Biology Questions On Biomolecules Quiz

Reviewed by Stephen Reinbold
Stephen Reinbold, PhD (Biological Sciences) |
Biology
Review Board Member
Stephen Reinbold has a PhD in Biological Sciences with a particular interest in teaching. He taught General Biology, Environmental Science, Zoology, Genetics, and Anatomy & Physiology for almost thirty years at Metropolitan Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. He particularly enjoyed emphasizing scientific methodology and student research projects. Now, enjoying retirement, he works part-time as an editor while also engaging in online activities.
, PhD (Biological Sciences)
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Biology Questions On Biomolecules Quiz - Quiz

Take a look at this awesome and fun quiz that is based on biology questions on Biomolecules. Have you studied biomolecules? Do you think you have a good understanding of it? If yes, then you can easily crack this quiz. Here, we'll ask you a few simple questions about biomolecules and if you want to score maximum marks, you've to give the correct answers to all the questions. If you hit more than 70% it means that you are really good at this subject.
Best of luck!


Biomolecules Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    Which is an amino acid?

    Correct Answer
    B.
    Explanation
    B is correct. A is glucose, a monosaccharide. C is glycerol, one of the compounds that make triglyceride (which is a polymer of lipid when glycerol is bound with fatty acids). D is a nucleotide (phosphate group, sugar denoted by the pink pentagon, nitrogeneous base indicated by the blue shapes).

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  • 2. 

    Select the 6 essential elements.

    • A.

      F

    • B.

      S

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      K

    • E.

      O

    • F.

      P

    • G.

      N

    • H.

      Na

    • I.

      Fe

    • J.

      H

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. S
    C. C
    E. O
    F. P
    G. N
    J. H
    Explanation
    The elements C, H, O, N, P, and S are often referred to as the "CHONPS" elements, and they are crucial for life as they form the building blocks of biological molecules. Here's a brief explanation of each element's importance:

     

    Carbon (C): It is the backbone of organic compounds, forming the structural framework of all living organisms. Carbon's ability to form stable bonds allows the creation of complex molecules.

     

    Hydrogen (H): Commonly found in water and organic compounds, hydrogen is essential for maintaining the structure of molecules and participating in various chemical reactions.

     

    Oxygen (O): Critical for cellular respiration, where cells use oxygen to generate energy from nutrients. Oxygen is also a component of many organic molecules.

     

    Nitrogen (N): A key component of proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), nitrogen is essential for the synthesis of genetic material and the structure of proteins.

     

    Phosphorus (P): Found in DNA, RNA, and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), phosphorus is vital for energy transfer within cells and the structure of genetic material.

     

    Sulfur (S): An essential component of amino acids (building blocks of proteins) and certain coenzymes, sulfur plays a crucial role in protein structure and function.

     

    Together, these six elements form the foundation of life, participating in various biochemical processes that sustain living organisms. They make up a significant portion of organic compounds, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, which are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of living cells.

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  • 3. 

    Which elements are in carbohydrates?

    • A.

      F

    • B.

      C

    • C.

      Si

    • D.

      O

    • E.

      H

    • F.

      N

    • G.

      P

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. C
    D. O
    E. H
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are organic compounds that serve as a primary source of energy for living organisms. The basic building blocks of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, which are simple sugars. The elements that make up carbohydrates are:

     

    Carbon (C): Carbon forms the backbone of the carbohydrate molecules. The carbon atoms in carbohydrates are arranged in a specific structure, often in the form of a chain or a ring.

     

    Hydrogen (H): Hydrogen atoms are attached to the carbon atoms in carbohydrates, contributing to the overall structure and stability of the molecules.

     

    Oxygen (O): Oxygen atoms are also present in carbohydrates, typically in a ratio of one oxygen atom for each carbon atom. This oxygen is involved in the formation of functional groups within the carbohydrate molecules.

     

    The general formula for a carbohydrate can be represented as (CH2O)n, where "n" is the number of carbon atoms. This formula reflects the basic composition of carbohydrates, emphasizing the ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

     

    Carbohydrates play essential roles in cellular energy storage and provide a quick and easily accessible energy source for various biological processes. They come in different forms, including simple sugars (monosaccharides), complex sugars (polysaccharides), and oligosaccharides, each serving specific functions in living organisms.

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  • 4. 

    Which elements are in nucleotides (nucleic acids)?

    • A.

      C

    • B.

      H

    • C.

      O

    • D.

      N

    • E.

      P

    • F.

      S

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. C
    B. H
    C. O
    D. N
    E. P
    Explanation
    Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids, which include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). The structure of nucleotides is composed of several elements:

     

    Carbon (C): Carbon forms the backbone of the nucleotide molecules, creating a stable and flexible structure. Carbon atoms are arranged in a specific way to provide the foundation for nucleic acid chains.

     

    Hydrogen (H): Hydrogen atoms are present in nucleotides, contributing to the overall stability of the molecule. Hydrogen bonds also play a crucial role in the interactions between nucleotide bases.

