Trivia Quiz On Bio Exam

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Trivia Quiz On Bio Exam - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following staements provides the strongest evidence that prokaryotoes evolved before eukaryotes?

    • A.

      The primitive structure of plants

    • B.

      Meoeorities that have struck earth

    • C.

      Abiotic laboratory experiments that produced liposomes

    • D.

      Liposomes closely resemble prokary

    • E.

      The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes

    Correct Answer
    E. The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes
    Explanation
    The presence of the oldest fossilized cells resembling prokaryotes provides the strongest evidence that prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes. Fossils are physical evidence of past life, and the discovery of ancient prokaryotic cells suggests that these simpler organisms existed before more complex eukaryotic cells. This supports the theory of evolution, as it implies a gradual progression from simpler to more complex life forms over time. The other options do not directly provide evidence of the order of evolution between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

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  • 2. 

    A taxon, all of whose members have the same common ancestor is

    • A.

      Paraphyletic

    • B.

      Polyphletic

    • C.

      Homophylitic

    • D.

      Monophylyletic

    Correct Answer
    D. Monophylyletic
    Explanation
    A taxon, all of whose members have the same common ancestor, is referred to as monophyletic. This means that the taxon includes an ancestor and all of its descendants, forming a single evolutionary lineage. In other words, all the organisms within the taxon share a common ancestor and are more closely related to each other than to any organisms outside of the taxon. This is in contrast to paraphyletic and polyphyletic taxa, which do not include all descendants of a common ancestor. The term homophyletic does not exist in the field of taxonomy.

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  • 3. 

    Systematics is concerned with

    • A.

      Naming organisms

    • B.

      Studying biological diversity

    • C.

      Taxonomy

    • D.

      Tracing phylogeny

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Systematics is a branch of biology that deals with the classification and naming of organisms, studying their biological diversity, determining their taxonomy, and tracing their evolutionary relationships or phylogeny. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above" because systematics encompasses all these aspects.

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  • 4. 

    Different groups of sea weeds can generally be distinguished on the basis of

    • A.

      Color

    • B.

      Size

    • C.

      Whether they are multicellular or unicellular

    • D.

      Whether or not they have true leaves,stems,and roots

    • E.

      Whether they are autotrophic or heterotrophic

    Correct Answer
    A. Color
    Explanation
    Different groups of sea weeds can generally be distinguished on the basis of their color. This is because different species of seaweeds have different pigments that give them their distinct colors. Some seaweeds may be green, brown, red, or even blue. Therefore, by observing the color of a seaweed, it is possible to identify which group it belongs to.

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  • 5. 

    An early consequence of the release or oxygen gas by plant bacterial photosynthesis was to

    • A.

      Make life on land difficult foe aerobic organisms

    • B.

      Change the atomosphere from oxidizing to reducing

    • C.

      Make it easier to maintain reduced molecules

    • D.

      Cause iron in the ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust(oxidize)

    • E.

      Prevent the formation of an ozone layer

    Correct Answer
    D. Cause iron in the ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust(oxidize)
    Explanation
    When oxygen gas was released by plant bacterial photosynthesis, it reacted with iron in ocean water and terrestrial rocks, causing them to rust or oxidize. This is because oxygen has a strong oxidizing effect, meaning it tends to remove electrons from other substances, such as iron. As a result, the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere led to the oxidation of iron, causing it to rust.

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  • 6. 

    How do fungi "find" things to eat?

    • A.

      They produce huge numbers of tiny pores

    • B.

      They make their own food

    • C.

      They grow rapidly

    • D.

      They do all of the above

    • E.

      They do a and c only

    Correct Answer
    E. They do a and c only
    Explanation
    Fungi "find" things to eat by producing huge numbers of tiny pores and by growing rapidly. Fungi release enzymes that break down organic matter, and the tiny pores on their surface help them absorb nutrients from their surroundings. Additionally, fungi have a fast growth rate, allowing them to quickly colonize and decompose their food sources. Therefore, the correct answer is that fungi do both a and c, producing pores and growing rapidly, to find things to eat.

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  • 7. 

    There are many similarities between prokayotes called_____ and eukaryotic organisms.

    • A.

      Arhcaea

    • B.

