Anatomy & Physiology Unit 2

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Anatomy & Physiology Unit 2 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Select all which apply to Integument:

    • A.

      Varying thickness by location

    • B.

      Cover internal surfaces

    • C.

      2nd largest organ

    • D.

      Covers external surfaces, but continuous with mucous membranes of cavities

    • E.

      Great regeneration abilities

    • F.

      Universal thickness

    • G.

      Largest organ

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Varying thickness by location
    D. Covers external surfaces, but continuous with mucous membranes of cavities
    E. Great regeneration abilities
    G. Largest organ
    Explanation
    The integument is the largest organ in the body and it covers external surfaces. It also has varying thickness depending on the location, meaning that it can be thicker in some areas and thinner in others. The integument is continuous with the mucous membranes of body cavities, allowing for the exchange of substances between the external environment and the internal body. Additionally, the integument has great regeneration abilities, meaning it can heal and repair itself when damaged.

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  • 2. 

    Select the three layers which compose the skin: 

    • A.

      Dermis

    • B.

      Hypodermis

    • C.

      Epidermis

    • D.

      Hippopotamus

    • E.

      Epicdermis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dermis
    B. Hypodermis
    C. Epidermis
    Explanation
    The skin is composed of three main layers: the dermis, hypodermis, and epidermis. The dermis is the middle layer of the skin, containing blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues. The hypodermis, also known as the subcutaneous tissue, is the deepest layer of the skin, consisting of fat cells that provide insulation and cushioning. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, serving as a protective barrier against external factors. The options "Hippopotamus" and "Epicdermis" are not valid layers of the skin.

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  • 3. 

    The epidermis is made of which type of epithelial tissue

    • A.

      Simple columnar

    • B.

      Stratified squamous

    • C.

      Simple squamous

    • D.

      Simple cuboidal

    Correct Answer
    B. Stratified squamous
    Explanation
    The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, and it serves as a protective barrier for the underlying tissues. Stratified squamous epithelial tissue is the correct answer because it is the type of tissue that makes up the epidermis. This type of tissue consists of multiple layers of flattened cells, which provides strength and protection against mechanical stress and abrasion. The stratified nature of this tissue allows for the constant renewal of cells from the deeper layers to the surface, ensuring the maintenance of a healthy and functional epidermis.

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  • 4. 

    The epidermis is separated from the dermis by the ______________.

    Correct Answer
    basement membrane
    Explanation
    The epidermis is separated from the dermis by the basement membrane. The basement membrane is a thin, specialized extracellular matrix that acts as a barrier between the two layers of the skin. It provides structural support and helps to anchor the epidermis to the dermis. The basement membrane also plays a crucial role in regulating the movement of cells and molecules between the epidermis and dermis, contributing to the overall function and integrity of the skin.

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  • 5. 

    The epidermis is avascular

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement "The epidermis is avascular" is true. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and it does not contain any blood vessels. It is primarily composed of layers of cells that provide protection to the underlying tissues. The lack of blood vessels in the epidermis means that it relies on diffusion of nutrients and oxygen from the underlying dermis for its metabolic needs. This avascular nature of the epidermis is important for maintaining its function as a barrier against external factors.

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  • 6. 

    Keratinization is?

    • A.

      Cells lose nucleus & organelles then engulf and die

    • B.

      Cells gain nucleus then flatten and die

    • C.

      Cells lose nucleus & organelles then flatten & die

    Correct Answer
    C. Cells lose nucleus & organelles then flatten & die
    Explanation
    Keratinization is a process in which cells lose their nucleus and organelles, and then flatten and die. This process occurs in the outermost layer of the skin, known as the epidermis. The cells in this layer, called keratinocytes, undergo keratinization to produce a tough, protective protein called keratin. As the keratinocytes move towards the surface of the skin, they lose their nucleus and organelles, becoming filled with keratin. Eventually, these flattened, keratin-filled cells slough off and are replaced by new cells from below. This process helps to strengthen and protect the skin.

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  • 7. 

    _____________ is cancer arising from epithelial cells,

    Correct Answer
    carcinoma
    Explanation
    Carcinoma is the correct answer because it is a type of cancer that originates from epithelial cells. Epithelial cells are the cells that line the surfaces and cavities of the body, and carcinoma specifically refers to cancer that develops in these cells. Carcinomas can occur in various organs such as the skin, lungs, breast, prostate, and colon. They are the most common type of cancer and can spread to nearby tissues if not detected and treated early.

