Nephrotube Dialysis Module Mini Exam (1)

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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 291
Questions: 10 | Attempts: 292

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Nephrotube Dialysis Module Mini Exam (1) - Quiz

10 MCQs
20 min
Good Luck
Gawad


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A 24-year-old woman with a long-standinghistory of lupus is diagnosed with heparininducedthrombocytopenia.Regarding alternatives to therapy, whichONE of the following therapies is the MOSTappropriate anticoagulation strategy?

    • A.

      Enoxaparin

    • B.

      Epoprostenol

    • C.

      Tinzaparin

    • D.

      Clopidogrel

    • E.

      Heparinization of dialyzer with reversal

    Correct Answer
    B. Epoprostenol
    Explanation
    Answer B: Epoprostenol
    Epoprostenol can effectively anticoagulate during dialysis. Enoxaparin is low molecular weight heparin
    and can provoke heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Likewise heparinization is not recommended.
    Tinzaparin and clopidogrel are likely less effective than epoprostenol.

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  • 2. 

    A 60-yr-old man with ESRD because of multiplemyeloma complains of progressive backpain. Hb level last mo was 10.8 g/dl, at whichtime you had increased erythropoietin from10,000 IU two times weekly to 10,000 IU threetimes weekly administered subcutaneously.Now, you note Hb level of 8.2 g/dl and serumalbumin level of 2.2 g/dl. You consult hematology.They recommend therapy with dexamethasone,thalidomide, and cyclophosphamide.Free light chain concentration was 17,000 mg/L.Which ONE of the following therapies isMOST likely to result in effective reductionin free light chain until chemotherapy becomeseffective?

    • A.

      Dialysis with a high-flux dialyzer, molecular cutoff 20 kD

    • B.

      Plasma exchange with albumin replacement

    • C.

      Dialysis with “super” flux dialyzer, molecular cutoff 10 KD

    • D.

      Dialysis with high molecular weight cutoff dialyzer, molecular cutoff 45 kD

    • E.

      Switch to peritoneal dialysis (PD)

    Correct Answer
    D. Dialysis with high molecular weight cutoff dialyzer, molecular cutoff 45 kD
    Explanation
    Correct answer is D: Dialysis with high molecular weight cutoff dialyzer, molecular
    cutoff 45 kD
    The patient has high load of free light chains and is most likely to benefit from dialysis with
    high cutoff dialyzer. These dialyzers have a molecular weight cutoff of 45 kd and can
    effectively remove free light chains till chemotherapy becomes effective.

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  • 3. 

    Protein-bound uremic solutes are poorly removedby current dialysis therapies. Recently,one such toxin, p-cresol, was associated withincreased mortality in dialysis patients.Which ONE of the following strategies isMOST likely to result in effective removalof protein-bound uremic solutes?

    • A.

      Maintenance of residual renal function

    • B.

      Switching to PD

    • C.

      Hemodiafiltration

    • D.

      Gut lavage with nonreabsorbable solutes

    • E.

      High-flux dialysis

    Correct Answer
    A. Maintenance of residual renal function
    Explanation
    Correct answer is A: Maintenance of residual renal function
    Residual renal clearance is 4 to 9 times more effective in clearing protein bound solutes
    compared to peritoneal clearance. Peritoneal dialysis patients do have greater protein-bound
    uremic toxin clearance compared to hemodialysis patients.

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  • 4. 

    Hemodiafiltration (HDF) combines both diffusion and convection.  Which one of the following clinical benefits of HDF is FALSE?

    • A.

      HDF removes middle molecules more efficiently than high-efficiency and high-flux dialysis

    • B.

      Phosphate removal is much higher than high-efficiency and high-flux dialysis

    • C.

      Removal of inflammatory cytokines is better or higher with HDF than high-efficiency and high-flux dialysis

    • D.

      Preservation of residual renal function is much better with HDF than high-efficiency and high-flux dialysis

    • E.