      Bacteria

    • C.

      Protozoa

    • D.

      Cyanobacteria

    • E.

      Dinoflagellates

    Correct Answer
    A. Arhcaea
    Explanation
    Archaea are prokaryotes that have many similarities with eukaryotic organisms. They share similar RNA polymerases, histones, and ribosomal proteins with eukaryotes, suggesting a common ancestry. Additionally, archaea and eukaryotes have similar cell membrane structures, with both having a lipid bilayer. Archaea also exhibit complex cellular processes, such as DNA replication and transcription, that are more similar to eukaryotes than bacteria. These similarities suggest that archaea and eukaryotes have a closer evolutionary relationship compared to bacteria and other microorganisms.

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  • 8. 

    Which was least abundant in Earth's early atomosphere prior to 2 billion years ago?

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      O2

    • C.

      H2O

    • D.

      NH3

    Correct Answer
    B. O2
    Explanation
    Oxygen (O2) was least abundant in Earth's early atmosphere prior to 2 billion years ago. This is because oxygen was primarily produced by photosynthetic organisms, which were not present in significant quantities during that time. The atmosphere was mainly composed of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and ammonia (NH3). It was only after the evolution of oxygen-producing organisms that oxygen levels began to rise, leading to the oxygen-rich atmosphere we have today.

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  • 9. 

    The snowball Earth hypothesis provides a possible explanation for the

    • A.

      Diversification of animals during the late proterozoic

    • B.

      Oxygenation of Earth's sea and atmosphere

    • C.

      Colonization of land by plants and fungi

    • D.

      Origin of O2-producing photosynthesis

    • E.

      Existence of prokaryotes around hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor

    Correct Answer
    A. Diversification of animals during the late proterozoic
    Explanation
    The snowball Earth hypothesis suggests that during the late Proterozoic era, Earth experienced extreme glaciations, with the entire planet covered in ice. This hypothesis explains the diversification of animals during this time because the glaciations would have led to a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, resulting in a global cooling effect. This would have created new ecological niches and selective pressures, driving the evolution and diversification of new animal species.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is true of eukaryotes?

    • A.

      They are pathogenic

    • B.

      They are chemoheterotrophs

    • C.

      They are archaea

    • D.

      They are protists

    • E.

      They are photoautotrophs

    Correct Answer
    E. They are photoautotrophs
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes are organisms that have cells with a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. They are not pathogenic, as pathogenicity refers to the ability to cause disease. They are also not archaea, which are a separate domain of single-celled organisms. While some eukaryotes are protists, not all eukaryotes fall under this category. The correct answer is that eukaryotes are photoautotrophs, meaning they are able to use sunlight to produce their own food through photosynthesis.

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  • 11. 

    Two animals in the same family would not have to be in the same 

    • A.

      Genus

    • B.

      Domain

    • C.

      Order

    • D.

      Phylum

    Correct Answer
    A. Genus
    Explanation
    Animals in the same family can belong to different genera. The family is a higher taxonomic rank than the genus. The genus is a more specific classification that groups together species that share common characteristics. Therefore, two animals in the same family can belong to different genera, as they may have distinct characteristics that differentiate them at the genus level.

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  • 12. 

    Certain dinoflagellates enter the cells ofcoral animals and carry out photosynthesis, producing food for themselves and the coral. This is a lot like

    • A.

      Formation of biofilm

    • B.

      Primary endosymbiosis

    • C.

      Secondary endosymbiosis

    • D.

      How ancient stromatolites were formed

    • E.

      Endospore formation

    Correct Answer
    C. Secondary endosymbiosis
    Explanation
    Secondary endosymbiosis is the correct answer because it refers to the process in which one eukaryotic organism engulfs another eukaryotic organism, forming a symbiotic relationship. In this case, certain dinoflagellates enter the cells of coral animals and establish a symbiotic relationship where they carry out photosynthesis and provide food for both themselves and the coral. This process is similar to secondary endosymbiosis because it involves the incorporation of one organism into another, resulting in a mutually beneficial relationship.

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  • 13. 

    When using a cladistics approach to systematics, which ofthe following is considered most important for classification?

    • A.

      Shared primitive characters

    • B.

      Analogous primitive characters

    • C.

