Biological Molecules Quiz Questions

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Biological Molecules Quiz Questions - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The structural formula for a certain molecule includes a group symbolized -O. The dash next to the oxygen atom means that a single bond exists to another atom, such as a carbon. Based on the valence of oxygen and the number of bonds it normally forms, what is the charge on the oxygen atom in this case?

    • A.

      -2

    • B.

      -1

    • C.

      +1

    • D.

      +2

    Correct Answer
    B. -1
    Explanation
    The dash next to the oxygen atom indicates that it is bonded to another atom, such as carbon, through a single bond. Oxygen typically forms two bonds, so in this case, it has one bond remaining. Since oxygen has six valence electrons, and it needs eight to have a full octet, it will gain one electron to achieve stability. Gaining an electron results in a negative charge, so the charge on the oxygen atom in this case is -1.

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  • 2. 

    When the atoms involved in a covalent bond have the same electronegativity, what type of bond results? 

    • A.

      Ionic bond

    • B.

      Polar covalent bond

    • C.

      Nonpolar covalent bond

    • D.

      Hydrogen bond

    Correct Answer
    C. Nonpolar covalent bond
    Explanation
    When the atoms involved in a covalent bond have the same electronegativity, it means that they have an equal pull for the shared electrons. This results in a nonpolar covalent bond, where the electrons are shared equally between the atoms. In this type of bond, there is no separation of charge and the molecule is symmetrical.

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  • 3. 

    Using its antennae, the male moth finds female moths by following a trail of airborne chemicals, called pheromones, upwind from the female producing them. This is an example of...

    • A.

      Reproduction

    • B.

      Response to stimuli

    • C.

      Grow

    • D.

      Acquire nutrients

    • E.

      Homeostasis

    Correct Answer
    B. Response to stimuli
    Explanation
    The given scenario describes how the male moth uses its antennae to detect and follow the trail of pheromones released by the female moth. This behavior is a direct response to the stimuli of the airborne chemicals. Therefore, the correct answer is "response to stimuli."

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  • 4. 

    All of the following are TRUE about living organisms EXCEPT...

    • A.

      Reproduce themselves

    • B.

      Grow into multicellular organisms

    • C.

      Have an active metabolism

    • D.

      Are made of cells

    • E.

      Respond to stimuli

    Correct Answer
    B. Grow into multicellular organisms
    Explanation
    Living organisms can grow into multicellular organisms, so this statement is not true. All living organisms have the ability to reproduce, have an active metabolism, are made of cells, and respond to stimuli. However, not all living organisms grow into multicellular organisms. Some organisms, such as bacteria and single-celled protists, remain as single cells throughout their life cycle. Therefore, the statement "grow into multicellular organisms" is not true for all living organisms.

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  • 5. 

    The atomic number of an atom is defined as

    • A.

      The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

    • B.

      The number of electrons in outermost shell

    • C.

      The number of protons in the nucleus

    • D.

      Total number of electrons and neutrons

    • E.

      Number of energy shells

    • F.

      Arrangement of neutrons in nucleus

    Correct Answer
    C. The number of protons in the nucleus
    Explanation
    The atomic number of an atom is defined as the number of protons in the nucleus. This is because the atomic number determines the element and its properties. The number of protons in an atom's nucleus is unique to each element and determines its identity on the periodic table.

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  • 6. 

    After you drink acidic lemonade, your body stays at the same pH. This is an example of...

    • A.

      Maintaining homeostasis

    • B.

      Growth

    • C.

      Evolve in response to environment

    • D.

      Behavior

    • E.

      Maintain cellular organization

    • F.

      Immunization to weak acids

    Correct Answer
    A. Maintaining homeostasis
    Explanation
    The fact that your body stays at the same pH after drinking acidic lemonade suggests that it is maintaining homeostasis. Homeostasis refers to the body's ability to regulate and maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. In this case, your body is able to balance the pH levels and keep it within a normal range, even after consuming an acidic substance like lemonade. This is an example of the body's ability to maintain homeostasis.

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  • 7. 

    If an atom has a charge of +1 that means...

    • A.

      It has 1 more neutron than protons and electron

    • B.

      It has 1 more proton than electrons

    • C.

      It has 1 more electron than protons

    • D.

