Biomolecules, Enzymes, Digestive System

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Biomolecules, Enzymes, Digestive System - Quiz

BIOMOLECULES, ENZYMES, DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not typically true about nucleic acids?

    • A.

      Contain any sugar

    • B.

      Provide the body with energy

    • C.

      Carries your genetic makeup

    • D.

      Contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Oxygen

    Correct Answer
    B. Provide the body with energy
    Explanation
    Nucleic acids are not typically responsible for providing the body with energy. Instead, they play a crucial role in carrying genetic information and are involved in various cellular processes. Nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Oxygen, and they form the genetic makeup of an organism.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is paired incorrectly?

    • A.

      Carbohydrates-short term energy

    • B.

      Lipids-contain less Carbons and Hydrogens than carbohydrates

    • C.

      Protein-enzymes

    • D.

      Nucleic Acids-DNA, RNA

    Correct Answer
    B. Lipids-contain less Carbons and Hydrogens than carbohydrates
    Explanation
    The given answer is incorrect because lipids actually contain more carbon and hydrogen atoms compared to carbohydrates. Lipids are composed of long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms, while carbohydrates have a smaller ratio of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Lipids are also known for their high energy content and their role in long-term energy storage in the body.

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  • 3. 

    Proteins are formed from amino acids and later used for your hair and nails.  Which statement concerning proteins is not correct?

    • A.

      The shape of a proteins determine its function.

    • B.

      Proteins have the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen.

    • C.

      Proteins are used to build enzymes.

    • D.

      Proteins are polymers made by joining simple sugars.

    Correct Answer
    D. Proteins are polymers made by joining simple sugars.
    Explanation
    Proteins are not polymers made by joining simple sugars. Proteins are polymers made by joining amino acids through peptide bonds. Simple sugars, on the other hand, are used to build carbohydrates.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following best describe an enzyme?

    • A.

      They are made from monosaccharides.

    • B.

      They are used to speed up a chemical reaction.

    • C.

      They are non specific and able to work on any substrate.

    • D.

      They typically work best with a ph of 1

    Correct Answer
    B. They are used to speed up a chemical reaction.
    Explanation
    Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts in biological reactions, meaning they speed up the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed in the process. They achieve this by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. Enzymes are not made from monosaccharides, as they are made up of amino acids. They are also not non-specific, as they have specific substrates that they bind to and act upon. Additionally, enzymes typically have an optimal pH range in which they function best, but it is not usually pH 1.

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  • 5. 

    Which of following could inhibit an enzyme for functioning properly?i. saltii. temperatureiii.  pH 

    • A.

      I only

    • B.

      Ii only

    • C.

      Iii only

    • D.

      ALL of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. ALL of the above
    Explanation
    All of the given factors, salt, temperature, and pH, have the potential to inhibit an enzyme from functioning properly. Salt concentration can disrupt the enzyme's structure and interfere with its active site. Extreme temperatures can denature the enzyme, altering its shape and rendering it non-functional. pH levels outside the optimal range can also affect the enzyme's structure and disrupt its ability to catalyze reactions. Therefore, all of these factors can inhibit the proper functioning of an enzyme.

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  • 6. 

    Several lab test revealed the following data about a molecule, -speeds up a chemical reaction-found in your digestive system-made from proteinsThis molecule is most likely-

    • A.

      Enzyme

    • B.

      Carbohydrate

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Hemoglobin

    Correct Answer
    A. Enzyme
    Explanation
    The given data suggests that the molecule speeds up a chemical reaction, is found in the digestive system, and is made from proteins. Enzymes are known to catalyze chemical reactions, are commonly found in the digestive system, and are made from proteins. Therefore, based on this information, the molecule is most likely an enzyme.

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  • 7. 

    The diagram below provides information about a particular molecule.  Which monomer does the diagram belongs to? 

    • A.

      Monosaccharide

    • B.

      Nucleic acid

    • C.

      Glycerol and fatty acids

    • D.

      Amino acids

    Correct Answer
    D. Amino acids
    Explanation
    The diagram provided in the question is most likely representing amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and have a specific structure consisting of an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a side chain. The diagram might show these components or other characteristics unique to amino acids. Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates, nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides, and glycerol and fatty acids are the components of lipids.

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  • 8. 

    The diagram below represent which process? 

    • A.

      Hydrolysis

    • B.

      Condensation Reaction

    • C.

      Photosynthesis

    • D.

      None of the aboe

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrolysis
    Explanation
    The diagram represents hydrolysis because it shows a larger molecule being broken down into smaller molecules through the addition of water. Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a compound is split into two or more smaller compounds by reacting with water. In the diagram, the water molecule is shown breaking the larger molecule into two smaller molecules.

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  • 9. 

    Unlike lipids, nucleic acids specifically has which element?

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Hydrogen

    • C.

      Phosphorus

    • D.

      Iron

    Correct Answer
    C. Phosphorus
    Explanation
    Unlike lipids, nucleic acids specifically contain phosphorus. The structure of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA, incorporates phosphate groups, which play crucial roles in the molecular functions of these genetic materials. This elemental distinction contributes to the unique properties and functions of nucleic acids in cellular processes.

