Jordan Biosciences II Final Part 2

28 Questions | Total Attempts: 912

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Bioscience Quizzes & Trivia

Craig Jordan Biosciences II Spring 2011


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The "biological species concept" offers us a practical way to distinguish species of organisms and to assign individuals to one taxon or another. In order to catalog individuals as being members of one species or antoehr using this concept focuses on
    • A. 

      Morphological differences distinguishing the species

    • B. 

      Differences in the geographic distribution of the species

    • C. 

      The ability of individuals to successfully breed with each other

  • 2. 
    The animals and plants found in modern India differ greatly from species in nearby southeast Asia. Your authros offer one example of that in chapter 24 involving frogs. A likely explanation is that
    • A. 

      The species in the two areas have become separated by convergent evolution

    • B. 

      The climates of the two regions are similar

    • C. 

      India is in the process of separating from the rest of Asia

    • D. 

      Life in India was wiped out by ancient large-scale volcanic eruptions

    • E. 

      India was a separate continent until about 55 million years ago.

  • 3. 
    The theory that a meteor impact played a role in the mass extinction of dinosaurs is supported by all of the following EXCEPT which one?
    • A. 

      Discovery of a crater dating to 65 million years ago

    • B. 

      Shock crystal distributions

    • C. 

      A layer of the rare earth element iridium in deposits dating to the time of that mass extinction

    • D. 

      Caves near Lascaux in France have sketches, engravings and paintings depicting events around the time of the event

    • E. 

      Results of computer modeling of volcanic and nuclear incidents

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Fossils that date to 2.5 billion years old include prokaryotes, and eukaryotes including multicellular organisms

    • B. 

      Limestone deposits called stromatolites, accumulated by cyanobacteria, are known as fossils and are still being formed today

    • C. 

      Cells with a nucleus predate cells with mitochondria

    • D. 

      The first photosynthetic organisms on earth must have been prokaryotes

    • E. 

      The Burgess Shale is known for its fossil demonstration of the Cambrian Explosion

  • 5. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of cyanobacteria?
    • A. 

      They are representatives of the Bacteria domain

    • B. 

      There is genetic evidence supporting the theory that today's cyanobacteria are similar to the ancestors of chloroplasts

    • C. 

      They are photosynthetic

    • D. 

      Their metabolism results in the production of molecular oxygen from water

    • E. 

      They are chemoautotrophs

  • 6. 
    In New Guinea, Vogelkop bowerbirds erect bowers of sticks that are stacked about central tree. One of the two populations that is found at different locations on one of the islands constructs bowers that have a rounded shape. In front of the bowers, the birds pile brightly-colored objects. The other population of birds constructs bowers that appear as spires and these have no brightly-colored objects.
    • A. 

      The bowers are used by the birds as refuges from predators

    • B. 

      The bowers are used by the birds as protective areas for rearing young

    • C. 

      The populations of bower birds appear to be reproductively isolated

    • D. 

      If the birds diverge into two distinct species, we will be able to attribute it to kin selection

    • E. 

      While the bird populations differ regarding the bower construction and ornamentation, the two populations, never the less, continue to interbreed because sexual attraction relies on olfactory cues and despite the divergence in bower characteristics via what we refer to as genetic drift, the two populations remain part of a single species

  • 7. 
    In the example of species formation involving flies that feed on fruit in Wisconsin, the two populations of flies are kept reproductively isolated because
    • A. 

      They use different odors to advertise to mates

    • B. 

      They have different courtship dances

    • C. 

      They make different noises by rubbing body parts in different ways

    • D. 

      They find different fruits acceptable as stages for courtship dances

    • E. 

      The fruits that they use mature at different times of the year

  • 8. 
    The walking stick (Timena cristinae) seems to be adapting so that it can hide on either of two speices of plants. Within this species, there are two genetically-distinct morphs; a striped form that is found on the chamise plant and a non-striped form on blue lilac. Each form is more likely to blend into the foliage when on its preferred plant species and thereby avoid detection by potential predators. Mating tests have shown that each insect morph preferred to mate with one of its own color pattern. A likely long-term result is that
    • A. 

      The species will increase its risk of going extinct because there are fewer potential mates since individuals only tend to mate with similarly appearing individuals and avoid mating with a large proportion of the population

    • B. 

      The species will divide into two distinct species

    • C. 

      The inbreeding will result in a higher-than-expected number of abnormal offspring

  • 9. 
    It is most likely that mitochondria appeared in eukaryotes prior to the evolution of chloroplasts. Support for this comes from the observation that
    • A. 

