Ch 16 Practice Quiz

24 Questions | Total Attempts: 143

SettingsSettingsSettings
Please wait...
Ch 16 Practice Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The principle of common descent helps explain why
    • A. 

      Well-adapted species have many offspring.

    • B. 

      Conditions in an organism’s environment ensure its survival.

    • C. 

      Birds and reptiles share a number of inherited characteristics.

    • D. 

      Tigers are so different from cheetahs.

  • 2. 
    Darwin’s concept of natural selection was NOT influenced by
    • A. 

      The work of Charles Lyell.

    • B. 

      The work of Gregor Mendel.

    • C. 

      His collection of specimens.

    • D. 

      His trip on the H.M.S. Beagle.

  • 3. 
    Charles Darwin viewed the fossil record as
    • A. 

      Useful support for his theory.

    • B. 

      Evidence that Earth was very young.

    • C. 

      Interesting but unrelated to the evolution of modern species.

    • D. 

      Evidence that traits are acquired through use or disuse.

  • 4. 
    Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates
    • A. 

      Evolved from sea stars.

    • B. 

      Evolved before sea stars.

    • C. 

      Belong to the same species as sea stars.

    • D. 

      Share a common ancestor with sea stars.

  • 5. 
    Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes
    • A. 

      The nearly universal genetic code.

    • B. 

      The presence of vestigial structures.

    • C. 

      A tendency toward perfect, unchanging DNA in various species.

    • D. 

      The transmission of acquired characteristics by DNA.

  • 6. 
    Which characteristic of Galápagos finches helped the Grants show the results of natural selection?
    • A. 

      The color of their feathers

    • B. 

      The length and shape of their wings

    • C. 

      The size and shape of their beaks

    • D. 

      The curve of their claws

  • 7. 
    On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed
    • A. 

      Completely unrelated species on each of the islands.

    • B. 

      Species exactly like those found in South America.

    • C. 

      Species similar to mainland South American species.

    • D. 

      Species completely unrelated to those found in South America.

  • 8. 
    James Hutton’s and Charles Lyell’s work suggests that     
    • A. 

      Earth is several million years old.

    • B. 

      Earth is several thousand years old.

    • C. 

      All fossils were formed in the last 1000 years.

    • D. 

      All rocks on Earth contain fossils.

  • 9. 
    In an experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on
    • A. 

      Inheritance of natural variations.

    • B. 

      Inheritance of acquired characteristics.

    • C. 

      Natural selection.

    • D. 

      Survival of the fittest.

  • 10. 
    According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to the
    • A. 

      Possession of adaptations developed through use.

    • B. 

      Lack of competition within the species.

    • C. 

      Possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness.

    • D. 

      Choices made by plant and animal breeders.

  • 11. 
    Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its specific environment
    • A. 

      Diversity.

    • B. 

      Fitness.

    • C. 

      Adaptation.

    • D. 

      Evolution.

  • 12. 
    The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. This is evidence in support of which of the following concepts?
    • A. 

      Tendency towards perfection

    • B. 

      Analogous structures

    • C. 

      Acquired traits

    • D. 

      Common descent

  • 13. 
    Biogeography is the study of
    • A. 

      Where species and their ancestors live.

    • B. 

      How extinct species can be related to living species.

    • C. 

      How different species can interbreed.

    • D. 

      How animals that live in the same area are closely related.

  • 14. 
    In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In whales, the pelvis and femur as shown are
    • A. 

      Examples of fossils.

    • B. 

      Vestigial structures.

    • C. 

      Acquired traits.

    • D. 

      Examples of natural variation.

  • 15. 
    Similar patterns of embryological development in different but related organisms are responsible for the formation of 
    • A. 

      Homologous structures.

    • B. 

      Analogous structures.

    • C. 

      Hox genes.

    • D. 

      Intermediate fossil forms

  • 16. 
    Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to
    • A. 

      Being preserved as fossils.

    • B. 

      Providing humans with food.

    • C. 

      Surviving in the environments in which they lived.

    • D. 

      Swimming from South America to the Galápagos Islands.

  • 17. 
    Based on the adaptations Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galápagos, he wondered
    • A. 

      If species living on different islands had once been members of the same species

    • B. 

      If finches and tortoises had originated from the same ancestral species.

    • C. 

      If all birds on the different islands were finches.

    • D. 

      Why all tortoises on the different islands were identical.

  • 18. 
    Which of the following ideas is supported by Darwin’s observation of local variation among tortoises in the Galápagos Islands?
    • A. 

      Artificial selection

    • B. 

      Adaptation

    • C. 

      Acquired characteristics

    • D. 

      Tendency towards perfection

  • 19. 
     In the 1800s, Charles Lyell emphasized that
    • A. 

      The human population will outgrow the available food supply.

    • B. 

      All populations evolve through natural selection.

    • C. 

      Earth is a few thousand years old.

    • D. 

      Past geological events must be explained in terms of processes observable today.

  • 20. 
    Lamarck’s ideas about evolution include the concept that differences among the traits of organisms arise as a result of
    • A. 

      The actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures.

    • B. 

      An unchanging local environment.

    • C. 

      Continual increases in population size.

    • D. 

      The natural variations already present within the population of organisms.

  • 21. 
    The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that
    • A. 

      The majority of a species’ offspring die.

    • B. 

      Without certain checks on population size, there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population.

    • C. 

      In the 1700s, England needed more housing.

    • D. 

      In the human population, people die faster than babies are born.

  • 22. 
    When a dairy farmer chooses to breed the cows that give the most milk in the herd, the farmers are following the principle of
    • A. 

      Acquired characteristics.

    • B. 

      Natural selection.

    • C. 

      Artificial selection.

    • D. 

      Descent with modification.

  • 23. 
    Each of the following is a condition necessary for natural selection to occur EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Fitness varies among individuals.

    • B. 

      Population size is very large.

    • C. 

      There is heritable variation among members of the population.

    • D. 

      More offspring are born than can survive.

  • 24. 
    Which statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of evolution by natural selection?
    • A. 

      They transmit characteristics acquired by use and disuse to their offspring.

    • B. 

      They tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the population.

    • C. 

      They are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment.

    • D. 

      They will perpetuate unfavorable changes in the species.

Back to Top Back to top