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  • 8. 

    Select the three most common types of carcinoma:

    • A.

      Malignant melanoma

    • B.

      Basement membrane carcinoma

    • C.

      Basal cell carcinoma

    • D.

      Squamous cell carcinoma

    • E.

      Merkel carcinoma

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Malignant melanoma
    C. Basal cell carcinoma
    D. Squamous cell carcinoma
    Explanation
    Malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common types of carcinoma. Malignant melanoma is a type of skin cancer that develops from melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment in the skin. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that starts in the basal cells of the skin's outermost layer. Squamous cell carcinoma is another type of skin cancer that arises from the squamous cells, which are flat cells in the outermost layer of the skin. These three types of carcinoma are frequently diagnosed and account for the majority of skin cancer cases.

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  • 9. 

    Select all characteristics of: Squamous cell carcinoma:

    • A.

      Found in medial thin areas

    • B.

      Aggressive locally - forms ulcerated lesions

    • C.

      Stays dormant and localized

    • D.

      Spreads rapidly to lymph nodes

    • E.

      Found in areas most exposed to UV

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Aggressive locally - forms ulcerated lesions
    D. Spreads rapidly to lymph nodes
    E. Found in areas most exposed to UV
    Explanation
    Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that is characterized by its aggressive nature, forming ulcerated lesions. It also has the ability to spread rapidly to nearby lymph nodes. Furthermore, it is commonly found in areas of the skin that are most exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, such as the face, neck, and hands.

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  • 10. 

    Select the characteristics of Basal Carcinoma:

    • A.

      Malignant 

    • B.

      Nodular masses beneath skin

    • C.

      More common in dogs than cats

    • D.

      More common in cats than dogs

    • E.

      Benign

    • F.

      Severe ulcerations

    • G.

      Found in head & neck region

    • H.

      Affects basal layer cells, keritinocytes & merkel

    • I.

      Affects dead keratinocytes

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Nodular masses beneath skin
    D. More common in cats than dogs
    E. Benign
    G. Found in head & neck region
    H. Affects basal layer cells, keritinocytes & merkel
    Explanation
    Basal Carcinoma is characterized by nodular masses beneath the skin, which are more common in cats than dogs. It is a benign form of cancer that is typically found in the head and neck region. It affects the basal layer cells, keratinocytes, and merkel cells.

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  • 11. 

    The brown octopus-like cell in this image is an example of what type of epidermal cell?

    • A.

      Melanocyte

    • B.

      Merkel Cell

    • C.

      Macrophage

    • D.

      Keritinocyte

    Correct Answer
    A. Melanocyte
    Explanation
    The brown octopus-like cell in the image is an example of a melanocyte. Melanocytes are responsible for producing melanin, the pigment that gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes. They are found in the epidermis and play a crucial role in protecting the skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation. Melanocytes transfer melanin to nearby cells, providing them with protection against sun damage.

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  • 12. 

    The following red cell, attached to the basal layer and sensory nerve endings, is which type of epidermal cell?

    • A.

      Melanocyte

    • B.

      Langerhan

    • C.

      Merkel

    Correct Answer
    C. Merkel
    Explanation
    Merkel cells are a type of epidermal cell that are attached to the basal layer and sensory nerve endings. These cells play a role in touch sensation and are responsible for detecting light touch and pressure. They are found in the skin's epidermis and are particularly abundant in areas such as the fingertips and lips.

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  • 13. 

    The following, wandering, specialized macrophage that phagocytizes pathogen is what type of epidermal cell?

    • A.

      Langerhan 

    • B.

      Merkel

    • C.

      Melanocyte

    • D.

      Keratinocyte

    Correct Answer
    A. Langerhan 
    Explanation
    Langerhans cells are specialized macrophages that are found in the epidermis of the skin. They play a crucial role in the immune system by phagocytizing pathogens and presenting antigens to T cells. Therefore, Langerhans cells are the correct answer for this question.

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  • 14. 

    The following is symptoms of?

    • A.

      Squamous carcinoma

    • B.

      Malignant melanoma

    • C.