     

    Oxygen (O): Oxygen atoms are part of the nucleotide structure, typically in the form of phosphate groups and sugar molecules. These oxygen atoms contribute to the polarity and overall charge of the nucleotide.

     

    Nitrogen (N): Nitrogen atoms are a critical component of the nucleotide bases. The four nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). In RNA, uracil (U) replaces thymine.

     

    Phosphorus (P): Phosphorus is a key element in the phosphate groups of nucleotides. These phosphate groups link nucleotides together, forming the backbone of the DNA or RNA molecule.

     

    Sulfur (S): While not universally present in all nucleotides, sulfur is found in some specific nucleotides, such as those involved in energy transfer, like adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Sulfur contributes to the structure and function of these particular nucleotides.

     

    In summary, nucleotides are complex molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The arrangement and bonding of these elements create the unique structure of nucleotides, allowing them to carry genetic information and play essential roles in cellular processes, including the storage and transmission of genetic information. The inclusion of sulfur in specific nucleotides adds functional diversity to the biological roles of nucleic acids.

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  • 5. 

    Which elements are in proteins?

    • A.

      C

    • B.

      H

    • C.

      O

    • D.

      N

    • E.

      P

    • F.

      S

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. C
    B. H
    C. O
    D. N
    Explanation
    Proteins are composed of various elements, primarily carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N). Proteins are polymers of amino acids, and the basic structure of an amino acid consists of a central carbon atom (called the alpha carbon) bonded to a hydrogen atom, an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), and a variable side chain (R group).

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  • 6. 

    Which elements are in lipids?

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Hydrogen

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      N

    • E.

      P

    • F.

      S

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Carbon
    B. Hydrogen
    C. Oxygen
    Explanation
    Lipids are organic molecules that are insoluble in water and soluble in nonpolar solvents. They are composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. These elements are essential components of the fatty acids and glycerol molecules that make up lipids. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) are not typically found in lipids, making them incorrect choices for this question.

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  • 7. 

    The following are inorganic molecules:

    • A.

      CH2CH

    • B.

      CO2

    • C.

      HCH

    • D.

      NH2CHCH3COOH

    Correct Answer
    B. CO2
    Explanation
    Definition of organic molecule: has C-H bonds Definition of inorganic molecule: does NOT have C-H bonds

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  • 8. 

    Polymers of the following types of compounds are made by dehydration synthesis:

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Nucleic Acids

    • D.

      Carbohydrates

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Proteins
    C. Nucleic Acids
    D. Carbohydrates
    Explanation
    Dehydration synthesis (also known as condensation reaction) is a process by which monomers are joined together to form polymers, with the release of a water molecule. This process is used to form:
    Proteins: Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds through dehydration synthesis to form polypeptides and proteins.
    Nucleic Acids: Nucleotides are joined together by phosphodiester bonds through dehydration synthesis to form DNA and RNA.
    Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides are joined together by glycosidic bonds through dehydration synthesis to form disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.
    Lipids are formed through a different process involving the esterification of fatty acids with glycerol, which also involves the removal of water but is not typically referred to as dehydration synthesis in the same context as the formation of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.

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  • 9. 

    What is the relation of hydrolysis to dehydration synthesis?

    • A.

      Adds water to break the bonds formed from dehydration synthesis.

    • B.

      Unrelated

    • C.

      Takes out additional water.

    Correct Answer
    A. Adds water to break the bonds formed from dehydration synthesis.
    Explanation
    Hydrolysis is the process of breaking down molecules by adding water. Dehydration synthesis, on the other hand, is the process of building larger molecules by removing water. The correct answer states that hydrolysis adds water to break the bonds formed from dehydration synthesis. This means that hydrolysis is the reverse of dehydration synthesis, as it breaks down the bonds that were formed during dehydration synthesis by adding water. Therefore, the correct answer accurately describes the relation between hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following are monosaccharides?

    • A.

      Glycerol

    • B.

      Aminase

    • C.

      Maltose

    • D.

      Glucose

    • E.

      Fructose

    • F.

      Sucrose

    • G.

      Lactose

    • H.

      Galactose

    Correct Answer(s)
    D. Glucose
    E. Fructose
    H. Galactose
    Explanation
    The monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down further into smaller sugar molecules. Maltose, sucrose, and lactose are disaccharides, which are composed of two monosaccharide units. Glycerol is a type of alcohol and a component of triglycerides, while aminase is not a sugar molecule. Therefore, glucose, fructose, and galactose are the only monosaccharides listed.

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  • 11. 

    What is maltose?

    • A.

      Monosaccharide

    • B.

      Disaccharide

    Correct Answer
    B. Disaccharide
    Explanation
    Maltose is a disaccharide, which means it is composed of two monosaccharide units. Specifically, maltose is made up of two glucose molecules linked together. This makes it a type of sugar that is commonly found in grains, such as barley and malted barley. It is often used in brewing and baking processes, as well as in the production of certain food products.