      It has same number of protons and electrons

    Correct Answer
    B. It has 1 more proton than electrons
    Explanation
    If an atom has a charge of +1, it means that it has lost one electron. Since electrons have a negative charge, losing one electron would result in a net positive charge for the atom. Therefore, the atom would have one more proton than electrons, as protons have a positive charge.

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  • 8. 

    Phosphorous has an atomic number of 15, in the first shell it has ________ electrons, second shell has ________ electrons, and third shell has ________ electrons. 

    Correct Answer
    2, two
    8, eight
    5, five
    Explanation
    Phosphorous has an atomic number of 15, which means it has 15 protons and 15 electrons. The electrons are distributed in different shells around the nucleus. The first shell can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, so it has 2 electrons. The second shell can hold a maximum of 8 electrons, so it has 8 electrons. The remaining 5 electrons are in the third shell. Therefore, the correct answer is 2, two, 8, eight, 5, five.

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  • 9. 

    Which elements are the most common in the human body?

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Calcium

    • C.

      Potassium

    • D.

      Nitrogen

    • E.

      Oxygen

    • F.

      Hydrogen

    • G.

      Phosphorus

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Carbon
    D. Nitrogen
    E. Oxygen
    F. Hydrogen
    Explanation
    The elements carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen are the most common in the human body. These elements are essential for life and are found in various molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids. Carbon is the backbone of organic molecules, while nitrogen is a component of proteins and nucleic acids. Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration, and hydrogen is involved in various biochemical reactions. These elements play crucial roles in maintaining the structure and function of cells and are abundant in the human body.

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  • 10. 

    Most biological bonds in the body are..

    • A.

      Covalent

    • B.

      Ionic

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Peptide

    Correct Answer
    A. Covalent
    Explanation
    Most biological bonds in the body are covalent. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms, resulting in a strong bond. In biological molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, covalent bonds are essential for maintaining the structure and function of these molecules. These bonds are formed through the sharing of electrons in the outermost energy levels of atoms, creating stable and durable connections. Covalent bonds are crucial for the stability and integrity of biological systems, allowing for the formation of complex structures and the transmission of genetic information.

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  • 11. 

    How many electrons are involved in a single covalent bond?

    Correct Answer
    2, two
    Explanation
    In a single covalent bond, two electrons are involved. Covalent bonds occur when atoms share electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration. Each atom contributes one electron to the bond, resulting in a shared pair of electrons. This shared pair of electrons creates a strong bond between the atoms, allowing them to form molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is 2 or two.

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  • 12. 

    You isolate a molecule and determine it is nonpolar. Based on this property, the molecule is largely composed of the elements ________ and ________.

    Correct Answer
    carbon, hydrogen
    hydrogen, carbon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is carbon, hydrogen. This is because carbon and hydrogen are both nonpolar elements. Nonpolar molecules are composed of atoms that have similar electronegativities, meaning they share electrons equally and do not have a significant charge imbalance. Carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativities, making them suitable for forming nonpolar molecules.

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  • 13. 

    Which elements are the most electronegative (polar) in the body?

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Hydrogen

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Nitrogen
    C. Oxygen
    Explanation
    Nitrogen and oxygen are the most electronegative elements in the body. Electronegativity is a measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons towards itself in a chemical bond. Nitrogen and oxygen have higher electronegativity values compared to carbon and hydrogen. This means that nitrogen and oxygen atoms have a stronger pull on the shared electrons in a chemical bond, resulting in a more polar bond. In the body, nitrogen and oxygen play important roles in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, respiration, and DNA replication.

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  • 14. 

    An atom has six electrons in its valence shell. How many single covalent bonds would you expect it to form in most circumstances? 

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      6

    • E.

      1

    Correct Answer
    A. 2
    Explanation
    An atom with six electrons in its valence shell would typically form two single covalent bonds in most circumstances. This is because each covalent bond involves the sharing of two electrons, and with six valence electrons, the atom can share two electrons with two other atoms to form two bonds.

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  • 15. 

    What does H-O-H represent?

    Correct Answer
    molecule of water, water
    Explanation
    H-O-H represents the chemical formula of water, which consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. This arrangement forms a molecule of water, commonly known as water.

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  • 16. 