      Whereas all eukaryotes have mitochondria (or remnants thereof), not all eukaryotes have chloroplasts

    • B. 

      Chloroplasts have ribosomes that are more similar to prokaryotic ribosomes than they are to ribosomes found in the cytosol of the eukaryotic cell

    • C. 

      The mitochondrial ribosomes vary extensively from one group of eukaryotes to another, but they are generally more similar to prokaryotic ribosomes than to their counterparts in the eukaryotic cytoplasm

  • 10. 
    The cellular organization of prokaryotes is fundamentally different from that of eukaryotes in that
    • A. 

      Prokaryotes lack a cell membrane

    • B. 

      Only prokaryotes have cell walls

    • C. 

      Only eukaryotes can engage in sexual reproduction

    • D. 

      Only eukaryotes have mitochondria

    • E. 

      Only eukaryotes have ribosomes

  • 11. 
    There is evidence that one or perhaps two individuals of one species of finch originally colonized the Galapagos Islands, and more specifically San Cristobal Island on the eastern end of the archipelago. Since that time, the descendants of that species have proliferated into a number of species, The ancestor of the original colonizer(s)
    • A. 

      There is less diversity in the mitochondrial DNA of finches on San Cristobal than among their finch ancestors

    • B. 

      There is more diversity in the mitochondrial DNA of finches on San Cristobal than among their finch ancestors remaining in the Americas

    • C. 

      There is the same level of diversity in the mitochondrial DNA of finches on San Cristobal as is found among their finch ancestors remaining in the Americas

  • 12. 
    The genetics of prokaryotes is fundamentally different from that of eukaryotes in that
    • A. 

      Genetic recombination only occurs in eukaryotes

    • B. 

      While all eukaryotes have DNA as their genetic material, some prokaryotes use DNA and others use RNA

    • C. 

      Only prokaryotes have plasmids

    • D. 

      Genetic recombination as a result of transformation is more likely in prokaryotes than eukaryotes

    • E. 

      Meiosis results in greater measures of genetic recombination in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes

  • 13. 
    Red deer are known from France, England, New Zealand and the Isle of Jersey, in the English Channel. Which of the following is NOT correct?
    • A. 

      They colonized the Isle ata time when there was no water in what is now the English Channel

    • B. 

      Deer on the Isle have evolveda diminished stature, compared with their ancestors and contemporaneous populations in England and on the mainland

    • C. 

      Deer on the Isle are geographically isolateed from those in England and illustrate how allopatric speciation might occur

    • D. 

      They are found in New Zealand because the island was once part of a larger land mass which included what is now Europe

  • 14. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of stromatolites?
    • A. 

      They are representatives of the Archaea

    • B. 

      They can be found in 2.5 billion years ago sedimentary rocks

    • C. 

      They are formed of cyanobacteria

    • D. 

      Their metabolism results in the production of molecular oxygen from water

    • E. 

      They are photoautotrophs

  • 15. 
    Judging from the fossil record and other evidence, first true eukaryotic cells:
    • A. 

      Existed over 1 b.y.a.

    • B. 

      Contained mitochondria

    • C. 

      Were anaerobic

    • D. 

      Would be classified today as algae

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of the transition of the surface of the earth from a largely reducing to largely oxidizing environment?
    • A. 

      Photosynthetic protists were primarily responsible for the transition

    • B. 

      Once the concentrations of oxygen increased sufficiently in the atmosphere, aquatic environments then became perfused with increasing levels of dissolved oxygen

    • C. 

      Evidence of when the environment was oxidizing can be found in iron oxide deposits in rocks

    • D. 

      The transition to an oxidizing environment would have been lethal to many prokaryotes

    • E. 

      The evidence that the world's atmosphere approximately 2.7 billion years ago was becoming an oxidizing atmosphere comes from the appearance of cyanobacteria in the fossil record 2.7 billion years ago

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is true:
    • A. 

      Since DNA codes for enzymes, and enzymes are essential for cells to function, DNA must have been the first information-bearing molecule used by early life forms

    • B. 

      That RNA can act as a catalyst may help explain how relatively complex organic molecules could form on prebiotic earht in the absence of enzymes

    • C. 

      Since RNA is the information-bearing molecule that is translated into the amino acid sequnces of enzymes, RNA must have predated the appearance of molecules having enzymatic activity on prebiotic earth

    • D. 

      Since proteinaceous enzyme are necessary to synthesize RNA and DNA, proteinaceous enzymes must have been present on prebiotic earth prior to the appearance of an information-bearing molecule

  • 18. 
    Most of the following is evidence that supports the theory that modern eukaryotes evolved from symbiotic relationships involving prokaryotes. Which is NOT support for that theory:
    • A. 