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  • 12. 

    What type of a biomolecule is an enzyme?

    • A.

      Lipid

    • B.

      Nucleic Acid

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Carbohydrate

    Correct Answer
    C. Protein
    Explanation
    Enzymes are a type of protein biomolecule. Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids and enzymes are a specific type of protein that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. They speed up the rate of these reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. Enzymes are essential for many biological processes and play a crucial role in metabolism, digestion, and other cellular functions.

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  • 13. 

    What are the factors affecting enzyme activity?

    • A.

      PH, temperature, substrate concentration in a narrow range

    • B.

      PH, temperature, substrate concentration in a broad range

    • C.

      PH, temperature only in a narrow range

    • D.

      PH, temperature only in a broad range

    Correct Answer
    A. PH, temperature, substrate concentration in a narrow range
    Explanation
    Remember that enzymes work because they have specific shapes. Altering the shape alters how well they work. Changing pH and changing temperature can deform the enzyme and make it more difficult for the enzyme to work.

    Enzyme function can also be affected by substrate concentration, however (where substrate concentration refers to how much substrate there is in a given volume). Take for instance if there are 4 enzymes and 4 substrates. Maximum efficiency is achieved because each enzyme has a substrate to act on. If you reduce the amount of substrate to 2 substrates, there's only half efficiency.

    These factors act in a narrow range. What does this mean? Enzyme activity only has a narrow range of activity. Past a certain point, changing the factor won't have an effect. For instance, too high of a temperature deforms the enzyme. Past a certain temperature, the enzyme can't be deformed any more than it already is. With substrate concentration, take again the example of having 4 enzymes. Increasing the number of substrates to 5 or more wouldn't have much of an effect because there are only 4 enzymes.

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  • 14. 

    What is glycogen?

    • A.

      Monosaccharide

    • B.

      Disaccharide

    • C.

      Polysaccharide

    • D.

      Polypeptide

    • E.

      Lipid

    • F.

      Nucleic acid

    Correct Answer
    C. Polysaccharide
    Explanation
    Glycogen is the polysaccharide found in mammals.

    Cellulose and starch are the polysaccharides found in plants.

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  • 15. 

    What type of bonds occur in organic compounds?

    • A.

      Ionic bonds

    • B.

      Covalent bonds

    • C.

      Metallic bonds

    Correct Answer
    B. Covalent bonds
    Explanation
    Covalent bonds occur in organic compounds. These bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms, resulting in the formation of stable molecules. In organic compounds, carbon is the central element, and it forms covalent bonds with other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. This sharing of electrons allows organic compounds to have a wide range of structures and properties, making them essential for life processes and the basis of organic chemistry.

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  • 16. 

    Which specific type of RNA is responsible for carrying amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis?

    • A.

      MRNA

    • B.

      RRNA

    • C.

      TRNA

    • D.

      SnRNA

    Correct Answer
    C. TRNA
    Explanation
    Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are responsible for carrying amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Each tRNA molecule has an anticodon region that pairs with the complementary codon on the mRNA, ensuring that the correct amino acid is added to the growing protein chain. This process is essential for accurate and specific protein synthesis in cells.

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  • 17. 

    Select the four nitrogen bases.

    • A.

      Uranine

    • B.

      Adenine

    • C.

      Guanine

    • D.

      Cryonine

    • E.

      Thymine

    • F.

      Hexanine

    • G.

      Pentanine

    • H.

      Cytosine

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Adenine
    C. Guanine
    E. Thymine
    H. Cytosine
    Explanation
    The four nitrogen bases in DNA are Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine. These bases are the building blocks of DNA and are responsible for carrying the genetic information. Uranine, Cryonine, Hexanine, and Pentanine are not nitrogen bases found in DNA.

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  • 18. 

    The bonds between amino acids are called ________ bonds.

    Correct Answer(s)
    peptide
    Explanation
    The bonds between amino acids are called peptide bonds. Peptide bonds are formed through a condensation reaction between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid. These bonds are crucial for the formation of proteins, as they link the individual amino acids together to create a polypeptide chain.

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  • 19. 

    Lipids make good cell membranes because they are _________ in water.

    Correct Answer(s)
    insoluble
    Explanation
    Lipids make good cell membranes because they are insoluble in water. This is because lipids are hydrophobic, meaning they repel water. The structure of lipids, with their long hydrocarbon chains, prevents them from interacting with water molecules. This property allows lipids to form a stable barrier that separates the inside and outside of the cell, protecting its contents.

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Stephen Reinbold |PhD (Biological Sciences) |
Biology
Stephen Reinbold has a PhD in Biological Sciences with a particular interest in teaching. He taught General Biology, Environmental Science, Zoology, Genetics, and Anatomy & Physiology for almost thirty years at Metropolitan Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. He particularly enjoyed emphasizing scientific methodology and student research projects. Now, enjoying retirement, he works part-time as an editor while also engaging in online activities.

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