Clinical Integumentary System Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The structures of the integumentary system involved in protection is(are)

    • A.

      Hair

    • B.

      Skin

    • C.

      Nails

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The integumentary system is responsible for protecting the body from external threats. This includes the hair, skin, and nails. Hair acts as a barrier, preventing foreign particles from entering the body. The skin, being the largest organ, provides a physical barrier against pathogens and harmful substances. Nails also play a role in protection by covering and protecting the tips of the fingers and toes. Therefore, all of these structures are involved in the protection function of the integumentary system.

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  • 2. 

    What is the most common cause of skin cancer?

    • A.

      Excessive exposure to the sun

    • B.

      Exposure to light.

    • C.

      Exposure to melanin

    Correct Answer
    A. Excessive exposure to the sun
    Explanation
    Excessive exposure to the sun is the most common cause of skin cancer because the sun emits harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation that damages the DNA in skin cells. Prolonged and unprotected exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of developing skin cancer, including melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. UV radiation can penetrate the skin and cause mutations in the DNA, leading to the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells and the formation of cancerous tumors. Therefore, protecting the skin from excessive sun exposure by wearing sunscreen, protective clothing, and seeking shade is crucial in preventing skin cancer.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is NOT a layer of the skin?

    • A.

      Lunula

    • B.

      Epidermis

    • C.

      Dermis

    • D.

      Subcutaneous

    Correct Answer
    A. Lunula
    Explanation
    The lunula is the white, crescent-shaped area at the base of the fingernail. It is not a layer of the skin, but rather a visible part of the nail. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, the dermis is the middle layer, and the subcutaneous layer is the innermost layer.

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  • 4. 

    Which muscle attaches to the side of each follicle? 

    • A.

      Polimotor

    • B.

      Stratum corneum

    • C.

      Digastric

    • D.

      Scalene

    Correct Answer
    A. Polimotor
  • 5. 

    What substance lubricates the hair and skin? 

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Sweat

    • C.

      Bacteria

    • D.

      Sebum

    Correct Answer
    D. Sebum
    Explanation
    Sebum is the correct answer because it is a substance produced by the sebaceous glands in the skin. It acts as a natural moisturizer, lubricating both the hair and skin. Sebum helps to keep the hair and skin hydrated, preventing dryness and maintaining their health. Sweat is not the correct answer as it primarily helps regulate body temperature and does not directly lubricate the hair and skin. Bacteria and water also do not provide the same lubricating properties as sebum.

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  • 6. 

    Fingernails and toenails are composed of 

    • A.

      Sebum

    • B.

      Keratin

    • C.

      Pores

    • D.

      Erythrocytes

    Correct Answer
    B. Keratin
    Explanation
    Fingernails and toenails are composed of keratin. Keratin is a tough, fibrous protein that forms the structural component of nails, hair, and the outer layer of the skin. It provides strength and protection to the nails, making them hard and durable. Sebum is an oily substance produced by the sebaceous glands in the skin, not related to nail composition. Pores are tiny openings in the skin that allow sweat and oil to reach the surface. Erythrocytes are red blood cells and have no role in nail composition.

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  • 7. 

    Sweat glands are more numerous on all of the following except

    • A.

      Hands

    • B.

      Soles of feet

    • C.

      Neck

    • D.

      Forehead

    Correct Answer
    C. Neck
    Explanation
    Sweat glands are more numerous on the hands, soles of the feet, and forehead compared to the neck. This is because these areas of the body have a higher concentration of sweat glands, which helps to regulate body temperature. The neck, on the other hand, has fewer sweat glands in comparison.

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  • 8. 

    Another name for a decubitus ulcer is a

    • A.

      Bedsore

    • B.

      Atopic

    • C.

      Psoriasis

    • D.

      Papillary

    Correct Answer
    A. Bedsore
    Explanation
    A decubitus ulcer is commonly known as a bedsore. This condition occurs when there is prolonged pressure on the skin, usually from lying or sitting in the same position for an extended period. The pressure restricts blood flow to the affected area, leading to tissue damage and the formation of an ulcer. Bedsore is the correct answer because it accurately describes the condition and is commonly used in medical terminology. Atopic, psoriasis, and papillary are not alternative names for a decubitus ulcer and do not accurately describe the condition.

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  • 9. 

    Psoriasis is most commonly seen on which of the following 

    • A.

      Scalp

    • B.

      Toenails

    • C.

      Cheeks

    • D.

      Hands

    Correct Answer
    A. Scalp
    Explanation
    Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition characterized by red, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin. It commonly affects the scalp, leading to the formation of thick, silvery scales and red patches. This is due to the rapid buildup of skin cells on the scalp. While psoriasis can also affect other areas like the toenails, cheeks, and hands, the scalp is the most commonly affected site. Therefore, the correct answer is scalp.