    The smallest units that still retain the characteristics of an element are called

    Correct Answer
    atoms, atom
    Explanation
    Atoms are the smallest units that retain the properties and characteristics of an element. They are the building blocks of matter and cannot be broken down into smaller particles without losing their elemental properties. Each atom consists of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons in energy levels. Atoms combine to form molecules and compounds, and their unique arrangements and interactions determine the properties and behavior of different substances. Therefore, atoms are the correct answer for the question.

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  • 17. 

    Water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid due to its unique molecular structure. When water freezes, the molecules arrange themselves in a lattice structure with open spaces between them. This causes the solid form of water, which is ice, to have a lower density than its liquid form. This is why ice floats on water. In contrast, when water is in its liquid state, the molecules are closer together, resulting in a higher density.

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  • 18. 

    Which is the correct sequence of increasing organization? (start from beginning)________, ________, ________, ________, ________, [Blank], ________, ________, ________ and ________. 

    Correct Answer
    Atom, atoms
    molecule, molecules
    macromolecule, macromolecules
    organelle, organelles
    cell, cells
    tissue, tissues
    organs, organ
    organ system
    organism
    Explanation
    The correct sequence of increasing organization starts with atoms, followed by molecules, macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and finally organisms. This sequence represents a hierarchical organization where smaller units combine to form larger and more complex structures. Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter, which combine to form molecules. Molecules then combine to form macromolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organelles are specialized structures within cells, which are the basic units of life. Cells then combine to form tissues, which further organize into organs. Organs work together to form organ systems, and all the organ systems together make up an organism.

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  • 19. 

    Nitrogen (N) normally forms only three covalent bonds because it has a valence of five. However, ammonium has four covalent bonds, each to a different hydrogen (H) atom (H has a valence of one). Make a sketch of this molecule. Count the number of electrons in your sketch. Compare this number to the number of valence electrons in one N and four H's. What do you predict to be the charge on this molecule?

    • A.

      +1

    • B.

      -2

    • C.

      -1

    • D.

      +2

    • E.

      +3

    Correct Answer
    A. +1
    Explanation
    Ammonium (NH4+) has four covalent bonds, with each hydrogen atom forming a bond with the nitrogen atom. Nitrogen has a valence of five, meaning it can form up to five covalent bonds. The sketch of the molecule would show the nitrogen atom in the center, with four hydrogen atoms surrounding it, each connected by a single bond.

    To count the number of electrons in the sketch, we add up the valence electrons of each atom. Nitrogen has five valence electrons, and each hydrogen atom has one valence electron. So, the total number of electrons in the sketch would be 5 (from nitrogen) + 4 (from four hydrogen atoms) = 9.

    Since the molecule has one more proton (positive charge) than electrons, the molecule will have a net positive charge of +1.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is true of carbon?

    • A.

      It can form polar and nonpolar bonds.

    • B.

      It only forms polar molecules.

    • C.

      It is highly electronegative.

    • D.

      It can form a maximum of three covalent bonds with other elements.

    Correct Answer
    A. It can form polar and nonpolar bonds.
    Explanation
    Carbon is a versatile element that can form both polar and nonpolar bonds. This is because carbon has four valence electrons, allowing it to form up to four covalent bonds with other elements. Depending on the atoms it bonds with and the arrangement of these bonds, carbon can form both polar and nonpolar molecules. The ability of carbon to form a variety of bonds is the basis for the vast diversity of organic compounds found in nature.

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  • 21. 

    For an atom to achieve maximum stability and become chemically inert, what must occur?

    • A.

      Electron pairs are shared.

    • B.

      Its outermost energy shell must be filled with electrons.

    • C.

      The number of electrons must equal the number of protons.

    • D.

      Ionization occurs.

    Correct Answer
    B. Its outermost energy shell must be filled with electrons.
    Explanation
    In order for an atom to achieve maximum stability and become chemically inert, its outermost energy shell must be filled with electrons. This is because the outermost energy shell, also known as the valence shell, determines the atom's reactivity. When the valence shell is completely filled with electrons, the atom is stable and less likely to react with other atoms. This stability is achieved by either gaining, losing, or sharing electrons with other atoms to fill the valence shell.

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  • 22. 

    In a normal cellular protein, where would you expect to find a hydrophobic amino acid such as valine? 

    • A.

      In the interior of the folded protein, away from water

    • B.