      Shared derived characters

    • D.

      The number of homoplasies

    • E.

      Overall pheinotypic similarity

    Correct Answer
    C. Shared derived characters
    Explanation
    In cladistics, shared derived characters are considered most important for classification. These characters are unique to a particular group of organisms and are inherited from a common ancestor. By identifying and analyzing these shared derived characters, scientists can determine the evolutionary relationships and create phylogenetic trees that reflect the true evolutionary history of organisms. This approach focuses on identifying and understanding the derived characteristics that define a particular group, rather than relying on primitive or ancestral characteristics.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following taxa is least closely related to the others?

    • A.

      Archaea

    • B.

      Plantae

    • C.

      Bacteria

    • D.

      Eukarya

    • E.

      Animalia

    Correct Answer
    C. Bacteria
    Explanation
    Bacteria is the least closely related taxon to the others because it belongs to a different domain, the domain Bacteria, while the others (Archaea, Plantae, Eukarya, and Animalia) belong to the domain Eukarya. Bacteria is a prokaryotic organism, while the others are all eukaryotic organisms. This fundamental difference in cellular structure and organization indicates a more distant evolutionary relationship between bacteria and the other taxa.

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  • 15. 

    If you collected a sample of plankton — floating organisms — from near the ocean surface, you would be unlikely to find which of the following?

    • A.

      Diatoms

    • B.

      Cyanobacteria

    • C.

      Radiolarians

    • D.

      Forams

    • E.

      Methanogens

    Correct Answer
    E. Methanogens
    Explanation
    Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane gas as a byproduct of their metabolism. They are commonly found in anaerobic environments such as swamps and the digestive tracts of animals. Plankton, on the other hand, are typically found in the upper layers of the ocean where sunlight is abundant. Since methanogens thrive in oxygen-depleted environments, it is unlikely to find them in a sample collected from near the ocean surface where oxygen levels are relatively high.

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  • 16. 

    When a red tide occurs, huge numbers ofthese microscopic organisms are filtered out of coastal by oysters and clams. This sometimes causes the shellfish to become toxic to people that eat them. The organisms that create the red tide are classified as

    • A.

      Slime molds.

    • B.

      Diatoms

    • C.

      Dinoflagellates.

    • D.

      Red algae.

    • E.

      Euglenoids

    Correct Answer
    C. Dinoflagellates.
    Explanation
    Red tide is a phenomenon caused by the rapid growth and accumulation of certain types of algae, specifically dinoflagellates. These microscopic organisms release toxins that can be harmful to shellfish, such as oysters and clams, which filter large quantities of water and consume the dinoflagellates. When humans consume these contaminated shellfish, they can experience illness or poisoning. Slime molds, diatoms, red algae, and euglenoids are not directly responsible for causing red tide.

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  • 17. 

    A certain unicellular eukaryote has a siliceous (glasslike) shell and autotrophic nutrition. To whicih group does it belong?

    • A.

      Dinoflagellates

    • B.

      Diatoms

    • C.

      Brown algae

    • D.

      Radiolarians

    • E.

      Oomycetes

    Correct Answer
    B. Diatoms
    Explanation
    The given unicellular eukaryote with a siliceous shell and autotrophic nutrition belongs to the group of diatoms. Diatoms are a type of algae that have a glass-like shell made of silica. They are known for their photosynthetic abilities, which classify them as autotrophs. This aligns with the characteristics mentioned in the question.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is least useful in tracing phylogeny?

    • A.

      Mitochondrial DNA

    • B.

      Convergent evolution

    • C.

      Fossils

    • D.

      Homologous genes

    • E.

      Gene duplications

    Correct Answer
    B. Convergent evolution
    Explanation
    Convergent evolution is the least useful in tracing phylogeny because it refers to the independent evolution of similar traits in different lineages. While it can provide insights into the adaptive nature of organisms, it does not indicate a common ancestry or evolutionary relationship between the organisms. In contrast, mitochondrial DNA, fossils, homologous genes, and gene duplications are all valuable tools in tracing phylogeny as they provide evidence of shared ancestry and evolutionary history.

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  • 19. 

    As she peered through the microscope, Paige said, “I know that this thing is supposed to be either flagellate, or an amoeba, but I can’t figure out which.” Michelle replied, “That’s easy. . . .“

    • A.

