Heredity And Genetics Quiz Questions

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Stephen Reinbold, PhD, Biological Sciences |
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Stephen Reinbold has a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences with a particular interest in teaching. He taught General Biology, Environmental Science, Zoology, Genetics, and Anatomy & Physiology for almost thirty years at Metropolitan Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. He particularly enjoyed emphasizing scientific methodology and student research projects. Now, enjoying retirement, he works part-time as an editor while also engaging in online activities.
, PhD, Biological Sciences
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Heredity And Genetics Quiz Questions - Quiz

The study of genetics allows us to analyze the patterns by which traits are passed down from parents to their offspring through their genes. These patterns can be used to see simple things like the color of a person’s skin or the color of their hair, but more importantly, it can be used to identify terminal illnesses early in their development.
Genetics also helps us understand complex traits and how environmental factors may influence gene expression. By exploring genetic principles, we can gain insights into human behavior, hereditary diseases, and even the potential for personalized medicine. This quiz will Read moretest your understanding of these fascinating topics, challenge your knowledge, and help you learn more about the crucial role genetics plays in our lives. Dive into the quiz and discover the wonders of genetics!


Heredity and Genetics Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    What does Homozygous mean?

    • A.

      That the two alleles are the same

    • B.

      The two alleles are different

    Correct Answer
    A. That the two alleles are the same
    Explanation
    Homozygous refers to a genetic condition where an individual has two identical alleles for a particular gene. In this case, the correct answer states that homozygous means that the two alleles are the same. This means that both copies of the gene are identical, either both dominant or both recessive. This condition can have implications for the expression of traits or the risk of inheriting certain genetic disorders.

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  • 2. 

    Choose the two sex-linked recessive diseases.

    • A.

      Hemophilia

    • B.

      Balding

    • C.

      Colorblindness

    • D.

      Aids

    • E.

      Cancer

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hemophilia
    C. Colorblindness
    Explanation
    Hemophilia and colorblindness are both sex-linked recessive diseases. Sex-linked means that the genes responsible for these diseases are located on the sex chromosomes, specifically the X chromosome. Since males have only one X chromosome, they are more likely to be affected by these diseases because they do not have a second X chromosome to compensate for the defective gene. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, so they are more likely to be carriers of the disease without showing symptoms.

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  • 3. 

    What are non-sex chromosomes called?

    • A.

      Nucleusomes

    • B.

      Autosomes

    • C.

      Trisasomes

    • D.

      Ribosomes

    • E.

      None

    Correct Answer
    B. Autosomes
    Explanation
    Non-sex chromosomes are called autosomes. Autosomes are the chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual. They are responsible for carrying the majority of an individual's genetic information and are found in both males and females. Sex chromosomes, on the other hand, determine the sex of an individual.

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  • 4. 

    What is the study of the passing on of traits from an organism to its offspring?

    • A.

      Genetics

    • B.

      Heredity

    • C.

      Chromosomes

    • D.

      DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Genetics
    Explanation
    Genetics is the study of the passing on of traits from an organism to its offspring. It involves the study of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms. By understanding genetics, scientists can determine how traits are inherited and passed down through generations. This knowledge is crucial for fields such as medicine, agriculture, and evolutionary biology.

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  • 5. 

    A Phenotype is a:

    • A.

      Gene makeup

    • B.

      Sex cells

    • C.

      Visible characteristics

    Correct Answer
    C. Visible characteristics
    Explanation
    A phenotype refers to the observable traits or characteristics of an organism, such as its physical appearance, behavior, or other visible features. It is determined by the interaction between an individual's genetic makeup (genotype) and environmental factors. This term is commonly used in genetics and biology to describe how genes are expressed and how they manifest in an organism's appearance or behavior.

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  • 6. 

    If a pea plant shows a recessive phenotype,

    • A.

      It can be either TT or Tt.

    • B.

      It can be either Tt or tt.

    • C.

      It can be only TT.

    • D.

      It can be only tt.

    • E.

      It can be TT, Tt, or tt.

    Correct Answer
    D. It can be only tt.
    Explanation
    If a pea plant shows a recessive phenotype, it means that the trait it expresses is the result of having two copies of the recessive allele. In this case, the recessive allele is represented by "t". Therefore, the only way for a pea plant to show a recessive phenotype is if it has two copies of the recessive allele, which would be represented by "tt".

