geometric boundary. A geometric boundary refers to a boundary that is defined by a specific shape, such as a straight line or a specific geometric pattern. This is different from a physical boundary, which is typically defined by natural features like rivers or mountains. The term "prorupted boundary" refers to a boundary that has a protrusion or extension, but there is no indication in the question that the Aozou Strip has this characteristic. The terms "mathematical frontier" and "perforated frontier" are not commonly used to describe boundaries.

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  • 24. 

    Extremely small island-states in the world, many of which are former European colonies, are called

    • A.

      Island nations.

    • B.

      Macrostates.

    • C.

      Microstates.

    • D.

      Small nation-states.

    • E.

      Island-colonies.

    Correct Answer
    C. Microstates.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is microstates. Extremely small island-states in the world, many of which are former European colonies, are referred to as microstates. These countries have a very small land area and population, and often rely heavily on tourism and financial services for their economy. Examples of microstates include Monaco, San Marino, and the Maldives.

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  • 25. 

    Which shape most easily fosters the establishment of effective internal communications for a smaller state?

    • A.

      Compact

    • B.

      Elongated

    • C.

      Fragmented

    • D.

      Prorupted

    • E.

      Prolonged

    Correct Answer
    A. Compact
    Explanation
    A compact shape is the most suitable for fostering effective internal communications for a smaller state. This is because a compact shape allows for easier transportation and communication between different regions within the state. The distance between different parts of the state is minimized, making it easier for people and goods to move around and for communication networks to be established. This facilitates the flow of information and promotes better internal communication within the state.

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  • 26. 

    A state which places most power in the hands of a central government is a(n)

    • A.

      Federal state.

    • B.

      Anocratic state.

    • C.

      Fragmented state.

    • D.

      Unitary state.

    • E.

      Compact state.

    Correct Answer
    D. Unitary state.
    Explanation
    A unitary state is a type of government system where power is concentrated in the hands of a central government. In this system, the central government has the authority to make decisions and enforce laws that are applicable to the entire country. There is little to no power given to regional or local governments, and they typically serve as administrative units rather than having significant decision-making powers. This is in contrast to a federal state, where power is divided between a central government and regional governments, allowing for more autonomy at the regional level.

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  • 27. 

    The process of redrawing legislative boundaries to benefit the party in power is called

    • A.

      Gerrymandering.

    • B.

      Stacking votes.

    • C.

      Hanging chads.

    • D.

      Redlining.

    • E.

      Blockbusting.

    Correct Answer
    A. Gerrymandering.
    Explanation
    Gerrymandering is the process of redrawing legislative boundaries in a way that favors a particular political party in power. This is typically done by manipulating the shape and composition of electoral districts to concentrate opposition voters in a few districts while spreading out supporters across multiple districts. The goal is to maximize the number of seats won by the party in power, even if it means diluting the voting power of certain groups or communities. Stacking votes, hanging chads, redlining, and blockbusting are unrelated terms and do not refer to the process described in the question.

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  • 28. 

    When gerrymandering takes place, the kind of redistricting so that the opposition is spread across many districts as a minority is termed a(n) ________ strategy.

    • A.

      Wasted vote

    • B.

      Rightwing

    • C.

      Stacked vote

    • D.

      Districting

    • E.

      Excess vote

    Correct Answer
    A. Wasted vote
    Explanation
    Gerrymandering is a political tactic used to manipulate district boundaries in order to gain an advantage for a particular political party. When gerrymandering takes place, the opposition party's votes are "wasted" by spreading them across many districts where they are in the minority. This strategy is called a "wasted vote" strategy because it minimizes the opposition's overall impact on the election outcome. Therefore, the correct answer is "wasted vote."

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  • 29. 

    When gerrymandering takes place, the kind of redistricting that concentrates opposition voters into a small number of districts, allowing the party in power to gain control of numerous other districts, is termed a(n) ________ strategy.

    • A.

      Excess vote

    • B.

      Red-state rigged

    • C.

      Stacked vote

    • D.

      Wasted vote

    • E.

      Inexcess vote

    Correct Answer
    A. Excess vote
    Explanation
    The term "excess vote" refers to the strategy of concentrating opposition voters into a small number of districts, which allows the party in power to gain control of numerous other districts. This strategy is a form of gerrymandering where the opposing party's votes are "excess" or not utilized effectively across multiple districts, giving the party in power an advantage.

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  • 30. 

    What was a distinctive feature of the world's superpowers between the 1940s and 1980s compared to other eras?

