Introductory Information About Biomolecules

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Introductory Information About Biomolecules - Quiz

Introductory information about different nutrient groups and some basics of organic chem


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The element found in all living things...______-based life forms.

    • A.

      Calcium

    • B.

      Chloride

    • C.

      Carbon

    • D.

      Crystals

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon
    Explanation
    Carbon is the correct answer because it is the element found in all living things. Carbon is the basis of organic chemistry and is a fundamental component of molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, which are essential for life. It forms the backbone of these molecules and allows for the diversity and complexity of biological systems. Carbon-based life forms refer to organisms that are composed primarily of carbon compounds.

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  • 2. 

    The nutrient group that organisms rely on for their energy production

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Carbohydrates

    • D.

      Nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbohydrates
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are the nutrient group that organisms rely on for their energy production. They are broken down into glucose, which is used as a primary source of energy by cells. Carbohydrates provide quick and easily accessible energy for various bodily functions. They are found in foods such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids also play important roles in the body, but they are not the primary source of energy production.

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  • 3. 

    The nutrient group that is used in the composition of enzymes, hormones, and does many different jobs around the cell.

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Carbohydrates

    • D.

      Nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    A. Proteins
    Explanation
    Proteins are a vital nutrient group that plays a crucial role in the composition of enzymes and hormones. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts, speeding up chemical reactions in the body. Hormones, on the other hand, are signaling molecules that regulate various physiological processes. Proteins also perform numerous other functions within cells, such as providing structural support, transporting molecules, and facilitating communication between cells. Therefore, proteins are involved in various jobs around the cell, making them the correct answer.

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  • 4. 

    The bio-molecular group that carries and passes on the hereditary information of the organism

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Carbohydrates

    • D.

      Nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleic acids
    Explanation
    Nucleic acids are the bio-molecular group that carries and passes on the hereditary information of an organism. They are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information from one generation to the next. This is achieved through the structure and sequence of nucleotides, which make up DNA and RNA molecules. Proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates do not have the ability to carry and pass on hereditary information like nucleic acids do.

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  • 5. 

    The nutrient group used in the composition of waxes (plants) and responsible for insulation of some organisms.  Many organisms store this nutrient for later use in the production of energy.

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Lipid

    • C.

      Carbohydrate

    • D.

      Nucleic acid

    Correct Answer
    B. Lipid
    Explanation
    Lipids are the nutrient group used in the composition of waxes in plants and are responsible for insulation in some organisms. Many organisms store lipids for later use in the production of energy. Lipids are a diverse group of molecules that include fats, oils, and waxes, and they play important roles in energy storage, insulation, and protection in organisms.

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  • 6. 

    These bio-molecules are significant features of the cell (plasma) membrane

    • A.

      Protein and lipid

    • B.

      Lipid and nucleic acid

    • C.

      Carbohydrate and nucleic acid

    • D.

      Nucleic acid and protein

    Correct Answer
    A. Protein and lipid
    Explanation
    Proteins and lipids are significant features of the cell membrane. Proteins play a crucial role in transporting molecules across the membrane, acting as channels and pumps. They also serve as receptors for cell signaling and provide structural support. Lipids, specifically phospholipids, make up the majority of the cell membrane and form a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the external environment. They help maintain the integrity and fluidity of the membrane. Together, proteins and lipids contribute to the functionality and structure of the cell membrane.

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  • 7. 

    The structural unit ("building block") of a protein is the

    • A.

      Monosaccharide

    • B.

      Fatty acid

    • C.

      Nucleotide

    • D.

      Amino acid

    Correct Answer
    D. Amino acid
    Explanation
    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are large, complex molecules that perform various functions in the body. Amino acids are small molecules that contain an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a side chain. They link together through peptide bonds to form polypeptide chains, which then fold and interact to create the three-dimensional structure of a protein. Each amino acid has a unique side chain, which determines its specific properties and function within a protein. Therefore, amino acids are the correct answer as they are the fundamental units that make up proteins.

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  • 8. 