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  • 7. 

    Each gamete carries one factor, now called an allele, for each inherited trait.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because gametes are reproductive cells that carry genetic information in the form of alleles. Alleles are alternative forms of a gene that determine specific traits. During sexual reproduction, gametes from each parent combine to form a new individual with a unique combination of alleles. Therefore, each gamete does carry one factor, or allele, for each inherited trait.

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  • 8. 

    An individual with the genotype Tt will have the dominant phenotype.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An individual with the genotype Tt will have the dominant phenotype because the dominant allele (T) masks the expression of the recessive allele (t). In this case, the individual has one copy of the dominant allele and one copy of the recessive allele, but since the dominant allele is expressed over the recessive allele, the individual will exhibit the dominant phenotype.

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  • 9. 

    Mendel's law of independent assortment says that members of one pair of factors segregate independently of members of another pair of factors.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mendel's law of independent assortment states that the inheritance of one trait is not dependent on the inheritance of another trait. This means that the factors or genes that determine different traits segregate independently during the formation of gametes. Therefore, the statement that members of one pair of factors segregate independently of members of another pair of factors is true.

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  • 10. 

    What kind of enzymes are used to cut out a gene?

    • A.

      Restriction

    • B.

      Biological

    • C.

      Epigenetic

    • D.

      Genetic

    Correct Answer
    A. Restriction
    Explanation
    Restriction enzymes are used to cut out a gene. These enzymes recognize specific sequences of DNA and cut the DNA at those sites. This process is commonly used in genetic engineering to remove a specific gene from a DNA molecule. The cut ends of the DNA can then be joined with another piece of DNA, allowing for the insertion of a new gene or the modification of an existing gene.

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  • 11. 

    The term GMO stands for____________________?

    Correct Answer
    Genetically modified organism
    Explanation
    The term GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organism. This refers to any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. These modifications are made to introduce specific traits or characteristics into the organism, such as increased resistance to pests or improved nutritional content. GMOs are commonly used in agriculture to enhance crop yields and reduce the need for pesticides.

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  • 12. 

    What are alternate forms of a gene?

    • A.

      Genotypes

    • B.

      Alleles

    • C.

      Phenotypes

    • D.

      Sex-linked Traits

    Correct Answer
    B. Alleles
    Explanation
    Alternate forms of a gene are known as alleles. Alleles are different versions or variations of a gene that can occur at a specific locus on a chromosome. They can result in different traits or characteristics in an organism. For example, the gene for eye color may have different alleles such as blue, brown, or green. These alleles determine the variations in eye color that can be observed in individuals. Therefore, alleles are the correct answer as they represent the alternate forms of a gene.

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  • 13. 

    A particular pair of alleles that an individual inherits for a special trait is called an______

    • A.

      Phenotype

    • B.

      Genotype

    • C.

      Heterozygous

    Correct Answer
    B. Genotype
    Explanation
    The term "genotype" refers to the specific combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular trait. It represents the genetic makeup of an organism, including both the dominant and recessive alleles. The genotype determines the potential expression of the trait, which is known as the phenotype. Therefore, the correct answer is "genotype".

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  • 14. 

    An organism with a genotype BB or bb would be considered

    • A.

      Homozygous

    • B.

      Heterozygous

    • C.

      Recessive

    • D.

      Dominant

    Correct Answer
    A. Homozygous
    Explanation
    An organism with a genotype BB or bb would be considered homozygous because in both cases, the organism has two identical alleles for the gene in question. In the case of BB, both alleles are dominant, while in the case of bb, both alleles are recessive. Homozygous organisms have a higher likelihood of expressing the traits associated with the alleles they carry, as there is no conflicting allele present.

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  • 15. 

    In pea plants, tall plants are dominant to short plants. A pea plant that is short must be

    • A.

      Dihybrid

    • B.

      Heterozygous

    • C.

      Homozygous dominant

    • D.

      Homozygous recessive

    Correct Answer
    D. Homozygous recessive
    Explanation
    A pea plant that is short must be homozygous recessive because tall plants are dominant to short plants. This means that if a pea plant is short, it must have received the recessive allele for height from both of its parents. If it were heterozygous or homozygous dominant, it would exhibit the tall phenotype. Therefore, the only possibility for a short pea plant is for it to be homozygous recessive.