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  • 10. 

    Eczema is most common in

    • A.

      Adults

    • B.

      Teenagers

    • C.

      Infants

    • D.

      The elderly

    Correct Answer
    C. Infants
    Explanation
    Eczema is most common in infants because their skin is more delicate and sensitive compared to adults, teenagers, and the elderly. Infants have a higher likelihood of developing eczema due to their immature immune system and their skin's inability to retain moisture properly. Factors such as genetic predisposition, allergies, and environmental triggers also contribute to the prevalence of eczema in infants.

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  • 11. 

    Skin cancer is 

    • A.

      An area of skin and tissue that becomes injured or broken down

    • B.

      Chronic skin disorder characterized by scaly and itching rashes

    • C.

      Common skin condition that is characterized by frequent episodes of redness, itching, and thick, dry, scales on the skin

    • D.

      A disease in which malignant cells are found in the epidermis

    Correct Answer
    D. A disease in which malignant cells are found in the epidermis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "A disease in which malignant cells are found in the epidermis." This explanation accurately describes skin cancer as a disease characterized by the presence of malignant cells in the epidermis. Skin cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the skin grow and divide uncontrollably, forming a tumor. These malignant cells can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body, making it a serious and potentially life-threatening condition.

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  • 12. 

    Skin signs are an objective evidence of

    • A.

      Weight loss

    • B.

      Good health

    • C.

      An illness or disorder

    • D.

      Pregnancy

    Correct Answer
    C. An illness or disorder
    Explanation
    Skin signs such as rashes, discoloration, or lesions are often indicative of an underlying illness or disorder. These visible changes in the skin can be a result of various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or allergic reactions. Therefore, skin signs serve as objective evidence of an ongoing health issue rather than weight loss, good health, or pregnancy.

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  • 13. 

    How many degrees of burns are there? 

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    C. 4
    Explanation
    There are four degrees of burns. First-degree burns only affect the outer layer of the skin and cause redness and pain. Second-degree burns damage both the outer layer and the layer underneath, resulting in blisters, severe pain, and swelling. Third-degree burns go through all layers of the skin, causing a white or blackened appearance and potentially damaging nerves. Fourth-degree burns are the most severe, extending beyond the skin into muscles, tendons, and bones, and can result in charring and a loss of sensation.

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  • 14. 

    The stratum germinativum and the stratum corneum are layers of the

    • A.

      Corium

    • B.

      True skin

    • C.

      Epidermis

    • D.

      Dermis

    Correct Answer
    C. Epidermis
    Explanation
    The stratum germinativum and the stratum corneum are layers of the epidermis. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and is responsible for protecting the body from external factors such as bacteria, UV radiation, and dehydration. The stratum germinativum is the innermost layer of the epidermis and is responsible for cell division and regeneration. The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the epidermis and is composed of dead skin cells that provide a barrier against water loss and external pathogens.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is associated with tanning?

    • A.

      Melanocytes

    • B.

      Arrector pili muscles

    • C.

      Sebaceous glands

    • D.

      Sudoriferous glands

    Correct Answer
    A. Melanocytes
    Explanation
    Melanocytes are responsible for producing melanin, the pigment that gives color to the skin. When the skin is exposed to UV radiation, melanocytes produce more melanin, resulting in a darker skin tone or a tan. Therefore, melanocytes are associated with tanning.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is a product of a sudoriferous gland?

    • A.

      Sebum

    • B.

      Sweat

    • C.

      Melanin

    • D.

      Keratin

    • E.

      Vitamin D

    Correct Answer
    B. Sweat
    Explanation
    Sweat is the correct answer because it is a product of the sudoriferous gland. Sudoriferous glands, also known as sweat glands, are responsible for producing sweat. Sweat is a clear, watery fluid that helps regulate body temperature by evaporating from the skin surface. It also helps to eliminate waste products from the body and has antimicrobial properties. Sebum is produced by sebaceous glands, melanin is produced by melanocytes, keratin is a protein found in hair and nails, and vitamin D is produced in the skin upon exposure to sunlight.

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  • 17. 

    Freckles and moles are due to accumulations of

    • A.

      Sebum

    • B.

      Vitamin D

    • C.

      Melanin

    • D.

      Sweat

    • E.

      Keratin

    Correct Answer
    C. Melanin
    Explanation
    Freckles and moles are due to accumulations of melanin, a pigment that gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes. Melanin is produced by special cells called melanocytes, which are located in the bottom layer of the skin. When melanocytes produce an excess amount of melanin, it can result in the formation of freckles or moles on the skin. These dark spots are usually harmless and vary in size, shape, and color.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following types of skin cancer has the poorest prognosis?