      “Watch how it moves.”

    • B.

      “How big is it?”

    • C.

      “All you have to do is see whether it has a nucleus or not.”

    • D.

      “Watch what it eats.”

    • E.

      “Look at its chioroplasts.”

    Correct Answer
    A. “Watch how it moves.”
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Watch how it moves." This is because the question is asking how to determine whether the organism is flagellate or an amoeba. By observing how it moves, one can determine if it uses flagella for movement (flagellate) or if it uses pseudopods (amoeba).

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  • 20. 

    Thread-like pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of which group

    • A.

      Radiolarians and forams

    • B.

      Gymnamoebas

    • C.

      Arnoeboid stage of cellular slime molds

    • D.

      Entamoebas

    Correct Answer
    A. Radiolarians and forams
    Explanation
    Thread-like pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of radiolarians and forams. These organisms belong to the group of protists known as Rhizaria. Radiolarians and forams have intricate and elaborate pseudopods that extend outwards and can capture prey through phagocytosis. These thread-like pseudopods enable them to engulf and digest food particles, aiding in their nutrition and survival.

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  • 21. 

    Members of this phylum form arbuscular mycorrhizae:  

    • A.

      Zycomycota

    • B.

      Ascornycota

    • C.

      Basidiomycota

    • D.

      Glomeromycota

    • E.

      Chvtridiomvcota

    Correct Answer
    D. Glomeromycota
    Explanation
    Members of the phylum Glomeromycota are known to form arbuscular mycorrhizae. Arbuscular mycorrhizae are a type of mutualistic symbiotic association between fungi and the roots of most plant species. In this association, the fungi penetrate the root cells and form intricate structures called arbuscules, which facilitate the exchange of nutrients between the fungus and the plant. Glomeromycota fungi are particularly important in nutrient uptake and transfer in terrestrial ecosystems, making them crucial for plant growth and survival.

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  • 22. 

    Which feature of the chytrids supports the hypothesis that they represent the most primitive fungi?

    • A.

      Flagellated spores

    • B.

      The absence ofchitin within the cell wall

    • C.

      Parasitic lifestyle

    • D.

      Formation ofresistant zygosporangia

    Correct Answer
    A. Flagellated spores
    Explanation
    The presence of flagellated spores in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they represent the most primitive fungi. Flagella are whip-like structures that allow for motility, and the presence of flagellated spores suggests that chytrids have retained a primitive characteristic that was present in the common ancestor of all fungi. This feature sets them apart from other fungal groups, which typically have non-motile spores. Therefore, the presence of flagellated spores in chytrids indicates that they have retained a more ancestral trait compared to other fungi.

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  • 23. 

    Cyanobacteria often partner with a fungus as a(n) ________________

    • A.

      Endophyte

    • B.

      Lichen

    • C.

      Mycorrhizae

    • D.

      Mycosis

    • E.

      Root nodule

    Correct Answer
    B. Lichen
    Explanation
    Cyanobacteria often partner with a fungus to form a lichen. Lichens are symbiotic organisms composed of a fungus and a photosynthetic partner, which in this case is the cyanobacteria. The fungus provides a protective environment and absorbs nutrients for both partners, while the cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis and provide organic compounds. This mutualistic relationship allows both organisms to thrive in various environments, including extreme conditions like deserts and rocky surfaces.

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  • 24. 

    You are presented with several single-celled organisms, including one thought to belong to the kingdom Fungi.What unique feature helps you identify the fungus?

    • A.

      Presence of mitochondria

    • B.

      Absence of chloroplasts

    • C.

      Presence of nuclei

    • D.

      Presence of chitinous cell walls

    Correct Answer
    D. Presence of chitinous cell walls
    Explanation
    The presence of chitinous cell walls helps identify the fungus. Chitin is a unique structural component found in the cell walls of fungi, providing rigidity and support. Other organisms, such as plants and animals, have different types of cell walls or no cell walls at all. Therefore, the presence of chitinous cell walls is a distinguishing feature of fungi.

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  • 25. 

    If the mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells resulted from endosymbiosis, what feature(s) might we expect these organelles to contain?

    • A.