      Basal carcinoma

    Correct Answer
    B. Malignant melanoma
    Explanation
    Malignant melanoma is a type of skin cancer that arises from the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. It typically presents with symptoms such as changes in the size, shape, or color of existing moles, the appearance of new moles, asymmetry of moles, irregular borders, and uneven coloration. It may also be accompanied by symptoms like itching, bleeding, or ulceration. Malignant melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer that can metastasize to other parts of the body if not detected and treated early.

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  • 15. 

    The following is an example of?

    • A.

      Squamous carcinoma

    • B.

      Basal Carcinoma

    • C.

      Malignant melanoma

    Correct Answer
    A. Squamous carcinoma
    Explanation
    Squamous carcinoma is the correct answer because it is listed as the first option and is the only type of carcinoma mentioned in the given options. The other two options, Basal Carcinoma and Malignant melanoma, are not relevant to the question and can be disregarded.

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  • 16. 

    The following image shows symptoms of?

    • A.

      Squamous carcinoma

    • B.

      Basal carcinoma

    • C.

      Malignant melanoma

    Correct Answer
    B. Basal carcinoma
    Explanation
    The image provided shows symptoms of basal carcinoma. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that usually appears as a small, shiny bump or a red, scaly patch on the skin. It is the most common type of skin cancer and is typically caused by long-term exposure to the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays. The image shows characteristics such as a raised, pearly bump with visible blood vessels, which are typical signs of basal cell carcinoma.

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  • 17. 

    The ___________ gives the stratum spinosum its spiny appearance and holds it together.

    Correct Answer
    desmosome, desmosomes
    Explanation
    Desmosomes are cell junctions that provide strong adhesion between cells, particularly in tissues that experience mechanical stress. In the stratum spinosum, desmosomes play a crucial role in giving the layer its spiny appearance and holding it together. These specialized structures consist of proteins that form strong connections between neighboring cells, allowing them to resist separation and maintain the integrity of the tissue. Therefore, desmosomes are responsible for the spiny appearance and cohesion of the stratum spinosum.

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  • 18. 

    Select the characteristics of the dermis:

    • A.

      Hide of animal to make leather

    • B.

      Outermost layer

    • C.

      Provides strength

    • D.

      Connected to basement membrane

    • E.

      Contains large mounts of fibers, collagen, elastic and reticular

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hide of animal to make leather
    C. Provides strength
    E. Contains large mounts of fibers, collagen, elastic and reticular
    Explanation
    The dermis is the layer of skin located beneath the epidermis. It is responsible for providing strength and support to the skin. It contains large amounts of fibers, such as collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers, which contribute to its structural integrity. Additionally, the dermis is the layer of skin used to make leather from animal hides, as it is thick and durable. The dermis is not the outermost layer of the skin, as that is the epidermis. It is also connected to the basement membrane, which separates it from the underlying subcutaneous tissue.

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  • 19. 

    Select the three types of cells in the dermis

    • A.

      Macrophage

    • B.

      Fibroblasts

    • C.

      Adipocytes

    • D.

      Langerhan

    • E.

      Merkel

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Macrophage
    B. Fibroblasts
    C. Adipocytes
    Explanation
    Macrophages, fibroblasts, and adipocytes are the three types of cells found in the dermis. Macrophages are immune cells that help in the defense against pathogens and foreign substances. Fibroblasts are responsible for producing collagen, elastin, and other components of the extracellular matrix, providing structural support to the skin. Adipocytes store fat and provide insulation and cushioning to the skin. Langerhan cells and Merkel cells are not types of cells found in the dermis, hence they are not included in the answer.

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  • 20. 

    Select the two layers of the dermis

    • A.

      Stratum corneum

    • B.

      Reticular

    • C.

      Elastic layer

    • D.

      Papillary

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Reticular
    D. Papillary
    Explanation
    The dermis is the second layer of the skin and is composed of two main layers: the papillary layer and the reticular layer. The papillary layer is the upper layer of the dermis and is responsible for providing nutrients to the epidermis. The reticular layer is the lower layer of the dermis and is responsible for providing strength and elasticity to the skin. Therefore, the correct answer is reticular and papillary.

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  • 21. 

    There IS a distinct boundary from papillary to reticular layer in the dermis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because there is no distinct boundary between the papillary and reticular layers in the dermis. The papillary layer is the outermost layer of the dermis, composed of loose connective tissue, while the reticular layer is the deeper layer, consisting of dense irregular connective tissue. However, the transition between these two layers is not clearly demarcated, and they blend together rather than having a distinct boundary.

