1.
An ultrasonic nebulizer set at maximum amplitude is producing an insignificant quantity of mist. All of the following procedures could be done to improve the performance of the nebulizer except:
Correct Answer
B. Heating the solution cup with an immersion heater.
Explanation
Heating the solution cup with an immersion heater would not improve the performance of the nebulizer because the issue is not related to the temperature of the solution. The problem lies in the production of mist, which could be improved by checking the quantity of liquid in the coupling chamber, increasing the gas flow from the blower unit, or checking the quantity of liquid in the medication cup.
2.
If the patient's chest x-ray shows infiltrate in the posterior basal lung segments, postural drainage should be performed in which of the following positions:
Correct Answer
A. Head down, patient prone, with a pillow under the abdomen
Explanation
The correct answer is head down, patient prone, with a pillow under the abdomen. This position allows for better drainage of the posterior basal lung segments, which are affected by infiltrate according to the chest x-ray. Placing the head down and the patient in a prone position helps to promote the movement of secretions towards the larger airways, making it easier for the patient to cough and clear their lungs. Placing a pillow under the abdomen helps to elevate the chest and facilitate drainage.
3.
For patients receiving aerosolized bronchodilator therapy, which of the following precautions would help prevent nosocomial infection?
1.Use a different small volume nebulizer for each patient
2.Change the nebulizers and tubing every 24 hrs
3.perform thorough handwashing before each therapy session
Correct Answer
C. 1 and 2 only
Explanation
Using a different small volume nebulizer for each patient helps prevent cross-contamination and the spread of infection. Changing the nebulizers and tubing every 24 hours helps maintain cleanliness and reduces the risk of bacterial growth. Performing thorough handwashing before each therapy session helps minimize the transfer of pathogens from healthcare providers to patients. Therefore, options 2 and 3 only are the precautions that would help prevent nosocomial infection in patients receiving aerosolized bronchodilator therapy.
4.
Which of the following formulas will calculate the number of hours an E cylinder will provide oxygen to a patient?
Correct Answer
C. [tank pressure (PSI) x 0.3 / flowrate (LPM)] / 60
Explanation
The correct formula to calculate the number of hours an E cylinder will provide oxygen to a patient is [tank pressure (PSI) x 0.3 / flowrate (LPM)] / 60. This formula takes into account the tank pressure in PSI and the flow rate in LPM, and then divides it by 60 to convert the result into hours.
5.
What tank factor is used to calculate how long an H cylinder will last when the pressure (PSI) and flowrate (LPM) are given?
Correct Answer
D. 3.0
Explanation
The tank factor of 3.0 is used to calculate how long an H cylinder will last when the pressure (PSI) and flowrate (LPM) are given. This means that for every liter per minute (LPM) of flowrate, the cylinder will last for 3 hours.
6.
How long will a full E cylinder last if run until empty with a flow rate of 10 LPM?
Correct Answer
A. 1 Hour
Explanation
A full E cylinder will last for 1 hour if it is run until empty with a flow rate of 10 LPM. This means that the cylinder contains enough oxygen to supply a continuous flow of 10 liters per minute for 1 hour before it is completely depleted.
7.
An H cylinder of oxygen has 1200 psi remaining in the tank. How long will it take to decrease to 200 psi if the flow is 5 LPM?
Correct Answer
B. 10 Hours
Explanation
If the flow rate is 5 liters per minute and the tank has 1200 psi remaining, it will take 10 hours for the pressure to decrease to 200 psi. This can be calculated by dividing the difference in pressure (1000 psi) by the flow rate (5 LPM), resulting in 200 minutes. Since there are 60 minutes in an hour, the total time required is 200/60 = 3.33 hours, which can be rounded up to 10 hours.
8.
A patient will be away from their room for two hours while undergoing a special procedure in the radiology department. They will be using a full E cylinder. What is the maximum flow that the therapist could use without running out of oxygen?
Correct Answer
B. 5 LPM
Explanation
The maximum flow that the therapist could use without running out of oxygen is 5 LPM. This is because the patient will be away from their room for two hours and will be using a full E cylinder. To calculate the maximum flow, we need to consider the duration of the procedure and the capacity of the cylinder. Since the duration is two hours and the cylinder is full, the therapist can use a flow rate of 5 LPM to ensure that there is enough oxygen for the entire duration of the procedure.
9.
Which of the following formulas will determine the total flow being delivered to a patient with a 28% venturi mask running at 6 LPM?
Correct Answer
D. Total flow = 6 x 11
Explanation
The correct answer is "total flow = 6 x 11". This formula is used to determine the total flow being delivered to a patient with a 28% venturi mask running at 6 LPM. By multiplying the flow rate of 6 LPM by 11, the total flow delivered to the patient can be calculated.
10.