    The structural components of lipids include

    • A.

      Complex carbohydrates

    • B.

      Amino acids

    • C.

      Fatty acids and glycerol

    • D.

      Nucleotides

    Correct Answer
    C. Fatty acids and glycerol
    Explanation
    Lipids are a type of biomolecule that includes fats, oils, and waxes. They are composed of two main components: fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids are long chains of hydrocarbon molecules with a carboxyl group at one end. Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol molecule. These components combine to form various types of lipids, such as triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids. Complex carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides are not structural components of lipids, making the correct answer fatty acids and glycerol.

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  • 9. 

    DNA is composed of four different types of

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Carbohydrates

    • D.

      Nucleotides

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleotides
    Explanation
    DNA is composed of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA. Nucleotides consist of a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine). These nucleotides join together through phosphodiester bonds to form the DNA molecule. Proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are not the components of DNA, although they play important roles in various cellular processes.

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  • 10. 

    Glucose, the primary source of energy for a cell, is a type of

    • A.

      Polypeptide

    • B.

      Polysaccharide

    • C.

      Disaccharide

    • D.

      Monosaccharide

    Correct Answer
    D. Monosaccharide
    Explanation
    Glucose is a monosaccharide, which means it is a simple sugar consisting of a single sugar unit. As the primary source of energy for a cell, glucose is easily broken down and utilized by cells for various metabolic processes. Polypeptides, polysaccharides, and disaccharides are all different types of carbohydrates, but they consist of multiple sugar units and are not as readily available for energy production as monosaccharides like glucose.

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  • 11. 

    The atoms that make up carbohydrates are

    • A.

      C, H and O

    • B.

      C, H, O and N

    • C.

      C and H

    • D.

      C, H and N

    Correct Answer
    A. C, H and O
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) atoms. These atoms combine in specific ratios to form different types of carbohydrates, such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. The presence of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms is essential for the formation of the characteristic ring structure of carbohydrates and the energy storage and structural roles they play in living organisms. Therefore, the correct answer is C, H, and O.

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  • 12. 

    Lipids are

    • A.

      Hydrophobic

    • B.

      Insoluble in water

    • C.

      Important for energy storage

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    Lipids are molecules that are hydrophobic, meaning they do not dissolve in water. They are also important for energy storage in the body. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of these" because lipids are both hydrophobic and insoluble in water, and they play a crucial role in energy storage.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not a function in which lipids play an important role?

    • A.

      Vision

    • B.

      Membrane structure

    • C.

      Controlling water

    • D.

      Storing energy

    Correct Answer
    A. Vision
    Explanation
    Lipids do not play a direct role in vision. Vision is primarily dependent on the functioning of the eyes, specifically the retina and the photoreceptor cells within it. Lipids are important for membrane structure, controlling water balance, and storing energy, but they are not directly involved in the visual process.

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  • 14. 

    You have isolated an unidentified liquid from a sample of beans. You add the liquid to a beaker of water and shake vigorously. After a few minutes, the water and the other liquid separate into two layers. To which class of large biological molecules does the unknown liquid most likely belong?

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Nucleic acids

    • D.

      Carbohydrates

    Correct Answer
    B. Lipids
    Explanation
    The unidentified liquid most likely belongs to the class of large biological molecules called lipids. This is because lipids are known to be insoluble in water and can separate into distinct layers when mixed with water. This property is commonly observed when testing for the presence of lipids in a substance. Proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates do not typically exhibit this behavior when mixed with water.

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  • 15. 

    Amino acids are the monomers that join together to form

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins
    Explanation
    Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are formed when amino acids join together through peptide bonds, creating a chain-like structure. These chains can fold and interact with other molecules to perform various functions in the body. Therefore, the correct answer is proteins.

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  • 16. 

    Enzymes are

    • A.

      Lipids

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Carbohydrates

    • D.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. Proteins
    Explanation
    Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts in biological reactions. They speed up the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. Enzymes are made up of amino acids and have a specific three-dimensional structure that allows them to bind to specific substrates. They are involved in various processes in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and DNA replication. Enzymes are not lipids, DNA, or carbohydrates, as they do not possess the necessary properties or functions associated with these biomolecules.