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  • 22. 

    Select all characteristics of Hypodermis:

    • A.

      Most superficial layer

    • B.

      Deepest layer 

    • C.

      Composed of dense irregular connective tissue

    • D.

      Contains large amount of elastic fibers

    • E.

      Contains solely reticular fibers

    • F.

      Composed of aerolar & adipose tissue

    • G.

      Has pacinian corpuscles

    • H.

      Where SQ injections are preformed

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Deepest layer 
    D. Contains large amount of elastic fibers
    F. Composed of aerolar & adipose tissue
    G. Has pacinian corpuscles
    H. Where SQ injections are preformed
    Explanation
    The hypodermis is the deepest layer of the skin. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue, which gives it strength and support. It also contains a large amount of elastic fibers, which allow the skin to stretch and recoil. The hypodermis is composed of areolar and adipose tissue, which provide insulation and cushioning. It contains Pacinian corpuscles, which are sensory receptors that detect pressure and vibration. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections are commonly performed in the hypodermis.

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  • 23. 

    Pacinian Corpuscles are?

    • A.

      Ugly

    • B.

      Pressure emmitors

    • C.

      Pressure receptors

    • D.

      Glands

    Correct Answer
    C. Pressure receptors
    Explanation
    Pacinian Corpuscles are specialized sensory receptors that are responsible for detecting and responding to mechanical pressure and vibration stimuli. These receptors are found throughout the body, particularly in areas such as the skin, joints, and internal organs. When pressure is applied to the Pacinian Corpuscles, they generate electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain, allowing us to perceive and interpret the sensation of pressure.

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  • 24. 

    The first arrow pointing at the thickest layer is pointing to the?

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Hypodermis

    Correct Answer
    B. Dermis
    Explanation
    The first arrow is pointing at the thickest layer, which is the dermis. The dermis is the middle layer of the skin, located between the epidermis (outer layer) and the hypodermis (innermost layer). It is composed of connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, and various structures such as hair follicles and sweat glands. The dermis provides strength, elasticity, and support to the skin, and plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature and protecting underlying tissues.

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  • 25. 

    The deepest purple arrow pointing to the "bubbly" yellow layer is pointing to the? 

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Hypodermis

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypodermis
    Explanation
    The deepest purple arrow is pointing to the hypodermis. The hypodermis is the deepest layer of the skin, located below the dermis. It is composed of fat cells and connective tissue, and its main function is to insulate and cushion the body.

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  • 26. 

    This layer is?

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Hypodermis

    Correct Answer
    A. Epidermis
    Explanation
    The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. It acts as a protective barrier against environmental factors and helps regulate body temperature. It is composed of multiple layers of cells, including the outermost layer of dead skin cells called the stratum corneum. The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin responsible for skin color. Overall, the epidermis plays a vital role in maintaining the integrity and function of the skin.

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  • 27. 

    Pigmentation is controlled by:

    • A.

      Presence of melanocytes

    • B.

      Malignant melanoma

    • C.

      Presence of melanin in keratinocytes

    • D.

      Presence of melanoma in the keratin

    Correct Answer
    C. Presence of melanin in keratinocytes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Presence of melanin in keratinocytes." Pigmentation is controlled by the presence of melanin, which is a pigment produced by melanocytes. Melanocytes transfer melanin to neighboring keratinocytes, which are the main type of cells in the outermost layer of the skin. This melanin then determines the color of the skin, hair, and eyes.

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  • 28. 

    Select the characteristics of foot pads:

    • A.

      Thin layer in inguinal region

    • B.

      Tough and thickest layer

    • C.

      Has all 7 epidermal layer

    • D.

      Has all 5 epidermal layers

    • E.

      Dermis contains sweat glands

    • F.

      Stratum corneum has conical papillea

    • G.

      Stratum luceum has conical papillae

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Tough and thickest layer
    D. Has all 5 epidermal layers
    E. Dermis contains sweat glands
    F. Stratum corneum has conical papillea
    Explanation
    The characteristics of foot pads include being tough and the thickest layer, having all 5 epidermal layers, containing sweat glands in the dermis, and having conical papillae in the stratum corneum.

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  • 29. 

