Jordan Bioscience II Final Part 3

22 Questions | Total Attempts: 713

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Jordan Bioscience II Final Part 3

Craig Jordan Bioscience 2 Spring 2011


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    As a consequence of size alone, organisms that are large tend to have larger brains than organisms that are small. However, some organisms have brains that are considerably larger than expected for an animal of their size. Data for 14 bird species are listed below. Graph the data and then, based on the data, determine which of the statements below is most reasonable. Deviation from expected brain size, that is the brain size based on body mass alone. (Negative values indicate grain sizes smaller than expected; positive values indicate brain sizes larger than expected.) -1.8          1.2           3.2           -2.4          0.0           -2.0          2.3           2.0           -1.0          -2.1          0.3           3.0           1.3           0.7 Mortality rate 0.9           0.8           0.6           0.9           0.7           0.5           0.6           0.6           0.4           0.7           0.8           0.3           0.3           0.4  
    • A. 

      Apparently because of the costs associated with increase brain size, there is an upper limit as to how large bird brains can evolve.

    • B. 

      Larger than expected brain sizes are associated with lower mortality rates. (This could be the result of large-brained birds having an increased intelligence that gives them an advantage in finding food, or escaping predators, though the data do not address this.)

    • C. 

      There is no correlation between brain size and mortality rate. (This could be because of conflicting selective pressures. For example, any advantage of having a relatively large brain, perhaps increased intelligence, may be counter balanced by a disadvantage of having a relatively large brain.

    • D. 

      Birds with brain sized that are larger than expected have relatively high mortality rate. (This could result from the metabolic costs associated with maintaining that relatively large brain, though the data do not address this.)

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      Unicellular green algae

    • B. 

      Cyanobacteria

    • C. 

      Charophytes

    • D. 

      Red algae

    • E. 

      Multicellular green algae

  • 3. 
    Humans and other primates are closely related evolutionarily. The greatest support for this comes from the fact that both chimps and humans:
    • A. 

      Have HOX genes that regulate gene expression

    • B. 

      Have digits that permit grasping

    • C. 

      Have mammary glands

    • D. 

      Have DNA with introns

    • E. 

      Have the same number of chromosomes

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E

  • 5. 
    People have long been fascinated by Neanderthals and their relationship to HOMO SAPEIENS. Several fossils discovered in Europe have been interpreted by some researchers as showing a mixture of Neanderthal and human features, leading to the suggestion that European human bred with or descended from Neanderthals. Researchers used genetic methods to assess the relationship between Neanderthals and H. SAPIENS. The team extracted DNA from a Neanderthal fossil (N1) and compared its sequence to a DNA sequence that other researchers had obtained from a different Neanderthal fossil (N2). DNA sequences were also obtained for a number of living humans from Europe (E), Africa (AF), and Asia (As). The researchers then used Neanderthal and H. SAPIENS sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree for Neanderthals and humans; data from chimpanzees (C) were used to root the tree.  The data indicate that the two Neanderthals differed at 3.5 % of their bases while in contrast the Neanderthals and H. SAPIENS differed on average at 24 % of the bases. The phylogeny above that agrees best with the data is
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E

  • 6. 
    Consider 2 alternative hypotheses: #1. Modem humans arose once and that was in east-central Africa and subsequently spread around the world. #2. An archaic form of humans arose in Africa and subsequently spread to Middle East, Asian, and Europe. In these areas, populations adapted to the local ecology via natural selection (resulting in “racial” differences but without changes that would interfere with the possibility of interbreeding successfully. Under this scenario, modern humans evolved in numerous locations and later continued to spread throughout the globe. 
    • A. 

      If hypothesis #1 is correct, one would not expect regional genetic/molecular differences among humans.

    • B. 

      If hypothesis #1 is correct, the genetic variability in east-central Africans should be greater than that in other regions.

    • C. 

      If hypothesis #2 is correct, there should be distinctive differences in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in populations of human endemic to different regions in the world. This would not be the case if hypothesis #1 is correct.

    • D. 

      If hypothesis #2 is correct, the mtDNA of all males in a population endemic to any one region in the world should be the same.

    • E. 

      If hypothesis #2 is correct, one cannot conclude that all humans are of the same species. Taxonomists would need to divide humans into multiple species.