    • A.

      Basal cell carcinoma

    • B.

      Squamous cell carcinoma

    • C.

      Melanoma

    Correct Answer
    C. Melanoma
    Explanation
    Melanoma is the correct answer because it is the most aggressive and deadliest form of skin cancer. It has a higher tendency to spread to other parts of the body, making it harder to treat. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are less likely to metastasize and have a better prognosis compared to melanoma.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following types of skin cancer is the most common?

    • A.

      Basal cell carcinoma

    • B.

      Squamous cell carcinoma

    • C.

      Melanoma

    Correct Answer
    A. Basal cell carcinoma
    Explanation
    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer. It develops in the basal cells, which are found in the lowest layer of the epidermis. This type of cancer usually appears as a small, shiny bump or a red patch on the skin. It is typically caused by long-term exposure to the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays. Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common, it is also the least dangerous type of skin cancer, as it grows slowly and rarely spreads to other parts of the body. Early detection and treatment can lead to a high cure rate.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is another name for oil and is secreted by glands that are adjacent to hair follicles?

    • A.

      Sebum

    • B.

      Sweat

    • C.

      Melanin

    • D.

      Vitamin D

    • E.

      Keratin

    Correct Answer
    A. Sebum
    Explanation
    Sebum is the correct answer because it is a substance secreted by glands that are located near hair follicles. Sebum is an oily substance that helps to moisturize and protect the skin and hair. It plays a crucial role in keeping the skin and hair healthy by preventing dryness and providing a natural barrier against bacteria and other harmful substances.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is the name of the white crescent at the base of the nail?

    • A.

      Lunula

    • B.

      Matrix

    • C.

      Nail body

    • D.

      Nail bed

    • E.

      Nail root

    Correct Answer
    A. Lunula
    Explanation
    The white crescent at the base of the nail is called the lunula. It is a visible part of the nail matrix, which is responsible for nail growth. The lunula appears as a whitish, half-moon shape and is most noticeable on the thumbnail. It is often used as an indicator of overall nail health. The other options, such as matrix, nail body, nail bed, and nail root, do not specifically refer to the white crescent at the base of the nail.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is NOT true about the growth of hair?

    • A.

      Hair continuously extends by growing at the tip.

    • B.

      The best way to permanently stop hair growth is to damage the follicle.

    • C.

      The hair shaft is mostly made of keratin.

    • D.

      None of the answer choices are true.

    Correct Answer
    A. Hair continuously extends by growing at the tip.
    Explanation
    Hair does not continuously extend by growing at the tip. Hair growth occurs at the hair follicles, which are located beneath the surface of the scalp. The hair shaft is made up of dead cells that have been pushed up and out of the follicle. As new cells are produced in the follicle, the hair shaft is pushed further out, causing the hair to grow longer. Therefore, the statement that hair continuously extends by growing at the tip is not true.

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  • 23. 

    Which part of the hair contains the blood vessels that nourish the growing hair follicle?

    • A.

      Shaft

    • B.

      Root

    • C.

      Follicle

    • D.

      Papilla

    Correct Answer
    D. Papilla
    Explanation
    The papilla is the correct answer because it contains the blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the growing hair follicle. These blood vessels provide the necessary nourishment for the hair follicle to produce new hair cells and promote hair growth. The papilla is located at the base of the hair follicle and plays a crucial role in the hair growth cycle.

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  • 24. 

    Whch part of the hair makes the hair shaft become erect which has the effect of causing goose bumps

    • A.

      Hair root Plexus

    • B.

      Arrector Pili

    • C.

      Subacious glands

    • D.

      Papilla

    Correct Answer
    B. Arrector Pili
    Explanation
    The arrector pili is a small muscle attached to the hair follicle. When this muscle contracts, it causes the hair shaft to become erect, which results in the formation of goosebumps. This involuntary response is often triggered by cold temperatures or emotional states such as fear or excitement. The arrector pili muscle's contraction pulls on the hair follicle, causing the hair to stand on end and creating the appearance of raised bumps on the skin.

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  • 25. 

    What part of the nail is responsible for the growth of the nail?

    • A.

      Root

    • B.

      Matrix

    • C.

      Plate/Body

    • D.

      Lunula

    • E.

      Cuticle

    Correct Answer
    B. Matrix
    Explanation
    The matrix is responsible for the growth of the nail. It is located at the base of the nail, underneath the cuticle. The matrix contains cells that divide and produce new nail cells, which then push forward and cause the nail to grow. The matrix is essential for the continuous growth and renewal of the nail.