      Anywhere in the protein, with equal probability

    • C.

      In the transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains

    • D.

      In the interior of the folded protein, away from water, or in a transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains

    • E.

      On the exterior surface of the protein, interacting with water

    Correct Answer
    D. In the interior of the folded protein, away from water, or in a transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains
    Explanation
    Hydrophobic amino acids, such as valine, are nonpolar and repel water molecules. Therefore, they tend to be found in regions of a protein that are shielded from water, such as the interior of the folded protein. Additionally, hydrophobic amino acids can also be found in the transmembrane portion of proteins, where they interact with the hydrophobic lipid fatty acid chains of the cell membrane. Therefore, the correct answer is that valine can be found in the interior of the folded protein, away from water, or in a transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following contain amino acids...

    • A.

      Enzymes

    • B.

      Cholesterol

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Antibodies

    • E.

      Insulin

    • F.

      Hemoglobin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Enzymes
    C. Proteins
    D. Antibodies
    E. Insulin
    F. Hemoglobin
    Explanation
    Enzymes, proteins, antibodies, insulin, and hemoglobin all contain amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and these substances are all types of proteins. Enzymes are a specific type of protein that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system to help fight off foreign substances. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels and is made up of amino acids. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Cholesterol, on the other hand, is a type of lipid and does not contain amino acids.

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  • 24. 

    A molecule with the formula C18H36O2 is probably a

    • A.

      Amino acid

    • B.

      Carbohydrate

    • C.

      Sugar

    • D.

      Fatty acid

    • E.

      Protein

    • F.

      Nucleic acid

    • G.

      Hydrocarbon

    Correct Answer
    D. Fatty acid
    Explanation
    A molecule with the formula C18H36O2 is likely a fatty acid because it contains a long chain of carbon atoms (C18) with hydrogen atoms attached to them (H36), along with two oxygen atoms (O2). Fatty acids are organic compounds that are an important component of lipids, which are essential for energy storage and insulation in organisms. They are characterized by their long hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group (COOH) at one end.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following statements is true for the class of biological molecules known as lipids? 

    • A.

      They are insoluble in water.

    • B.

      They are soluble in water.

    • C.

      They contain nitrogen.

    • D.

      They are made of amino acids.

    • E.

      They are made from glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphate

    • F.

      They contain less energy than proteins and carbohydrates.

    • G.

      They are made by dehydration reactions

    Correct Answer
    A. They are insoluble in water.
    Explanation
    Lipids are a class of biological molecules that are insoluble in water. This is because they are hydrophobic, meaning they repel water molecules. Lipids have a nonpolar structure, which prevents them from forming hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Instead, lipids tend to aggregate together, forming structures such as cell membranes or fat droplets. Lipids play important roles in energy storage, insulation, and cell signaling.

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  • 26. 

    Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?

    • A.

      Starch

    • B.

      Disaccharide

    • C.

      Pentose

    • D.

      Polysaccharide

    • E.

      Monosaccharide

    Correct Answer
    B. Disaccharide
    Explanation
    Lactose is classified as a disaccharide because it is composed of two sugar molecules, glucose and galactose, joined together by a glycosidic linkage. A disaccharide is a type of carbohydrate that consists of two monosaccharide units. Starch, pentose, and polysaccharide are not correct classifications for lactose because they refer to different types of carbohydrates. Monosaccharide is also not the correct classification because lactose is made up of two sugar molecules, not one.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is a polymer?

    • A.

      Cellulose

    • B.

      Chitin

    • C.

      DNA

    • D.

      Glucose

    • E.

      Starch

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cellulose
    B. Chitin
    C. DNA
    E. Starch
    Explanation
    All of the options listed (cellulose, chitin, DNA, and starch) are polymers. A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating subunits called monomers. Cellulose and chitin are both polysaccharides, which are polymers made up of sugar monomers. DNA is a nucleic acid polymer made up of nucleotide monomers. Starch is also a polysaccharide made up of glucose monomers. Therefore, all of the options provided are examples of polymers.

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  • 28. 

    The tertiary structure of a protein is the 

    • A.

      Order in which amino acids are joined in a polypeptide chain.

    • B.

      Overall protein structure resulting from the aggregation of two or more polypeptide subunits.

    • C.

      Unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide.

    • D.