  • 7. 
    The great weight of the evidence supports the theory that modern humans arose in east Africa and migrated to additional locations in Africa. The theory also proposes that there were at least 2 waves of migration out of African; a southerly migration leading to Asian and a northerly migration leading to Europe. In Europe, H. SAPEIENS apparently interbred to some extent with Neanderthals. 
    • A. 

      Support for the southerly migration occurring first could come from the observation that there is greater genetic diversity in the mitochondrial DNA of Asians than of Europeans

    • B. 

      If the northerly migration, which proceeded through what is now the Middle East and then on to Europe, occurred after the Asian migration then modern Europeans must be more similar genetically To Africans then Asians are to Africans.

    • C. 

      Evidence of human/Neanderthal interbreeding could come in the form of human mitochondrial genes being found in Neanderthal DNA as the result of crossing over during meiosis.

    • D. 

      Neither chose A, B, or C is reasonable.

  • 8. 
    • A. 

      Adult has a cranium

    • B. 

      Larva has a hollow nerve cord position on the “back”, or dorsal surface, of the organism

    • C. 

      Adult has a longitudinal, flexible rod that provides skeletal support

    • D. 

      Adult has a lateral line system (organ)

    • E. 

      Larva has pharyngeal slits in the region just posterior to the mouth

  • 9. 
    When the ancestors of modern plants first colonized terrestrial habitats, additional features subsequently evolved which permitted their successful colonization of many ecological settings. These characteristics included
    • A. 

      A vascular system

    • B. 

      Chloroplast to permit utilizing suns energy

    • C. 

      Cell plates for a more efficient mode of cell division

    • D. 

      Flagellated sperm cells

    • E. 

      Spores

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is correct?
    • A. 

      Ferns are non-vascular plants

    • B. 

      Bryophytes are the ancestor of gymnosperms

    • C. 

      Bryophytes do not display the “alternation of generations” life cycles found in more advanced plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms)

    • D. 

      A cell plate that grows during cytokinesis. The cell plate is composed of the constituents of the cell wall and plasma membrane.

    • E. 

      Grasses are angiosperms (flowering plants). This is true. The represent that most primitive of angiosperms because they lack flowers.

  • 11. 
    Consider the monotremes, the platypus and the echidna.
    • A. 

      They are more closely related to placental mammals than to marsupial mammals

    • B. 

      What issues from the female’s reproductive tract at birth are eggs, not motile young. That is to say they are oviparous.

    • C. 

      They have fur, a distinguishing characteristic of mammals, but do not nurse their young

    • D. 

      They are “cold-blooded”

  • 12. 
    The coelacanth is notable because it
    • A. 

      Is the ancestor of modern bony fish (the most diverse group of extant fish)

    • B. 

      Is a rare modern representative of a lineage of fish previously thought to be extinct

    • C. 

      Is a species of reptile that has apparently not changed (or evolved) in the last 300 million years

    • D. 

      Is the ancestor of tetrapods

    • E. 

      Is the oldest fossil vertebrate

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is true of ARCHAEOPTERYX?
    • A. 

      Is was found in the Burgess Shale

    • B. 

      It existed at the time of Pangaea

    • C. 

      It evolved from a lineage of flying fish

    • D. 

      It had a paper-thin jaw similar to that of modern birds

    • E. 

      It had a long, bony tail

  • 14. 
    In a healthy coral mutualistic relationship,
    • A. 

      The photosynthetic partner is a protist

    • B. 

      The coral animal supplies carbohydrates to its symbiotic partner

    • C. 

      The animal partner is dead and supplies its symbiotic partner with a hard protective casing composed of carbonates

    • D. 

      The photosynthetic partner relies on the animal partner for oxygen

  • 15. 
    Which of the following is true regarding the evolution of land plants?
    • A. 

      Land plants, unlike their aquatic relatives, need structural support to maintain their “posture” in air. After colonizing land, plants evolved collagen which contributes to that support by acting as a “glue” to hold neighboring cells together.

    • B. 

      Cuticles serve plants by limiting inbreeding

    • C. 

      The evidence that all angiosperms had a common ancestor includes the observation that they all share basic similarities in their flowers and fruits. For example, all flowers are constructed of 4 whorls of modified leaves that serve as sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.

    • D. 

      Evidence that gymnosperms and bryophytes have a common ancestor is that they both have flagellated sperm that are similar in structure

    • E. 