      A plasma membrane, DNA, and robosomes

    • B.

      Plasma membrane, nucleus, and ribosomes

    • C.

      Nucleus, DNA, and ribosomes

    • D.

      A plasma membrane, nucleus, and cilia

    • E.

      Nucleus, ribosomes, and cilia

    Correct Answer
    A. A plasma membrane, DNA, and robosomes
    Explanation
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are believed to have originated from endosymbiosis, where a prokaryotic cell was engulfed by a eukaryotic cell and formed a symbiotic relationship. As a result, these organelles would have retained certain features of their prokaryotic ancestors. A plasma membrane is necessary for maintaining the organelle's structure and regulating the movement of molecules. DNA is expected because mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genetic material, separate from the nucleus. Ribosomes are essential for protein synthesis, and they would be present in these organelles to produce proteins needed for their functions.

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  • 26. 

    The greatest number of eukaryotic organisms are

    • A.

      Vertebrates

    • B.

      Animals

    • C.

      Plants

    • D.

      Protists

    • E.

      Fungi

    Correct Answer
    D. Protists
    Explanation
    Protists are a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms that do not fit into the categories of animals, plants, or fungi. They include a wide range of organisms such as algae, protozoa, and slime molds. Protists can be found in various habitats including freshwater, marine environments, and soil. Due to their vast diversity and abundance, protists represent the greatest number of eukaryotic organisms.

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  • 27. 

    The body of a fungus is generally composed of 

    • A.

      Cellulose

    • B.

      Vascular tissue

    • C.

      Mycorrihizae

    • D.

      Mold

    • E.

      Hypae

    Correct Answer
    E. Hypae
    Explanation
    The body of a fungus is generally composed of hyphae. Hyphae are long, thread-like structures that make up the main body of a fungus. They are responsible for absorbing nutrients from the environment and play a crucial role in the growth and reproduction of the fungus. Hyphae can be densely packed together to form mycelium, which is the visible part of the fungus. Unlike plants, fungi do not have vascular tissue or cellulose in their bodies. Mold is a type of fungus, but it is not the main component of a fungus body.

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  • 28. 

    Your parents are coming to visit so you immediately run to the pantry to throw away the loaf of bread with the black fuzzy stuff on it. What phylum of fungi did you probably just trash?

    • A.

      Basidiornycota

    • B.

      Zygomycota

    • C.

      Ascomycota

    • D.

      Chyridiomycota

    Correct Answer
    B. Zygomycota
    Explanation
    Zygomycota is the correct answer because this phylum of fungi includes species commonly known as bread molds. These molds are fast-growing and can quickly colonize bread, causing it to develop black fuzzy growth. Therefore, if you threw away a loaf of bread with black fuzzy stuff on it, it is likely that you just trashed a species belonging to the phylum Zygomycota.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following would make the most suitable outgroup species fòr a cladogram relative to the other species ?

    • A.

      Frog

    • B.

      Tuna

    • C.

      Snake

    • D.

      Penguin

    • E.

      Bat

    Correct Answer
    B. Tuna
    Explanation
    Tuna would make the most suitable outgroup species for a cladogram relative to the other species because it is the most distantly related to the rest of the species listed. An outgroup species is chosen based on its evolutionary distance from the other species in order to establish a common ancestor and determine the relationships between the other species. Tuna, being a fish, is more distantly related to the amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal species listed, making it the most suitable outgroup.

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  • 30. 

    Land plants are believed to have evolved from_______

    • A.

      Green algae

    • B.

      Fungi

    • C.

      Lichen

    • D.

      Bacteria

    • E.

      Protists

    Correct Answer
    A. Green algae
    Explanation
    Land plants are believed to have evolved from green algae because they share many similarities in terms of cellular structure, reproductive mechanisms, and photosynthetic pigments. Green algae are aquatic organisms that have the ability to photosynthesize, just like land plants. This suggests a common ancestor from which both green algae and land plants evolved. Additionally, the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment would have required adaptations in plants, and green algae possess certain characteristics that could have facilitated this transition. Therefore, it is widely accepted that land plants evolved from green algae.

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  • 31. 

    Structures that evolved from the same structure in a common ancestor are

    • A.

      Homologous

    • B.