      Bonding together of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds.

    Correct Answer
    C. Unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide.
    Explanation
    The tertiary structure of a protein refers to the unique three-dimensional shape that the fully folded polypeptide adopts. This structure is determined by the interactions between the amino acid side chains and the surrounding environment, including hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and electrostatic interactions. The specific arrangement of these interactions gives the protein its characteristic shape, which is essential for its proper function.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following statements concerning saturated fats is not true?

    • A.

      They are one of several factors that contribute to heart disease.

    • B.

      They contain more hydrogen than unsaturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms.

    • C.

      They generally solidify at room temperature.

    • D.

      They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids.

    Correct Answer
    D. They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids.
    Explanation
    Saturated fats are known to contribute to heart disease, contain more hydrogen than unsaturated fats with the same number of carbon atoms, and generally solidify at room temperature. However, they do not have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids. Instead, saturated fats have single bonds between all carbon atoms, which is why they are "saturated" with hydrogen atoms. This lack of double bonds makes them less prone to oxidation and more stable.

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  • 30. 

    The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions? 

    • A.

      C3H6O3

    • B.

      C18H32O16

    • C.

      C18H10O15

    • D.

      C6H10O5

    • E.

      C18H36O18

    Correct Answer
    B. C18H32O16
    Explanation
    When three glucose molecules are linked together by dehydration reactions, a water molecule is removed for each linkage. Since there are three glucose molecules, three water molecules are removed in total. The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6, so each glucose molecule contributes 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms. Therefore, when three glucose molecules are linked together, the resulting molecule would have 18 carbon atoms, 32 hydrogen atoms, and 16 oxygen atoms, which corresponds to the molecular formula C18H32O16.

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  • 31. 

    What is the chemical reaction mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers? 

    • A.

      The formation of disulfide bridges between monomer

    • B.

      Phosphodiester linkages

    • C.

      Ionic bonding of monomers

    • D.

      Dehydration reactions

    Correct Answer
    D. Dehydration reactions
    Explanation
    Dehydration reactions involve the removal of water molecules from monomers, allowing them to form covalent bonds and create polymers. This process is commonly seen in the synthesis of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. By eliminating water, cells can link monomers together and form larger, more complex structures necessary for various cellular functions.

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  • 32. 

    The phospholipids that make up the plasma membrane have ________ heads and ________ tails.

    Correct Answer
    hydrophilic
    hydrophobic
    Explanation
    Phospholipids are composed of a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails. The hydrophilic head is attracted to water molecules and is polar, while the hydrophobic tails repel water and are nonpolar. This arrangement results in the formation of a phospholipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing the aqueous environment on both sides and the hydrophobic tails forming a barrier in the middle. This structure allows the plasma membrane to regulate the passage of substances in and out of the cell.

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  • 33. 

    The element present in all organic molecules is

    Correct Answer
    Carbon
    Explanation
    Carbon is the element that is present in all organic molecules. This is because carbon has the unique ability to form covalent bonds with other carbon atoms and a variety of other elements, allowing for the formation of complex and diverse organic compounds. Organic molecules are defined as compounds that contain carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, along with other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Therefore, carbon is the fundamental element in organic chemistry and is essential for the existence of life as we know it.

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  • 34. 

    Which level of protein structure do the α helix and the β pleated sheet represent? 

    • A.

      Secondary

    • B.

      Primary

    • C.

      Quarternary

    • D.

      Tertiary

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Secondary
    Explanation
    The α helix and β pleated sheet represent the secondary level of protein structure. Secondary structure refers to the local folding patterns of the polypeptide chain, specifically the regular repeating structures formed by hydrogen bonding between the amino acid residues. The α helix is a coiled structure, while the β pleated sheet consists of strands of the polypeptide chain lying side by side, forming a sheet-like structure. The primary structure refers to the linear sequence of amino acids, while the tertiary and quaternary structures involve the overall 3D folding and interactions between multiple polypeptide chains, respectively.

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  • 35. 

    If a DNA sample were composed of 10% thymine, what would be the percentage of guanine? 