      Improvement in albumin and other markers of nutrition is better with HDF than high-efficiency and high-flux dialysis

    Correct Answer
    E. Improvement in albumin and other markers of nutrition is better with HDF than high-efficiency and high-flux dialysis
    Explanation
    The answer is E
    HDF is a modality that combines both diffusion and convection. This technique requires large ultrapure volumes
    of replacement fluid. This fluid can be infused pre-, post-, or mixed dilution modes. Because of convection, many
    uremic toxins that have a molecular weight up to 40,000 Da can be removed. As a result, many biochemical
    abnormalities associated with ESRD or uremia can be improved. Removal of middle molecules such as
    β2-microglobulin is 30–40 % higher with HDF compared to high-flux dialysis. Similarly removal of phosphate
    mass with HDF is 15–20 % higher than other HD modalities. It has been shown that cytokine removal is much
    higher with HDF, and preservation of residual renal function is prolonged with HDF. However, most studies did
    not find any significant benefit of HDF in improving nutritional, as measured by either albumin or prealbumin
    concentrations. Thus, E is false.
    HDF has been shown to improve β2-microglobulin-associated amyloidosis and carpal tunnel syndrome. Also,
    some studies have shown reduced incidence of intradialytic hypotensive episodes. However, most studies showed
    no effect of HDF on the usage of erythropoietic stimulating agents and anemia.

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  • 5. 

    In your patient with CKD 4 (eGFR 22 mL/min), you plan to place a native arterio-venous (A-V) fistula. Which one ofthe following is the MOST preferred fistula for your patient?

    • A.

      Radiocephalic fistula

    • B.

      Brachiocephalic fistula

    • C.

      Brachiobasilic transposition fistula

    • D.

      A-V graft

    • E.

      Any one of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Radiocephalic fistula
    Explanation
    The answer is A
    Currently there are several options for creation of vascular accesses at different anatomical locations of the body.
    In general, the preferred initial site is the wrist in a nondominant arm. Therefore, the radiocephalic access is the
    preferred A-V fistula for any patient (A is correct). Once distal sites are exhausted, creation of a fistula in the
    upper arm should be considered, and brachiocephalic or brachiobasilic fistulas are placed. The A-V graft has less
    survival compared to the fistula, and is not the preferred access in most of the patients. The concept of FISTULA
    FIRST is introduced because of superior outcomes with a fistula compared to a graft.

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  • 6. 

    The above patient has radiocephalic fistula, and he comes to your office 4 weeks after fistula creation. Which one of thefollowing measurements suggests that the fistula is functioning properly and will be ready in 3 months forcannulation?

    • A.

      Vein diameter 2 mm and access flow rate 300 mL/min

    • B.

      Vein diameter 3 mm and access flow rate 400 mL/min

    • C.

      Vein diameter 4 mm and access flow rate 450 mL/min

    • D.

      Vein diameter 6 mm and access flow rate 600 mL/min

    • E.

      Vein diameter 2.8 mm and access flow rate 350 mL/min

    Correct Answer
    D. Vein diameter 6 mm and access flow rate 600 mL/min
    Explanation
    The answer is D
    Generally 28–53%of A-V accesses never mature adequately to be usable for dialysis. When mature, the median
    time for maturity is 98 days. The KDOQI guidelines defined the “rule of 6s” as the criteria for maturation of the
    fistula, which include (1) vein diameter of 6 mm, (2) access flow rate of 600 mL/min, and (3) access depth of 6 mm
    below the skin. According to the study of Robbin et al. the vein diameter >4 mm and access flow rate
    >500 mL/min are highly predictive of fistula maturation and adequate for cannulation. Based on these criteria,
    choice D is correct, suggesting that the fistula is maturing properly. Other choices are incorrect.

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  • 7. 

    A radiocephalic A-V access was created in your 60-year-old African American diabetic woman 4 weeks ago and iscurrently not maturing. Which one of the following variables is associated with failure of fistula maturation(primary failure) is CORRECT?