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  • 10. 

    Use the following structures for questions 17-20. 

    • A.

      17. Which of the structures above is the monomer of carbohydrates?

    • B.

      18. Which of the structures above is used to build polypeptide chains?

    • C.

      19. Which of the structures above carries your genetic information?

    • D.

      20. Which structure provides long-term energy storage and insulation for organisms

    Correct Answer
    A. 17. Which of the structures above is the monomer of carbohydrates?
  • 11. 

    Which of the following relies on carbohydrates for structure and support? 

    • A.

      Cell wall in plants

    • B.

      Cell membrane in all animals

    • C.

      Mitochondria in animals

    • D.

      Skin of humans

    Correct Answer
    A. Cell wall in plants
    Explanation
    The cell wall in plants relies on carbohydrates for structure and support. Carbohydrates, specifically cellulose, are the main component of the cell wall. Cellulose forms a rigid structure that provides strength and support to the plant cell. It acts as a barrier, protecting the cell from external stress and maintaining its shape. Additionally, the cell wall allows for the movement of water and nutrients between cells. In contrast, the cell membrane in all animals is primarily composed of lipids, while mitochondria in animals and the skin of humans do not rely on carbohydrates for structure and support.

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  • 12. 

    In some communities in Western Africa, protein sources are very hard to come by. What do you expect is the impact of this on the organisms in the area? 

    • A.

      The organisms are unable to store energy for the future in the case of a drought.

    • B.

      The organisms have low energy levels and are unable to travel far distances to find other food sources.

    • C.

      The organisms experience a lot of genetic mutations .

    • D.

      The organisms have underdeveloped muscles and weak hair, nails, and feathers.

    Correct Answer
    D. The organisms have underdeveloped muscles and weak hair, nails, and feathers.
    Explanation
    In communities where protein sources are scarce, organisms may not receive enough nutrients to support their muscle development and the growth of strong hair, nails, and feathers. Protein is essential for the formation and maintenance of these structures, so a lack of protein can lead to underdeveloped muscles and weak hair, nails, and feathers. This can have a significant impact on the overall health and survival of the organisms in the area.

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  • 13. 

      Lactose is found in milk products.  It is converted by the body into a usable form in a series of chemical reactions.  The diagram shows the series of reactions that convert lactose into a usable form.If Enzyme 1 is denatured, which substance would increase.

    • A.

      Lactose

    • B.

      Galactose

    • C.

      Galactose-1-phosphate

    • D.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    A. Lactose
    Explanation
    If Enzyme 1 is denatured, it means that it is no longer able to catalyze the conversion of lactose into a usable form. As a result, lactose would accumulate in the body instead of being converted. Therefore, the substance that would increase in this scenario would be lactose.

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  • 14. 

    Pepsin and trypsin are two of the digestive enzymes that break down proteins.  A group of students studied the pH requirements of these enzymes.  The graph below shows the results.The students found that pepsin functions best in an acid environment and trypsin works best in a more neutral environment.  Based on their observations, pepsin most likely aids in the digestion in what part of the human body? 

    • A.

      Mouth

    • B.

      Intestines

    • C.

      Stomach

    • D.

      Liver

    Correct Answer
    C. Stomach
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided, the students found that pepsin functions best in an acid environment. Therefore, it can be inferred that pepsin aids in the digestion in the stomach, as the stomach is known to have an acidic environment.

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  • 15. 

    What enzymes helps your body digest starch and also is paired correctly with is location?

    • A.

      Pepsin, stomach

    • B.

      Sucrase, small intestine

    • C.

      Amylase, saliva

    • D.

      Trypsin; large intestine

    Correct Answer
    C. Amylase, saliva
    Explanation
    Amylase is an enzyme that helps in the digestion of starch. It is produced in the salivary glands and is released in the mouth while chewing food. Once in the mouth, amylase starts breaking down the starch into smaller molecules called maltose. Therefore, the pairing of amylase with saliva is correct as it is the location where this enzyme is produced and released to aid in the digestion of starch.

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  • 16. 

    These contractions assist your digestive system in moving your food down your digestive tract

    • A.

      Amylase

    • B.

      Perstalysis

    • C.

      Pepsin

    • D.

      Carbohydrates

    Correct Answer
    B. Perstalysis
    Explanation
    Peristalsis is the correct answer because it refers to the rhythmic contractions of the muscles in the digestive system that help move food along the digestive tract. These contractions push the food forward, allowing for proper digestion and absorption of nutrients. Amylase is an enzyme that helps break down carbohydrates, while pepsin is an enzyme that aids in protein digestion. Carbohydrates are a type of nutrient that is broken down by enzymes like amylase.

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  • 17. 

    The function of villus in your small intestine aids in decreasing the amount of nutrients absorbed during digestion.

    • A.

      TRUE (A)

    • B.

      FALSE (B)

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE (B)
    Explanation
    The function of villi in the small intestine is actually to increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients during digestion, not to decrease the amount of nutrients absorbed. The villi are finger-like projections that line the walls of the small intestine and contain blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. These structures increase the surface area available for absorption, allowing for more efficient uptake of nutrients into the bloodstream. Therefore, the correct answer is FALSE.

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