      Eukaryotes have subcellular organelles with genetic make-ups resembling that of prokaryotes

    • B. 

      Some prokaryotes have RNA as their genetic material as do mitochondria and plastids

    • C. 

      Some subcellular organelles can divide by simple fission as do prokaryotes

    • D. 

      Some subcellular organelles are about the same size as prokaryotes

  • 19. 
    Which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      Evidence that the Archaea are more closely related to the Eukarya than to the Bacteria includes the observation that of the two only Archara and Eukarya have histones associated with their genetic material

    • B. 

      The Archaea include methanogens that are capable of living in environments rich in methane and metabolizing the gas as a carbon source. This is in marked contrast to photosynthetic plants, for example, that "fix" their carbon from CO2 in the air.

    • C. 

      Archaea(bacteria) and (eu)bacteria differ because members of the Archaea customarily lack cell walls, and bacteria generally have cell walls

    • D. 

      The Archaea include extreme thermophiles that thrive in very hot enivornments using the heat in order to fix carbon and produce organic molecules

    • E. 

      Members of the ARchaea customarily do not use double-stranded DNA as the genetic material but instead use the simpler RNA

  • 20. 
    When earth was a young planet, the lack of an ozone layer:
    • A. 

      Meant that life in terrestial environment would be impossible

    • B. 

      Would suggest that the atmosphere was a richly oxidizing one

    • C. 

      Meant that no life could exist

  • 21. 
    The first photosynthetic organisms on earth must have been
    • A. 

      Prokaryotes

    • B. 

      Eukaryotes

    • C. 

      Viruses

    • D. 

      Archaea

    • E. 

      Green algae

  • 22. 
    Most populations of potentially interbreeding individuals are relatively small, unlike the infinitely-large populations of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Without consideration of any of the other assumptions upon which the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is premised, consider, for the moment, only population size. As a statistical consequence of small size, the frequency of inbreeding is relatively high in small populations and the smaller the popluation, the more the inbreeding. (Inbreeding to a population geneticist refers to the breeding of the individuals that are genetically similar; it need not have anything to do with genetic relatedness and degree of consanguinity.) Which of the following is likely result of the heightened inbreeding in a small population, compared with a Hardy-Weinberg population?
    • A. 

      The frequncies of the three genotypes would remain constant

    • B. 

      The frequency of the heterozygotes would increase

    • C. 

      The frequency of the dominant allele would increase

    • D. 

      The frequency of the alleles would change

    • E. 

      The frequency of homozygous genotypes would increase

  • 23. 
    In  class we talked about the breed of dogs known as Mexican Hairless. Inheritance of hair can by simply modeled as: hh=normal hair; h- = hairless; -- = stillborn. In a population of exclusively Mexican Hairless dogs where the inital frequencies of the two alleles are equal and artificial selection is not a factor, one would expect that over time
    • A. 

      The hairless allele would be entirely lost from the population because of the deleterious quality that when it appears in the homozygous condition, individuals do not survive.

    • B. 

      The frequenccy of the two alleles would remain rougly equal

    • C. 

      The frequency of the "-" would diminish but not be entirely lost

    • D. 

      The "-" allele would mutate such that those individuals homozygous for the allele would not be stillborn

  • 24. 
    Consider an exam composed of the previous 30 questions, what score, based on a possible 100 point maximum, would a student get if (s)he guessed at random? That is, if for each of the 30 questions a student selected from the available choices at random, what score would that student achieve? (Pick the answer the is closest to the numerical result you calculate.)
    • A. 

      15

    • B. 

      20

    • C. 

      25

    • D. 

      30

    • E. 

      35

  • 25. 
    This figure indicates that there is a relationship between the geographic distance separating two populations and the degree to which the two populations are reproductively isolated. (Each dot on the figure represents a comparison between two populations; all data refer to various populations of one species of salamander. Which of the following statements DOES NOT sound reasonable?
    • A. 

      The data may indicate that the farther apart two populations are, the more they have diverged from each other in an evolutionary sense.

    • B. 

      The data may indicate that the farther apart two populations are, the less the amount of gene flow between them

    • C. 

      Differences in the levels of inbreeding and genetic drift are most likely the cause in the differences in reproductive isolation

    • D. 

      Environmental conditions may be significantly different in widely-separated populations and natural selection may be operating in such a manner as to cause them to be more dissimilar than two populations that are not separated to the same degree