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  • 16. 

    This individual is known as the father of genetics because of his work with _____________.

    • A.

      Mendel/Pea plant

    • B.

      Mendel/Wildflower

    • C.

      Hooke/Pea plant

    • D.

      Darwin/Wildflower

    Correct Answer
    A. Mendel/Pea plant
    Explanation
    Gregor Mendel is known as the father of genetics because of his groundbreaking work with pea plants. Mendel conducted extensive experiments on pea plants in the mid-19th century, studying their traits and patterns of inheritance. Through his meticulous observations and careful crossbreeding experiments, Mendel discovered the basic principles of heredity, including dominant and recessive traits, and the concept of genetic inheritance. His work laid the foundation for the field of genetics and revolutionized our understanding of how traits are passed down from generation to generation.

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  • 17. 

    What type of picture shows all the chromosomes of an organism?

    • A.

      Punnett square

    • B.

      Pedigree

    • C.

      Karyotype

    • D.

      Polygenic chart

    Correct Answer
    C. Karyotype
    Explanation
    A karyotype is a type of picture that shows all the chromosomes of an organism. It is a visual representation of the chromosomes arranged in pairs according to their size, shape, and other characteristics. This allows scientists to study and analyze the genetic makeup of an individual or species. A punnett square is used to predict the possible outcomes of a genetic cross, a pedigree is a diagram that shows the inheritance of a trait within a family, and a polygenic chart is used to illustrate the inheritance of traits that are controlled by multiple genes.

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  • 18. 

    The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis is _____________.

    • A.

      Non-disjunction

    • B.

      Non-meiosis

    • C.

      Non-homologous

    • D.

      Non-chromosomal meiosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Non-disjunction
    Explanation
    Non-disjunction refers to the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis. This can result in an abnormal distribution of chromosomes in the resulting gametes, leading to genetic disorders such as Down syndrome and Turner syndrome. Non-meiosis, non-homologous, and non-chromosomal meiosis are not accurate explanations for this phenomenon.

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  • 19. 

     A farmer breeds a white flower (rr) with a Red flower (Rr) what is the possible offspring genotypes?

    • A.

      Rr, rr

    • B.

      RR Rr rr

    • C.

      Rr, Rr

    • D.

      RR, rr

    Correct Answer
    A. Rr, rr
    Explanation
    When a white flower (rr) is bred with a red flower (Rr), the possible genotypes of the offspring are RR and rr. This is because the white flower has two copies of the white allele (rr), while the red flower has one copy of the red allele (R) and one copy of the white allele (r). When the two flowers are bred, the offspring can inherit either the white allele from the white flower or the red or white allele from the red flower. Therefore, the possible genotypes are Rr (white allele from white flower and red allele from red flower), rr (white allele from white flower and white allele from red flower), 

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  • 20. 

    James mated a Skinny Purple Bull to a Fat Black Cow. The Bull is BBPp and the Cow is bbPp. B=Purple, b=Black, P=Skinny, p=Fat. What are the genotypes of the offspring?

    • A.

      BbPP, BbPp, Bbpp

    • B.

      BBPP,bbpp,BBBP

    • C.

      PPBB, PPpp, BBbb

    • D.

      BbPp, BBPP, bbpp

    Correct Answer
    A. BbPP, BbPp, Bbpp
    Explanation
    The genotypes of the offspring are BbPP, BbPp, and Bbpp. This is because the Bull is BBPp, which means it carries the genes for Purple and Skinny, and the Cow is bbPp, which means it carries the genes for Black and Skinny. When they mate, their offspring can inherit different combinations of these genes, resulting in the genotypes BbPP, BbPp, and Bbpp.

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Stephen Reinbold |PhD, Biological Sciences |
Biology Expert
Stephen Reinbold has a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences with a particular interest in teaching. He taught General Biology, Environmental Science, Zoology, Genetics, and Anatomy & Physiology for almost thirty years at Metropolitan Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. He particularly enjoyed emphasizing scientific methodology and student research projects. Now, enjoying retirement, he works part-time as an editor while also engaging in online activities.

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  • Jun 10, 2024
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  • Feb 05, 2014
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