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  • 26. 

    Regulating heat exchange with the environment is the mechanism that the skin uses to

    • A.

      Maintain normal body temperature

    • B.

      Prevent excessive loss of body fluids

    • C.

      Maintain large reserves of lipids

    • D.

      Transmit information to the nervous system

    Correct Answer
    A. Maintain normal body temperature
    Explanation
    The skin regulates heat exchange with the environment through processes such as sweating and shivering. This helps to maintain normal body temperature by allowing heat to be released or retained as needed. By controlling the amount of heat lost or gained, the skin helps to keep the body's internal temperature within a narrow range, which is essential for proper functioning of bodily processes.

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  • 27. 

    Stem cells and melanocytes dominate the stratum germinativum, making it the layer where

    • A.

      New cells are generated and skin colors are synthesized

    • B.

      The protein keratin produces cornified cells

    • C.

      Dead epithelial cells accumulate in large amounts

    • D.

      The cells are flattened, densely packed, and filled with keratin

    Correct Answer
    A. New cells are generated and skin colors are synthesized
    Explanation
    The stratum germinativum is the layer of the skin where new cells are generated and skin colors are synthesized. Stem cells and melanocytes are found in this layer and play a dominant role in these processes. Stem cells have the ability to divide and differentiate into various types of cells, including skin cells. Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. Therefore, the presence of stem cells and melanocytes in the stratum germinativum supports the idea that new cells are generated and skin colors are synthesized in this layer.

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  • 28. 

    Accessory structures of the skin include

    • A.

      The dermis, epidermis, hypodermis, subcutaneous layer, and hair follicles

    • B.

      A cutaneous and subcutaneous layer, dermis, epidermis, and hair

    • C.

      Hair, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and nails

    • D.

      Blood vessels, macrophages, neurons, hair papillae, and the cuticle

    Correct Answer
    C. Hair, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and nails
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes various accessory structures of the skin such as hair, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and nails. These structures are all located within the skin and serve different functions. Hair and hair follicles are responsible for hair growth and provide protection to the skin. Sebaceous glands produce sebum, an oily substance that helps moisturize and lubricate the skin. Sweat glands produce sweat, which helps regulate body temperature. Nails are made up of keratin and provide protection to the fingertips. Overall, these accessory structures play important roles in maintaining the health and functionality of the skin.

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  • 29. 

    Hairs are best described as

    • A.

      Living structures that are produced in the dermis and extend into the epidermis

    • B.

      Nonliving epithelial cells that undergo keratinization and die

    • C.

      Living structures containing a cortex and medulla

    • D.

      Nonliving structures produced in organs called hair follicles

    Correct Answer
    D. Nonliving structures produced in organs called hair follicles
    Explanation
    Hairs are best described as nonliving structures produced in organs called hair follicles. Hair is made up of dead, keratinized cells that are produced by the hair follicles. The hair follicles are located in the dermis and extend into the epidermis. The hair shaft that we see above the skin is composed of nonliving cells, while the hair follicles themselves are living structures.

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  • 30. 

    The sensitivity mechanism in hair follicles that provides an early warning system that may help prevent injury is the presence of a

    • A.

      Cortex and medulla making up the core of the hair

    • B.

      Cuticular surface layer of cells

    • C.

      Sensory nerve fiber associated with the base of each hair follicle

    • D.

      Hairs are nonliving; there is no sensitivity mechanism

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensory nerve fiber associated with the base of each hair follicle
    Explanation
    The presence of a sensory nerve fiber associated with the base of each hair follicle is the correct answer. This nerve fiber acts as a sensitivity mechanism in hair follicles, providing an early warning system that helps prevent injury. It allows us to feel sensations such as touch or pain, which can alert us to potential dangers and prompt us to take necessary precautions. The cortex and medulla, as well as the cuticular surface layer of cells, are not directly involved in this sensitivity mechanism.

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  • 31. 

    During adolescence, the sebaceous glands are especially prone to

    • A.

      Producing excessive perspiration while sweating

    • B.

      Developing acne

    • C.

      Causing redness of the skin due to blood vessel dilation

    • D.

      All the answer choices are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. Developing acne
    Explanation
    During adolescence, hormonal changes cause the sebaceous glands to become more active. This increased activity leads to the production of excessive sebum, which can clog the pores and result in the development of acne. This is why the correct answer is "developing acne."

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  • 32. 

    Hair production begins at the

    • A.

      Reticular layer of the dermis

    • B.

      Papillary layer of the dermis

    • C.

      Hypodermis

    • D.