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  • 17. 

    Which description BEST fits the class of molecules known as  nucleotides?

    • A.

      A pentose sugar and a purine or pyrimidine

    • B.

      A phosphate group and an adenine or uracil

    • C.

      A nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar

    • D.

      A nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar

    Correct Answer
    D. A nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
    Explanation
    The class of molecules known as nucleotides consists of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA and play essential roles in cellular processes such as energy transfer and protein synthesis. The nitrogenous base can be either a purine (adenine or guanine) or a pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine, or uracil). The phosphate group provides a negative charge and helps in the formation of the sugar-phosphate backbone of nucleic acids. The pentose sugar, usually ribose or deoxyribose, forms the central part of the nucleotide structure.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following BEST describes the flow of genetic information in eukaryotic cells?

    • A.

      Proteins ->DNA ->RNA

    • B.

      DNA->RNA->proteins

    • C.

      DNA->DNA->RNA

    • D.

      DNA->proteins->DNA

    Correct Answer
    B. DNA->RNA->proteins
    Explanation
    In eukaryotic cells, the flow of genetic information starts with DNA, which contains the instructions for making proteins. The DNA is transcribed into RNA through a process called transcription. The RNA then undergoes translation, where it is used as a template to synthesize proteins. Therefore, the correct flow of genetic information in eukaryotic cells is DNA->RNA->proteins.

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  • 19. 

    Hemoglobin is a globular protein composed of four polypeptide chains and their associated heme groups. Each polypeptide chain is a string of amino acids. What holds the amino acids together?

    • A.

      Hydrogen bonds

    • B.

      Double covalent bonds

    • C.

      Ionic bonds

    • D.

      Peptide bonds

    Correct Answer
    D. Peptide bonds
    Explanation
    Peptide bonds hold the amino acids together in a polypeptide chain. A peptide bond is a type of covalent bond formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid. This bond is formed through a dehydration synthesis reaction, where a water molecule is removed. Peptide bonds are responsible for the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein, including the polypeptide chains in hemoglobin.

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  • 20. 

    Think about the 3 components of a nucleotide. Now, which molecules are components of RNA (which is made of nucleotides)? (hint: think about A,C,T,G, and U...which one is unique to RNA??)

    • A.

      Phosphate, ribose, thymine

    • B.

      Phosphate, ribose, uracil

    • C.

      Phosphate, deoxyribose, uracil

    • D.

      Phosphate, deoxyribose, thymine

    Correct Answer
    B. Phosphate, ribose, uracil
    Explanation
    The correct answer is phosphate, ribose, uracil. RNA is made up of nucleotides that consist of a phosphate group, a ribose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. While DNA contains thymine (T) as one of its nitrogenous bases, RNA contains uracil (U) instead. Therefore, thymine is not a component of RNA.

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  • 21. 

    Which organic molecules store the genetic information of a cell?

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Lipids

    • D.

      Nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleic acids
    Explanation
    Nucleic acids store the genetic information of a cell. This is because nucleic acids, specifically DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid), contain the instructions for building and maintaining an organism. DNA carries the genetic code that determines an organism's traits, while RNA is involved in protein synthesis. These molecules are made up of nucleotides, which consist of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The sequence of these bases in the nucleic acid molecule determines the genetic information stored within it.

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  • 22. 

    What is the major purpose of DNA?

    • A.

      To protect the cells from viruses

    • B.

      To help in amino acid biosynthesis

    • C.

      To store genetic information and serve as template to make RNA

    • D.

      To make carbohydrates during photosynthesis

    Correct Answer
    C. To store genetic information and serve as template to make RNA
    Explanation
    The major purpose of DNA is to store genetic information and serve as a template to make RNA. DNA contains the instructions for building and maintaining an organism. It carries the genetic code that determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. Additionally, DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of RNA molecules, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis and gene expression.

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