Biomolecules And Cellular Processes

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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 4,308
Questions: 10 | Attempts: 2,541

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Biomolecules And Cellular Processes - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which biomolecule below contains hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorous?

    • A.

      Nucleic acid

    • B.

      Protein

    • C.

      Carbohydrate

    • D.

      Lipid

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleic acid
    Explanation
    Nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorous. These biomolecules are composed of nucleotides, which consist of a sugar molecule (containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen), a phosphate group (containing phosphorous and oxygen), and a nitrogenous base (containing nitrogen). Therefore, nucleic acids fulfill all the given criteria.

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  • 2. 

    Which biomolecule is fundamental to the structure and function of biological membranes, such as cell membranes?

    • A.

      Nucleic acid

    • B.

      Lipid

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Carbohydrate

    Correct Answer
    B. Lipid
    Explanation
    Lipids are fundamental to the structure and function of biological membranes, such as cell membranes. They form the main component of the lipid bilayer, which acts as a barrier and controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Lipids also play a crucial role in cell signaling, cell adhesion, and the transportation of molecules across the membrane. Therefore, lipids are essential for maintaining the integrity and functionality of biological membranes.

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  • 3. 

    Which biomolecule is composed of five basic elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus arranged into two types of polymers, one a double-stranded molecule shaped as a double helix, the other polymer is a single-stranded molecule?

    • A.

      Carbohydrate

    • B.

      Nucleic acid

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Lipid

    Correct Answer
    B. Nucleic acid
    Explanation
    Nucleic acids are composed of five basic elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. They are arranged into two types of polymers, one being a double-stranded molecule shaped as a double helix (DNA), and the other being a single-stranded molecule (RNA). Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids do not have the same composition or structure as nucleic acids.

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  • 4. 

    Which biomolecule is composed of five basic elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur, with its monomers bonded together by peptide bonds to form a polypeptide chain?

    • A.

      Carbohydrate

    • B.

      Nucleic acid

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Lipid

    Correct Answer
    C. Protein
    Explanation
    Proteins are composed of five basic elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Their monomers, called amino acids, are bonded together by peptide bonds to form a polypeptide chain. This chain then folds into a specific three-dimensional structure, allowing proteins to perform various functions in the body. Carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids do not have the same composition or bonding as proteins, making protein the correct answer.

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  • 5. 

    Homeostasis is best described as the –

    • A.

      Movement of particles from one side of a cellular membrane to another.

    • B.

      Tendency of particles to distribute themselves evenly across a membrane.

    • C.

      Transfer of molecules in response to excess solute relative to a solution.

    • D.

      Ability to maintain and regulate stable internal conditions of the cell.

    Correct Answer
    D. Ability to maintain and regulate stable internal conditions of the cell.
    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the ability of an organism or cell to maintain and regulate stable internal conditions. It involves various processes that help to keep the internal environment of the cell within a narrow range, despite external changes. This includes regulating temperature, pH levels, nutrient concentrations, and waste removal. The other options mentioned in the question, such as movement of particles across a cellular membrane, tendency of particles to distribute evenly, and transfer of molecules in response to excess solute, do not encompass the broad concept of homeostasis.

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  • 6. 

    What are the products of the process of photosynthesis?

    • A.

      Glucose and ATP

    • B.

      Oxygen and Glucose

    • C.

      Water and Oxygen

    • D.

      ADP and NADP-

    Correct Answer
    B. Oxygen and Glucose
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is a process in which plants convert sunlight into energy. During this process, carbon dioxide and water are combined to produce glucose and oxygen. Glucose is a type of sugar that serves as a source of energy for the plant, while oxygen is released into the atmosphere as a byproduct. Therefore, the correct answer is "Oxygen and Glucose."

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following biological processes would result in the formation of ATP?

    • A.

      Cellular Respiration

    • B.

      Homeostasis

    • C.

      Digestion

    • D.

      Reproduction

    Correct Answer
    A. Cellular Respiration
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the correct answer because it is the process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into ATP, the energy currency of the cell. This process occurs in the mitochondria and involves a series of chemical reactions that release energy. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment, digestion is the breakdown of food into smaller molecules, and reproduction is the production of offspring. While all of these processes are important for living organisms, they do not directly result in the formation of ATP.

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  • 8. 

    The difference between active and passive transport is that -

    • A.

      Passive transport requires energy to move molecules up a concentration gradient, active does not.

    • B.

      Passive transport can only move specific particles across a membrane, active can move any particle.

    • C.

      Active transport requires energy to move molecules up a concentration gradient, passive does not require energy (moves down gradient)

    • D.

      Active transport moves molecules in animal cells, passive transport moves molecules in plants.

    Correct Answer
    C. Active transport requires energy to move molecules up a concentration gradient, passive does not require energy (moves down gradient)
    Explanation
    Passive transport refers to the movement of molecules across a cell membrane without the use of energy. It occurs down the concentration gradient, meaning that molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. On the other hand, active transport requires energy to move molecules against the concentration gradient, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Therefore, the given answer correctly explains the difference between active and passive transport in terms of energy requirement and movement direction.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following scenarios represents an example of osmosis?

    • A.

      Blood vessels transport glucose to cells

    • B.

      CO2 waste is eliminated during respiration

    • C.

      Limp celery becomes crisp in water

    • D.

      Sweating lowers body temperature

    Correct Answer
    C. Limp celery becomes crisp in water
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. In the given scenario, the limp celery becomes crisp when placed in water because water molecules move from the area of higher concentration (outside the celery) to the area of lower concentration (inside the celery) through osmosis. This movement of water helps to restore the turgidity of the celery cells, making it crisp.

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  • 10. 

    Each of the following is a product of cellular respiration EXCEPT -

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      Acetyl CoA

    • C.

      CO2

    • D.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    B. Acetyl CoA
    Explanation
    Acetyl CoA is not a product of cellular respiration. It is actually an intermediate molecule that is produced during the breakdown of glucose in the process of glycolysis and further processed in the citric acid cycle. Acetyl CoA is then used in the mitochondria to produce ATP through the electron transport chain. The actual products of cellular respiration include ATP, CO2, and water.

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