    Correct Answer
    40, forty
    Explanation
    If a DNA sample is composed of 10% thymine, it means that the remaining 90% must be made up of the other three nucleotides: adenine, cytosine, and guanine. Since DNA is a double-stranded molecule, the percentage of guanine would be the same as the percentage of cytosine. Therefore, if thymine accounts for 10% of the DNA, guanine and cytosine together would account for the remaining 90%. Dividing this 90% in half gives us 45%, which means that guanine would also be 45% of the DNA.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following are polysaccharides...

    • A.

      Glycogen

    • B.

      Lactose

    • C.

      Chitin

    • D.

      Cellulose

    • E.

      Starch

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Glycogen
    C. Chitin
    D. Cellulose
    E. Starch
    Explanation
    Glycogen, chitin, cellulose, and starch are all examples of polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of multiple sugar units bonded together. Glycogen is a polysaccharide found in animals and serves as a storage form of glucose. Chitin is a polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans, as well as in the cell walls of fungi. Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants and provides structural support. Starch is a polysaccharide found in plants and serves as a storage form of glucose.

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  • 37. 

    Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids? ________ and ________?

    Correct Answer(s)
    carboxyl, amino group, amino, carboxyl group
    amino, carboxyl, amino group, carboxyl group
    Explanation
    Amino acids always contain two functional groups: the amino group (NH2) and the carboxyl group (COOH). These groups are essential for the formation of peptide bonds and the overall structure and function of proteins.

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  • 38. 

    3 components of a nucleotide...________, ________, and ________?

    Correct Answer(s)
    sugar, deoxyribose sugar, deoxyribose, pentose sugar, phosphate group, phosphate, nitrogenous base, base
    phosphate group, phosphate, sugar, deoxyribose sugar, deoxyribose, pentose sugar, nitrogenous base, base
    nitrogenous base, base, sugar, deoxyribose sugar, deoxyribose, pentose sugar, phosphate group, phosphate
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sugar, deoxyribose sugar, deoxyribose, pentose sugar, phosphate group, phosphate, nitrogenous base, base. A nucleotide is composed of three main components: a sugar (either deoxyribose or ribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The sugar component can be either deoxyribose or ribose, both of which are types of pentose sugars. The phosphate group is responsible for linking the nucleotides together to form a DNA or RNA strand. The nitrogenous base can be one of four options: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), or guanine (G). These components together make up the structure of a nucleotide.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is not a monomer/polymer pairing? 

    • A.

      Triglyceride/phospholipid bilayer

    • B.

      Deoxyribonucleotide/DNA

    • C.

      Amino acid/protein

    • D.

      Ribonucleotide/RNA

    • E.

      Monosaccharide/polysaccharide

    Correct Answer
    A. Triglyceride/phospholipid bilayer
    Explanation
    The correct answer is triglyceride/phospholipid bilayer. Triglyceride is a type of lipid composed of three fatty acids and glycerol, while a phospholipid bilayer is a type of lipid that forms the cell membrane. Although both triglycerides and phospholipids are lipids, they have different structures and functions. Triglycerides are used for energy storage, while phospholipids are essential for cell structure and function. Therefore, triglyceride/phospholipid bilayer is not a monomer/polymer pairing.

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  • 40. 

    Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein? 

    Correct Answer
    peptide bonds, peptide
    Explanation
    During the formation of the primary structure of a protein, peptide bonds are created. Peptide bonds are formed by a condensation reaction between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid. These bonds link the amino acids together in a linear chain, forming the backbone of the protein. The resulting chain of amino acids is called a peptide. Therefore, the correct answer is peptide bonds and peptide.

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  • 41. 

    If 14C-labeled uracil is added to the growth medium of cells, what macromolecules will be labeled? 

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      Both DNA and RNA

    • C.

      RNA

    • D.

      Proteins

    • E.

      Phospholipids

    Correct Answer
    C. RNA
    Explanation
    When 14C-labeled uracil is added to the growth medium of cells, the macromolecules that will be labeled are RNA. This is because uracil is a component of RNA, specifically in the form of ribonucleotides. DNA, on the other hand, does not contain uracil but instead contains thymine. Therefore, only RNA molecules will incorporate the labeled uracil and become labeled themselves.

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  • 42. 

    What are the 7 characteristics of life? ________, ________, ________, ________, ________, ________, and ________.