    • A.

      Age > 65 years

    • B.

      Coronary artery disease (CAD)

    • C.

      Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

    • D.

      Hyperlipidemia

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The answer is E
    A Canadian study by Lok et al. showed that all of the above variables are associated with primary failure of the
    native fistula by univariate analysis (E is correct). Although diabetes was found to be associated with primary
    failure of the fistula by univariate analysis, it was not significant by multivariate analysis. However, other studies
    found that diabetes is a risk factor for maturation of the fistula. In the study of Lok et al., male gender and white
    race were found to decrease the risk for maturation.
    By using age, CAD and PVD, and other variables, Lok et al. developed a predictive risk score system to assess
    the most appropriate choice of access for an individual patient. They classified the risk categories into low risk
    (score

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  • 8. 

    You have been dialyzing a patient with a graft with a blood flow of 400–500 mL/min for 6 months without anycomplications. One day you get a call from your nurse that the venous pressure is high and she needs to reduce bloodflow to 300 mL/min, and the nurse suspects thrombosis of the graft. Which one of the following methods of vascularaccess surveillance would have prevented the thrombus of the graft?

    • A.

      Measurement of monthly access flow

    • B.

      Measurement of monthly static venous dialysis pressures

    • C.

      Monthly duplex ultrasound

    • D.

      Monthly physical examination by qualified personnel

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Monthly physical examination by qualified personnel
    Explanation
    The answer is D
    Of all of the above choices, monthly physical examination and clinical assessment are the keys to access
    maintenance. Although the most common screening tests are access flow and dialysis venous pressure
    measurements, a review of vascular access surveillance suggests the physical examination and clinical assessment
    are the first line assessment than hemodynamic studies. Thus, D is correct. Follow-up of other measures have not
    consistently shown any improvements in outcomes of graft function. Also, there is only limited evidence that
    surveillance reduces thrombosis in native fistulas.

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  • 9. 

    Your patient has a central venous catheter for HD, and the infection rate is much higher than an A-V graft. Infection ofthe catheter results from which one of the following sources of contamination is CORRECT?

    • A.

      Catheter connectors

    • B.

      Catheter lumen during dialysis

    • C.

      Infused solutions

    • D.

      Migration of patient’s skin flora into the cannulation site

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The answer is E
    Venous catheters can be infected from several sources, including the above despite following the best practice
    guidelines proposed by the Centers Disease Control and KDOQI. Also, catheters can colonize infective organisms
    from recently treated bacteremia.

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  • 10. 

    As medical director of a dialysis facility, you noticed that one of your colleague’s patients has consistently low eKt/V of1.1 despite a 4-h session 3 times a week on a high-flux dialyzer and a functioning A-V fistula. Which one of thefollowing factors can affect delivered Kt/V?

    • A.

      A-V access recirculation

    • B.

      Delivered blood and dialysate flow rates

    • C.

      Treatment time

    • D.

      Dialyzer KoA (mass transfer area coefficient)

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The answer is E
    All of the above factors can affect Kt/V (E).Whenever goal Kt/V is not met, the function of A-V access should be
    evaluated initially by physical examination and then by radiologic procedure. Also, recirculation can lower Kt/V. Blood and dialysate flow rates should be checked. If blood flow is 350 mL/min and dialysate flow is 500 mL/
    min, increasing dialysate flow to 800 mL/min can increase Kt/V by 10–15 %. Also, blood flow to 400–450 may
    increase Kt/V.
    Increasing treatment time without any cutting in time can increase Kt/V. This approach has been proven to be
    very effective in improving HD-associated outcomes.
    KoA represents the efficiency of the dialyzer, which is the equivalent of glomerular filtration coefficient
    (surface area  porosity) of the native glomerular capillary. The higher the value of KoA, the more is the solute
    clearance. Thus, using a filter with high KoA will occasionally improve Kt/V. However, it should be remembered
    that little benefit occurs when extremely large area dialyzer is used.

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