    Conical Papillae in the stratum corneum of foot pads provides what purpose?

    • A.

      Heat retention

    • B.

      Traction

    Correct Answer
    B. Traction
    Explanation
    Conical Papillae in the stratum corneum of foot pads provide traction. These structures, found in the foot pads of animals like cats and dogs, help improve grip and prevent slipping. The conical shape of the papillae increases the surface area in contact with the ground, enhancing friction and allowing for better traction. This is particularly important for animals that need to navigate various terrains or engage in activities that require stability and grip, such as running, jumping, or climbing.

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  • 30. 

    The thin hairless region on the nose, with no glands, is known as the _________________

    Correct Answer
    planum nasale
    Explanation
    The thin hairless region on the nose, with no glands, is known as the planum nasale. This term refers to the specific anatomical feature on the nose that lacks hair and glands. It is a Latin term that literally translates to "nose plateau" or "nose plain." The planum nasale is found in certain animals, such as dogs, cats, and some species of bears, and serves various functions like thermoregulation and sensory perception.

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  • 31. 

    The cutaneous pouches in sheep that secrete lanolin are located in these areas.

    • A.

      Infraorbitally

    • B.

      Near the anal cavity

    • C.

      Interdigitally

    • D.

      Inguinally

    • E.

      Near the mouth

    • F.

      Distal to the hooves

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Infraorbitally
    C. Interdigitally
    D. Inguinally
    Explanation
    The cutaneous pouches in sheep that secrete lanolin are located infraorbitally, interdigitally, and inguinally. This means that the pouches are found below the eye sockets, between the digits of the hooves, and in the groin area. These specific locations are where the sheep produce and store lanolin, a waxy substance that helps to protect their skin and wool.

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  • 32. 

    All of the following are true EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Hair is a trait shared by all animals

    • B.

      Covers most regions of the body

    • C.

      Keratanized structure made from hair follicles

    • D.

      Functions in thermoregulation, camouflage and sensory

    • E.

      Hair is a mammalian trait

    Correct Answer
    A. Hair is a trait shared by all animals
    Explanation
    The given statement "Hair is a trait shared by all animals" is incorrect. Hair is not a trait shared by all animals. While hair is a mammalian trait, not all animals have hair. Other animals, such as reptiles, birds, and fish, have different types of coverings like scales, feathers, or fins. Therefore, the statement contradicts the fact that hair is not a trait shared by all animals.

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  • 33. 

    (finally) Select all that determine shedding:

    • A.

      Hormones

    • B.

      Colour of coat (melanocytes)

    • C.

      Enviromental

    • D.

      Genetics

    • E.

      Horoscopes

    • F.

      Diet/Health

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hormones
    C. Enviromental
    D. Genetics
    F. Diet/Health
    Explanation
    The factors that determine shedding are hormones, environmental conditions, genetics, and diet/health. Hormones play a significant role in regulating the hair growth cycle and can influence shedding. Environmental factors such as temperature, light exposure, and seasonal changes can also affect shedding patterns. Genetics plays a role in determining the natural shedding rate of an individual. Additionally, diet and overall health can impact the condition of the hair and contribute to shedding.

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  • 34. 

    The center "beige coloured" part is the? and its function?

    • A.

      Cuticle: single layer of squamous cells karatinized

    • B.

      Cortex: thickest layer; hard keratin; pigmented

    • C.

      Medulla: central core with loosely arranged cells in air/fluid, soft keratin, pigmented

    Correct Answer
    C. Medulla: central core with loosely arranged cells in air/fluid, soft keratin, pigmented
    Explanation
    The center "beige coloured" part is called the medulla. Its function is to provide structural support to the hair shaft. The medulla is composed of loosely arranged cells and can contain air or fluid. It is made up of soft keratin and is pigmented.

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  • 35. 

    The outermost white "scaley" part is? Its function?

    • A.

      Medulla: central core with loosely connected cells in air/fluid, flexible keratin, pigmented

    • B.

      Cortex: thickest layer of hard keratin, pigmented

    • C.

      Cuticle: single layer of karatinized squamous cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Cuticle: single layer of karatinized squamous cells
    Explanation
    The outermost white "scaley" part is called the cuticle. Its function is to provide a protective covering for the underlying layers of the structure. It consists of a single layer of keratinized squamous cells, which are hardened and flattened. This layer helps to prevent damage to the underlying cells and tissues, and also helps to reduce water loss and maintain hydration. The cuticle acts as a barrier against external factors such as UV radiation, chemicals, and physical abrasion.