    Correct Answer
    order, growth and development, growth, reproduction, evolution, homeostasis, metabolism, behavior
    order, growth and development, growth, reproduction, evolution, homeostasis, metabolism, behavior
    order, growth and development, growth, reproduction, evolution, homeostasis, metabolism, behavior
    order, growth and development, growth, reproduction, evolution, homeostasis, metabolism, behavior
    order, growth and development, growth, reproduction, evolution, homeostasis, metabolism, behavior
    order, growth and development, growth, reproduction, evolution, homeostasis, metabolism, behavior
    order, growth and development, growth, reproduction, evolution, homeostasis, metabolism, behavior
  • 43. 

    What is a hypothesis?

    Correct Answer
    a testable answer to a question, testable answer to a question
    Explanation
    A hypothesis is a testable answer to a question. It is a proposed explanation or prediction that can be tested through experimentation or observation. By formulating a hypothesis, researchers can make predictions and design experiments to gather evidence and support their proposed answer. A hypothesis should be specific, measurable, and falsifiable, meaning that it can be proven wrong if the evidence does not support it.

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  • 44. 

    The dependent variable is what you manipulate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Independent: what you manipulate to measure the dependent variable
    Dependent: what you measure (depends on independent variable)

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  • 45. 

    The control group is the group without the changed variable and it forms baseline for comparisons. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Experimental: group with the changed variable
    Control: group without the changed variable, forms baseline for comparisons.

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  • 46. 

    Atoms with unequal # of protons and electrons

    Correct Answer
    ion, ions
    Explanation
    Atoms with unequal numbers of protons and electrons are called ions. When an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes electrically charged. If an atom gains electrons, it becomes negatively charged and is called an anion. On the other hand, if an atom loses electrons, it becomes positively charged and is called a cation. These charged atoms are referred to as ions.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false?

    • A.

      Carbon has the capacity to form single and double bonds

    • B.

      Carbon has the ability to bond with up to four other atoms.

    • C.

      Carbon has a tendency to form covalent bonds

    • D.

      Carbon has the capacity to form polar bonds with hydrogen

    • E.

      Carbon has the ability to bond together to form extensive, branched, or unbranched carbon skeletons

    Correct Answer
    D. Carbon has the capacity to form polar bonds with hydrogen
    Explanation
    Carbon actually has the capacity to form polar bonds with hydrogen. This is due to the difference in electronegativity between carbon and hydrogen, where carbon is slightly more electronegative. As a result, the carbon-hydrogen bond has a partial positive charge on the hydrogen atom and a partial negative charge on the carbon atom.

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  • 48. 

    Which is true about water?

    • A.

      It is polar.

    • B.

      It has a cohesive property.

    • C.

      It is a versatile solvent

    • D.

      It has a high specific heat

    • E.

      It expands upon freezing

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. It is polar.
    B. It has a cohesive property.
    C. It is a versatile solvent
    D. It has a high specific heat
    E. It expands upon freezing
    Explanation
    Water is polar because it has a positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other due to its bent molecular structure. This polarity allows water molecules to attract each other, giving it a cohesive property. Water is also known as a versatile solvent because it can dissolve many different substances due to its polar nature. Additionally, water has a high specific heat, meaning it can absorb and retain a large amount of heat without a significant change in temperature. Lastly, water expands upon freezing, which is why ice floats on water.

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  • 49. 

    Chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life

    Correct Answer(s)
    metabolism
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that take place within a living organism to maintain life. It involves the conversion of food into energy, the synthesis of molecules necessary for growth and repair, and the breakdown of waste products. Metabolism is essential for various biological functions such as digestion, respiration, and circulation. It allows organisms to obtain energy from nutrients and regulate their internal environment. Overall, metabolism is a vital process that sustains life by ensuring the proper functioning of cells and tissues.

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  • 50. 

    What are the macromolecules of life?

    • A.

      Lipids (fats)

    • B.

      Steroids

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Carbohydrates

    • E.

      Sugars

    • F.

      Nucleic Acids

    • G.

      Glycerol

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Lipids (fats)
    C. Protein
    D. Carbohydrates
    F. Nucleic Acids
    Explanation
    The macromolecules of life are lipids (fats), proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Lipids are important for energy storage and insulation. Proteins are involved in various cellular functions and are made up of amino acids. Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body and include sugars. Nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, store and transmit genetic information.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jan 23, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 16, 2016
    Quiz Created by
    Acodilla
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