Variation in number of chromosomes
Variation in the rate of mutation for neutral haplotypes
Genetic (allelic) variation
Life span variety across multiple ecological niches
Morphological species concept
Phylogenetic species concept
Retrograde species concept
Biological species concept
A switch in the ratio of males to females.
Increasing the adaptive benefit of traits already found in the population.
A dramatic reduction in population size (bottleneck event).
A chromosomal fusion so that chromosome count is reduced.
Panellus stipticus, a fungus
Anaitides erythrophyllus, a polychaete worm
Felis concolor, a mountain lion
Tramea onusta, a dragonfly
None of the above, the c-value paradox means you cannot predict genome size of eukaryotes
They are arranged in multiple pieces instead of being in on large string of DNA.
They are interspersed with large sections of non-coding DNA.
Their genetic code is completely different than the genetic code of living organisms.
They are typically smaller than the genomes of living organisms, although there is some overlap in genome size with the bacteria and archaea.
GC content bias
Codon usage bias
Selection for increased translational efficiency
A bottleneck effect
Neutral mutations fixed by genetic drift
A long period of asexual reproduction
A bacterial genome with a uniform GC content bias
A bacterial genome without any isochores
A bacterial genome with a small region that has a GC content bias different than the rest of the genome
A bacterial genome with more than five types of membrane proteins
Because the prokaryotes don't undergo mitosis.
Because the prokaryotes have no multicellular individuals.
Because there is little non-coding DNA in prokaryotes genomes.
Because prokaryotes are heterotrophs.
The population must have gone through a recent bottleneck event.
There has been strong natural selection that has caused fixation of nearly every gene.
There must have been little to no new mutations over the last several thousand years.
Lateral Gene transfer from distantly related mammals.
These populations are subjected to a much more extreme environment and so there has been strong selection for nuclear gene diversity, which increases their ability to adapt.
The mitochondrial genome is only inherited from the maternal lineage and since seeds don’t travel very far in this species these populations only represent the diversity of a small number of individuals that were at the glacial margin when the last ice age ended.
Horizontal gene transfer events have eliminated the transposons that normally generate much of the mitochondrial gene diversity.
Large herbivores have selectively grazed the seedling of individuals with low toxicity. Since this trait is mainly encoded on the mitochondrial genome this has greatly reduced this diversity.
Chromosome rearrangement is frequent for all taxonomic groups
Lots of non-coding DNA in eukaryotes
Many mutations have little or no phenotypic impact even if they change the protein sequence
Degeneracy of the DNA code
Mutations that have a measurable phenotypic impact may still not have any effect on the fitness of an organisms
Ne, the effective populations size
µ, the mutation rate
Γ, the interspecies immigration rate
S, the average selection coefficient
Variation in mutation rates between different lineages
The number of chromosomes in different eukaryotic organisms
The amount of non-coding DNA in different lineages
If the genetic data is approaching saturation
Meiotic drive emulates embryogenesis
Preformation generates morphological complexity
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
Neurogenesis portends gastrulation
The difference between Homo erectus and Praeanthropus afarensis.
Paedomorphism via neoteny in the axolotl (Mexican salamander).
Aggregation of individual amoeba like cells into a reproductive “slug” in the slime molds.
The equal number of individuals from either sex in the populations of most eukaryotes.
They are present in all metazoans (animals).
They are found in a colinear arrangement in the genome.
They are transcription factors that control the patterning of different body regions.
They code for an ancillary form of ribosomes that are only active during embryogenesis.