    • A.

      The United States and the Soviet Union were superpowers for the first time.

    • B.

      The two superpowers were never involved in wars.

    • C.

      The number of superpowers was much lower than in the past.

    • D.

      The superpowers had satellites.

    • E.

      The superpowers used religion to settle conflicts.

    Correct Answer
    C. The number of superpowers was much lower than in the past.
    Explanation
    During the period between the 1940s and 1980s, a distinctive feature of the world's superpowers was that the number of superpowers was much lower than in the past. This era was characterized by the dominance of two major superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, who emerged as global powers for the first time. Unlike previous eras, where multiple countries held significant power and influence, this period was defined by the bipolarity of the world order, with these two superpowers competing for global supremacy.

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  • 31. 

    In ________ in 1979, when the U.S.-supported leader of the country was ousted from power, supporters of the ayatollah seized the U.S. embassy and held 62 Americans hostage until January 20, 1981.

    • A.

      Iran

    • B.

      Iraq

    • C.

      Afghanistan

    • D.

      Egypt

    • E.

      Israel

    Correct Answer
    A. Iran
    Explanation
    In 1979, the U.S.-supported leader of Iran was overthrown, leading to the seizure of the U.S. embassy in Iran by supporters of the ayatollah. This event resulted in the hostage crisis, where 62 Americans were held captive until January 20, 1981.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is true about both China and Taiwan?

    • A.

      Neither one is a member of the United Nations.

    • B.

      Both consider Taiwan to be the sovereign property of the communist government in Beijing.

    • C.

      Both now hold seats in the United Nations.

    • D.

      Neither was once ruled by the Nationalists, although both have official relationships with the United States.

    • E.

      Both were once ruled by the Nationalists, and both have official relationships with the United States.

    Correct Answer
    E. Both were once ruled by the Nationalists, and both have official relationships with the United States.
    Explanation
    Both China and Taiwan were once ruled by the Nationalists, and both have official relationships with the United States. This means that at some point in history, both China and Taiwan were under the rule of the Nationalists, and currently, both countries maintain official diplomatic relationships with the United States.

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  • 33. 

    Since the end of the Cold War,

    • A.

      Russia has become a nation-state, with the expulsion of minorities from regions such as the Caucasus.

    • B.

      Military alliances have become more important in Europe.

    • C.

      Nationalities have been discouraged from expressing their cultural identities, particularly in the Caucasus region and Siberia.

    • D.

      Russia has undergone political and economic turmoil, including rebellion in the Caucasus region.

    • E.

      COMECON has reemerged as a major economic entity in Eastern Europe, and has cooperated with the European Union and NATO on environmental issues and regional trade.

    Correct Answer
    D. Russia has undergone political and economic turmoil, including rebellion in the Caucasus region.
  • 34. 

    Which of the following is not true of al-Qaeda?

    • A.

      Al-Qaeda has been implicated in several bombings since the attack on the United States in 2001.

    • B.

      Al-Qaeda is a single unified organization.

    • C.

      Most al-Qaeda cell members have lived in ordinary society, supporting themselves with jobs or crime.

    • D.

      Finance, media, legal-religious policy and military committees report to a council called Majiis al shura.

    • E.

      Al-Qaeda grew out of the war against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan.

    Correct Answer
    B. Al-Qaeda is a single unified organization.
    Explanation
    The statement "Al-Qaeda is a single unified organization" is not true. Al-Qaeda is a decentralized terrorist organization, consisting of various loosely affiliated groups and cells operating in different regions. It does not have a centralized command structure, but rather operates through a network of individuals and groups sharing a common ideology and goals.

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  • 35. 

    UN experts concluded that Iraq had ________ in 1991 after its Desert Storm defeat, but officials in U.S. president George W. Bush's administration attempted to argue that the UN experts were wrong.

    • A.

      Destroyed its weapons of mass destruction

    • B.

      Hidden its weapons of mass destruction

    • C.

      Illegally invaded and occupied a neighboring country

    • D.

      Supported terrorist attacks

    • E.

      Falsified data concerning the presence of weapons of mass destruction

    Correct Answer
    A. Destroyed its weapons of mass destruction
    Explanation
    The UN experts concluded that Iraq had destroyed its weapons of mass destruction in 1991 after its Desert Storm defeat. This means that Iraq had gotten rid of its weapons of mass destruction. However, officials in the U.S. president George W. Bush's administration attempted to argue that the UN experts were wrong.

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    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 17, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Sgross753
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