      Land plants probably evolved from a flagellated protist

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      Once invertebrates colonized land, they evolved an exoskeleton

    • B. 

      Bony fish (teleost) have a swim bladder which they use a storage chamber for liquid waste (urine)

    • C. 

      The lateral line system permits fish to orient in water

    • D. 

      Bony fish predated cartilaginous fish

    • E. 

      The Burgess Shale is known for its fossil demonstration of the Cambrian Explosion. The ancestors of many modern invertebrate phyla had their origins in the Cambrian Explosion. The origins of the phylum which includes modern vertebrates however were absent; they evolved later.

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is true of the evolution of land vertebrates?
    • A. 

      Amphibians evolved from a lineage of fish. Pre-adaptation s of those “proto-amphibians” for making the transition to life on land included eggs with water-tight membranes

    • B. 

      The ancestors of the mammals living at about 65 m.y.a were reptiles other than dinosaurs

    • C. 

      Usually, amphibians deposit their eggs outside the body and subsequently they are fertilized. Reptiles and birds, in contrast, are not as dependent on an aquatic environment for successful reproduction. They have eggs with membranes/shells that give the zygote some protection from arid conditions. A consequence of this difference between amphibians on the one hand and reptiles and birds on the other is that in the latter two taxa, fertilization must be internal

    • D. 

      The pharyngeal slits of aquatic chordates have been modified to form the ribs of land vertebrates.

  • 18. 
    Which of the following is characteristic of bryophytes but is not found in fungi?
    • A. 

      Flagellated gametes

    • B. 

      Spores

    • C. 

      A sporophyte life stage that is more prominent than a gametophyte life stage

    • D. 

      Cell walls of chitin

    • E. 

      They are heterotrophs

  • 19. 
    Which of the following is not true of coral animals?
    • A. 

      They live symbiotically with algae

    • B. 

      They feed on plant starches and sugars

    • C. 

      They feed at night on suspended matter in the water

    • D. 

      They are protists

  • 20. 
    Neanderthals, first discovered in Europe, have been interpreted as the ancestors of modern humans; other scientists have concluded that while closely related to humans, Neanderthals are not the ancestors of modern humans. Several fossils from Europe have been interpreted by some to display a mixture of both Neanderthal and human features. In an effort to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the two, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was extracted from 2 Neanderthal fossils as well as from a number of living Europeans, Africans, and Asians. Which of the following is NOT correct?
    • A. 

      One might reasonably interpret the apparent “mixture of features” to indicate that modern humans evolved from Neanderthals

    • B. 

      One might reasonably interpret the apparent “mixture of features” to indicate that humans interbred with Neanderthals

    • C. 

      If the mtDNA analysis found that the Neanderthal DNA had greater variability than that found in the H. SAPIENS sampled, then phylogeny A below must be correct

  • 21. 
    About 250 million years ago, the greatest mass extinction event the Earth has ever witnessed occurred (The Great Dying). By some estimates, 96 % of the organisms on earth went extinct. At this time, most of the organisms were marine. On land, there were great forests, amphibians, and retiles. Continents were drifting into a configuration where most of the land masses coalesced into a single Pangaea. Which of the following is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Plate tectonics resulted in large scale volcanic activity

    • B. 

      The earth cooled significantly

    • C. 

      The concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere plummeted

    • D. 

      The ocean levels reach its highest level ever seen on Earth

    • E. 

      Continental shelves, the home to the majority of marine organisms, diminished significantly in area

  • 22. 
    Which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      At about 350 million years ago, tetrapods began to appear on land. Tiktaalik is a representative of what may have been an animal form transitioning from a largely aquatic existence to a terrestrial one. When Tiktaalik was alive, it lived in an arctic setting and therefore was not exposed to heavy predation.

    • B. 

      A preadaptation of Tiktaalik for its existence on land was its having a water-tight skin, much like reptiles today that would permit it to exist in the relatively arid terrestrial environment, compared with the moist marine environment.

    • C. 

      During the time that dinosaurs existed on Earth as the dominant vertebrate group, Pangaea broke apart by plate tectonic movements. The earth warmed and massive tropical forest covered much of its surface and provided large amounts of food to fuel their metabolic needs.

    • D. 

      Part of the reason for dinosaur dominance for a considerable amount of time is that they were cold-blooded like today’s reptiles. Having a low metabolic rate and relying on ambient temperature to warm their bodies, they did not require much fuel