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  • 36. 

    The middle brown rin is known as? its function?

    • A.

      Again? smh think of new questions king

    • B.

      Cortex: thick, hard keratinized layer: pigmented

    • C.

      Cuticle: thin single layer of keratinized squamous cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Again? smh think of new questions king
  • 37. 

    Hair loss is known as _________

    Correct Answer
    alopecia
    Explanation
    Hair loss is commonly referred to as alopecia. Alopecia is a medical term used to describe the condition where a person experiences partial or complete hair loss. It can occur on the scalp or other parts of the body, and it can be temporary or permanent. Alopecia can be caused by various factors such as genetics, hormonal changes, autoimmune disorders, or certain medical treatments.

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  • 38. 

    Itchy skin is known as _________?

    Correct Answer
    pruritis
    Explanation
    Pruritis is the medical term used to describe the condition of itchy skin. It is characterized by an uncomfortable sensation that triggers the urge to scratch. Pruritis can be caused by various factors such as dry skin, allergies, insect bites, and certain medical conditions. The word "pruritis" is derived from the Latin word "prurire" which means "to itch". Therefore, pruritis is the correct answer for the given question.

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  • 39. 

    Select the various causes of alopecia&pruritis.

    • A.

      Parasites

    • B.

      Genitics

    • C.

      Allergies

    • D.

      Hormones

    • E.

      Diet change

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Parasites
    C. Allergies
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes parasites and allergies as causes of alopecia and pruritus. Parasites, such as fleas or mites, can cause itching and hair loss in animals. Allergies, on the other hand, can lead to skin irritation, inflammation, and subsequent hair loss. Both of these factors can contribute to alopecia and pruritus in animals.

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  • 40. 

    Select all the glands present in the skin;

    • A.

      Tear ducts

    • B.

      Anal Glands

    • C.

      Mammary glads

    • D.

      Sweat Glands; appocrine/eccrine

    • E.

      Aquaducts

    • F.

      Sebaceous glands

    • G.

      Tail glands

    • H.

      Musk Glands

    • I.

      Goblet cells

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Anal Glands
    C. Mammary glads
    D. Sweat Glands; appocrine/eccrine
    F. Sebaceous glands
    G. Tail glands
    H. Musk Glands
  • 41. 

    Sebaceous glands are found all over the body except on:

    • A.

      Inguinal region

    • B.

      Paw pads

    • C.

      Planum nasale

    • D.

      Skin

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Paw pads
    C. Planum nasale
    Explanation
    Sebaceous glands are responsible for producing sebum, an oily substance that helps keep the skin moisturized. These glands are found all over the body, except on the paw pads and planum nasale. Paw pads and planum nasale are specialized areas of the skin that do not have sebaceous glands. The absence of sebaceous glands in these areas is likely because they have a different function or structure compared to the rest of the skin.

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  • 42. 

    Sebaceous glands produce and release _______.

    Correct Answer(s)
    sebum
    Explanation
    Sebaceous glands are responsible for producing and releasing sebum. Sebum is an oily substance that helps to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair. It is secreted by the sebaceous glands and helps to keep the skin moisturized and protected. Sebum also plays a role in preventing the skin from becoming dry and helps to maintain the skin's natural barrier function.

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  • 43. 

    Sheeps sebaceous glands in cutaneous pouches produce sebum.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is incorrect because sheep do not have sebaceous glands in cutaneous pouches. Sebaceous glands are found in the skin of mammals, including humans, but sheep do not possess these glands in pouches on their skin. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 44. 

    Sebums properties are:

    • A.

      Moisturization

    • B.

      Pheromones

    • C.

      Antifungal/antibacterial

    • D.

      UV protection

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Moisturization
    C. Antifungal/antibacterial
    Explanation
    Sebum is a natural oil produced by the sebaceous glands in the skin. It has moisturizing properties as it helps to keep the skin hydrated by preventing water loss. Additionally, sebum also has antifungal and antibacterial properties, which help to protect the skin from infections and maintain its overall health. These properties make sebum essential for maintaining the moisture balance and protecting the skin from harmful external factors.

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  • 45. 