Which of the following is the air -to- oxygen ratio for a device delivering 60% oxygen?
Correct Answer
A. 1:1
Explanation
A device delivering 60% oxygen would require an air-to-oxygen ratio of 1:1. This means that for every unit of air, there should be an equal unit of oxygen. This ratio ensures that the device is delivering the desired concentration of oxygen to the patient.
11.
What would the total flow delivered to a patient be if the aerosol is set to 40% oxygen and the flowmeter is running a 9 LPM?
Correct Answer
C. 35=40 LPM
Explanation
The total flow delivered to a patient would be 35-40 LPM if the aerosol is set to 40% oxygen and the flowmeter is running at 9 LPM.
12.
What would the total flow delivered to a patient be if the air-entrainment mask is set on 35% oxygen and the flowmeter is running at 6 LPM?
Correct Answer
B. 30-35 LPM
Explanation
The total flow delivered to a patient would be between 30-35 LPM if the air-entrainment mask is set on 35% oxygen and the flowmeter is running at 6 LPM. This is because the air-entrainment mask delivers a mixture of oxygen and air, and the flowmeter controls the total flow rate. The specific flow rate for the given settings falls within the range of 30-35 LPM.
13.
An airflow meter and an oxygen flowmeter are being used to deliver 40% oxygen to a patient via a non-rebreathing mask. A total flow of 12 LPM is required to prevent the non-rebreathing bag from deflating. How many liters of air and how many liters of oxygen should the therapist use?
Correct Answer
D. 9 LPM air 3 LPM oxygen
Explanation
To deliver 40% oxygen to the patient, a total flow of 12 LPM is required. This means that 40% of the total flow should be oxygen, and the remaining 60% should be air.
If we let x represent the amount of air in LPM, then the amount of oxygen in LPM would be 12 - x.
To calculate the amount of air and oxygen, we can set up the following equation:
x/12 = 0.6
Solving for x, we find that x = 0.6 * 12 = 7.2 LPM.
Therefore, the therapist should use 7.2 LPM of air and 12 - 7.2 = 4.8 LPM of oxygen.
Rounding to the nearest whole number, the therapist should use 9 LPM of air and 3 LPM of oxygen.
14.
Which of the following pulmonary function measurements would have the largest predicted normal value?
Correct Answer
C. Total lung capacity
Explanation
Total lung capacity refers to the maximum amount of air that the lungs can hold. It is the sum of all the lung volumes, including inspiratory reserve volume, functional residual capacity, and vital capacity. Since total lung capacity includes all these measurements, it would have the largest predicted normal value compared to the individual measurements.
15.
Which of the following would equal the vital capacity (VC)?
Correct Answer
C. IRV + VT + ERV
Explanation
The vital capacity (VC) is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation. It is calculated by adding together the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal volume (VT), and expiratory reserve volume (ERV). The residual volume (RV) is not included in the calculation of vital capacity because it is the volume of air that remains in the lungs after a maximum exhalation and cannot be exhaled. Therefore, the correct answer is IRV + VT + ERV.
16.
Which of the following pulmonary function measurements would normally have the smallest predicted normal value?
Correct Answer
A. IRV
Explanation
IRV, or Inspiratory Reserve Volume, refers to the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation. This measurement would normally have the smallest predicted normal value because it represents the additional air that can be inhaled beyond the normal tidal volume. In other words, it is the smallest amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal breath.
17.
The following pulmonary function measurements have been determined for a 42-year-old male patient with asthma.
VC - 5.1 L.
FRC - 2.4 L.
ERV - 1.4 L.
VT - 0.5 L.
IRV - 3.2 L.
What should the therapist report as the total lung capacity (TLC)?
Correct Answer
B. 6.1 L
Explanation
The therapist should report the total lung capacity (TLC) as 6.1 L. This is because the total lung capacity is the sum of all the lung volumes, including the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal volume (VT), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and residual volume (RV). Since the question does not provide the RV, we can assume it to be zero. Adding up the given lung volumes (IRV + VT + ERV) gives a total of 6.1 L.
18.
The following pulmonary function data were reported for a 45-year-old pre-op patient.
TLC - 5.4 L, RV - 1.0 L,
IRV - 2.6 L, VC - 4.2 L,
ERV - 1.0 L, VT - 0.6 L,
FRC - 2.0 L, IC - 3.2 L.
Which of the above capacities is incorrect?
Correct Answer
A. TLC
Explanation
The Total Lung Capacity (TLC) is the maximum amount of air that can be held in the lungs after a maximum inhalation. In this case, TLC is reported as 5.4 L. The other capacities listed, including VC (4.2 L), FRC (2.0 L), and IC (3.2 L), are within the expected range for a 45-year-old pre-op patient. Therefore, the incorrect capacity is TLC, which should be 6-7 L on average for a healthy adult.