      Base of a hair follicle

    Correct Answer
    D. Base of a hair follicle
    Explanation
    Hair production begins at the base of a hair follicle. The hair follicle is a small cavity in the skin that surrounds the hair root. It is located in the dermis, which is the second layer of the skin. The base of the hair follicle contains specialized cells called hair matrix cells, which divide and differentiate to produce the hair shaft. These cells are responsible for the growth and production of new hair. Therefore, the base of a hair follicle is where the process of hair production starts.

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  • 33. 

    The shaft of the hair is stiff due to the presence of a protein substance called

    • A.

      Elastin

    • B.

      Collagen

    • C.

      Keratin

    • D.

      Vellus

    Correct Answer
    C. Keratin
    Explanation
    Keratin is the correct answer because it is a protein substance that gives strength and rigidity to the shaft of the hair. It is the main component of hair, nails, and the outer layer of the skin. Keratin provides structure and protection to the hair, making it stiff and durable. Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity to tissues, collagen is a protein that provides strength and structure to various parts of the body, and vellus refers to fine, soft, and short hair.

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  • 34. 

    The practical limit to the healing process in the skin is the formation of inflexible, fibrous, noncellular

    • A.

      Scabs

    • B.

      Skin gafts

    • C.

      Ground substance

    • D.

      Scar tissue

    Correct Answer
    D. Scar tissue
    Explanation
    Scar tissue is the correct answer because it refers to the formation of inflexible, fibrous, noncellular tissue that occurs during the healing process in the skin. Scabs are temporary protective crusts that form over wounds, while skin grafts are surgical procedures to replace damaged skin. Ground substance is a component of the extracellular matrix, but it does not specifically pertain to the healing process in the skin. Scar tissue, on the other hand, is the result of the body's attempt to repair and replace damaged skin, and it can limit the flexibility and function of the healed area.

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  • 35. 

    The appearance of blisters and very painful sensations is indicative of

    • A.

      A first degree burn

    • B.

      A second degree burn

    • C.

      A third degree burn

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. A second degree burn
    Explanation
    The appearance of blisters and very painful sensations is indicative of a second-degree burn. In this type of burn, the damage extends deeper into the skin, affecting both the epidermis and the underlying dermis. Blisters form as a result of the damage to the dermis, and the pain is caused by the exposed nerve endings. First-degree burns only affect the outermost layer of the skin, while third-degree burns involve damage to all layers of the skin and may not present with blisters due to nerve damage.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is NOT a component of the integumentary system?

    • A.

      Skin

    • B.

      Hair

    • C.

      Skeletal muscle

    • D.

      Nails

    Correct Answer
    C. Skeletal muscle
    Explanation
    The integumentary system consists of the skin, hair, and nails, which are all components involved in protecting the body. However, skeletal muscle is not a part of the integumentary system. Skeletal muscle is responsible for movement and is part of the muscular system, not the integumentary system.

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  • 37. 

    A first degree burn involves the ____. Choose all that apply.

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Subcutaneous

    • D.

      Muscle tissue

    Correct Answer
    A. Epidermis
    Explanation
    A first degree burn involves the epidermis. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and is responsible for protecting the underlying layers. A first degree burn affects only the epidermis and is characterized by redness, pain, and swelling. It is the mildest form of burn and usually heals within a few days without leaving any scars. The dermis, subcutaneous layer, and muscle tissue are not involved in a first degree burn.

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  • 38. 

    A second degree burn involves the ____. Choose all that apply.

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Subcutaneous

    • D.

      Muscle tissue

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Epidermis
    B. Dermis
    Explanation
    A second degree burn involves the epidermis and dermis. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, while the dermis is the layer beneath it. Second degree burns affect both of these layers, causing damage to the skin. The subcutaneous layer, which is the layer of fat beneath the dermis, and muscle tissue are not typically involved in second degree burns.

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  • 39. 

    A third degree burn involves the ____. Choose all that apply.

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Subcutaneous

    • D.

      Muscle tissue

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Epidermis
    B. Dermis
    C. Subcutaneous
    Explanation
    A third degree burn involves the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers of the skin. This type of burn is the most severe and affects all layers of the skin, including the outermost layer (epidermis), the middle layer (dermis), and the innermost layer (subcutaneous). It can also extend into the underlying muscle tissue.

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  • 40. 

    A fourth degree burn involves the ____. Choose all that apply.

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Subcutaneous

    • D.

      Muscle tissue

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Epidermis
    B. Dermis
    C. Subcutaneous
    D. Muscle tissue
    Explanation
    A fourth degree burn involves all layers of the skin, including the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers. Additionally, it extends into the muscle tissue beneath the skin.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 10, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Awest
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