    Select all characteristics of sweat glands:

    • A.

      Cubed tubular shape

    • B.

      Helps cool the body

    • C.

      In epidermis

    • D.

      Secretes sebum (lanolin in sheep)

    • E.

      Defensive properties to protect skin

    • F.

      In dermis/Hypodermis

    • G.

      Can become clogged need to be expressed

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cubed tubular shape
    B. Helps cool the body
    E. Defensive properties to protect skin
    F. In dermis/Hypodermis
    Explanation
    Sweat glands have a cubed tubular shape, which refers to their structure. They help cool the body by secreting sweat, which evaporates and cools the skin. They also have defensive properties that protect the skin from harmful substances and pathogens. Sweat glands are located in the dermis and hypodermis layers of the skin.

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  • 46. 

    Select all the characteristics of tail glands:

    • A.

      Most common in caprine

    • B.

      On proximal dorsal surface of the tail of cats/dogs

    • C.

      Used for cleaning of the anus

    • D.

      Used for identification

    • E.

      Affected by hormones

    • F.

      Need to be palpated and checked

    • G.

      May become enlarged

    • H.

      Area contains sebaceous glands/apocrine sweat glands and secretes pheromones

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. On proximal dorsal surface of the tail of cats/dogs
    D. Used for identification
    E. Affected by hormones
    G. May become enlarged
    H. Area contains sebaceous glands/apocrine sweat glands and secretes pheromones
    Explanation
    Tail glands are most commonly found in caprine animals. They are located on the proximal dorsal surface of the tail in cats and dogs. These glands serve multiple purposes, including cleaning of the anus and identification. They are also affected by hormones and may become enlarged. The area of the tail gland contains sebaceous glands and apocrine sweat glands, which secrete pheromones.

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  • 47. 

    Select all characteristics of anal glands:

    • A.

      Located at 5&7 o'clock inside anus

    • B.

      Located at 3&9 o'clock inside anus

    • C.

      Produce strong odor

    • D.

      Contains sebaceous glands

    • E.

      Contains apocrine sweat glands

    • F.

      Used in marking/identification

    • G.

      Used for protection

    • H.

      Is a modified tail gland

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Located at 5&7 o'clock inside anus
    C. Produce strong odor
    D. Contains sebaceous glands
    E. Contains apocrine sweat glands
    F. Used in marking/identification
    Explanation
    The anal glands are located at 5 and 7 o'clock inside the anus. They produce a strong odor and contain sebaceous glands and apocrine sweat glands. These glands are used in marking and identification. They are not a modified tail gland and are not used for protection.

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  • 48. 

    This dog is showing symptoms of clogged anal glands. The action he is performing is known as ________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    scooting, scooting on floor, scoot
    Explanation
    The dog is exhibiting the behavior of scooting, which involves dragging its rear end along the floor. This behavior is commonly seen in dogs with clogged anal glands, as they try to relieve the discomfort or itchiness caused by the blockage. The terms "scooting on floor" and "scoot" are alternative ways to describe this action.

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  • 49. 

    Select all characteristics of musk glands:

    • A.

      Produce and release "musk"

    • B.

      Present in musk deer, muskrat, musk turtle, muskox, musk beetle, pretty much any animal with musk in its name

    • C.

      Present in cats

    • D.

      Needs to be expressed

    • E.

      Used in perfume

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Produce and release "musk"
    B. Present in musk deer, muskrat, musk turtle, muskox, musk beetle, pretty much any animal with musk in its name
    E. Used in perfume
    Explanation
    Musk glands produce and release "musk" which is used in perfume. These glands are present in musk deer, muskrat, musk turtle, muskox, musk beetle, and pretty much any animal with musk in its name.

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  • 50. 

    The following gland is a?

    • A.

      Apocrine sweat gland

    • B.

      Eccrine sweat gland

    • C.

      Musk gland

    • D.

      Sebaceous gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Eccrine sweat gland
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Eccrine sweat gland. Eccrine sweat glands are the most common type of sweat glands in the human body. They are responsible for producing sweat, which helps regulate body temperature. These glands are found all over the body, especially in areas such as the palms, soles of the feet, and forehead. Unlike apocrine sweat glands, which are found in areas with hair follicles and produce a thicker, odorless secretion, eccrine sweat glands produce a watery sweat that helps cool the body down through evaporation.

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