      Heterologous

    • C.

      Analogus

    • D.

      Homplasis

    • E.

      Convergent adaptations

    Correct Answer
    A. Homologous
    Explanation
    Structures that evolved from the same structure in a common ancestor are called homologous. Homologous structures are similar in form and function, indicating a shared evolutionary history. These structures may have adapted to different purposes in different species, but their underlying similarity points to a common ancestor. This concept is important in understanding evolutionary relationships and the process of divergent evolution.

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  • 32. 

    The process through which species not closely related may come to resemble one another if they live in a similar environment is known as

    • A.

      Coevolution

    • B.

      Homology

    • C.

      Similar evolution

    • D.

      Convergent evolution

    • E.

      Paedomorphosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Convergent evolution
    Explanation
    Convergent evolution is the process through which species that are not closely related develop similar traits or characteristics due to living in similar environments. This occurs because they face similar selective pressures and adapt in similar ways, even though they do not share a recent common ancestor. This phenomenon can be observed in various species across different habitats, where unrelated organisms develop similar features to better survive and thrive in their environment.

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  • 33. 

    Cave-dwelling catfish and cave-dwelling salamanders share striking similarities: both organisms lack pigmentation and their eyes are reduced or absent. The most recent common ancestor to these organisms had normal pigmentation and fully developed eyes. The similarities between cave catfish and cave salamanders are an example of

    • A.

      Convergent homology

    • B.

      Analogy (convergent evolution).

    • C.

      Homology

    • D.

      Exaptation

    • E.

      Coincidental similarity

    Correct Answer
    B. Analogy (convergent evolution).
    Explanation
    The similarities between cave-dwelling catfish and cave-dwelling salamanders, such as the lack of pigmentation and reduced or absent eyes, are an example of analogy (convergent evolution). This means that these traits evolved independently in both organisms due to similar environmental pressures, rather than being inherited from a common ancestor. The fact that their most recent common ancestor had normal pigmentation and fully developed eyes suggests that these traits were lost in both lineages as they adapted to the cave environment.

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  • 34. 

    Ever since Darwin, systematics has tried to

    • A.

      Organize species into groups based on logical categories

    • B.

      Classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships

    • C.

      Classify species in groups that predict their characteristics

    • D.

      Prove the existence of evolution using laboratory experiments

    • E.

      Keep classification and naming as a practical science, separate from controversies involving evolution.

    Correct Answer
    B. Classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships". This is because systematics, since Darwin's time, has aimed to organize species into groups based on their evolutionary relationships. By classifying species in this way, scientists can better understand the patterns of evolution and how different species are related to each other. This approach helps in studying the history and diversity of life on Earth.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following options lists taxonomic categories in the correct order from most specific to most general?

    • A.

      Genus, family, class, order, phylum

    • B.

      Genus, phylum, family, order, class

    • C.

      Genus, family, order, class, phylum

    • D.

      Family, genus, order, phylum, class

    • E.

      Family, genus, class, order, phylum

    Correct Answer
    C. Genus, family, order, class, phylum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is genus, family, order, class, phylum. This is the correct order of taxonomic categories from most specific to most general. The genus is a more specific category than family, which is more specific than order, which is more specific than class, which is more specific than phylum.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is a role NOT performed by any fungi

    • A.

      Decomposer

    • B.

      Parasite

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Producer

    Correct Answer
    D. Producer
    Explanation
    Fungi are not capable of performing the role of a producer. Producers, such as plants, are able to convert sunlight into energy through the process of photosynthesis. Fungi, on the other hand, obtain their nutrients by breaking down organic matter, making them decomposers. They can also act as parasites, obtaining nutrients from living organisms, and as predators, capturing and consuming small organisms. However, they do not have the ability to produce their own food through photosynthesis like plants do.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following taxonomic names includes the fewest number of species?

    • A.

      Animalia

    • B.

      Panthera

    • C.

      Felidae

    • D.

      Carnivora

    Correct Answer
    B. Panthera
    Explanation
    Panthera includes the fewest number of species among the given taxonomic names. Panthera is a genus that includes only four species: lion, tiger, leopard, and jaguar. Animalia is the highest taxonomic rank, encompassing all animals, so it includes a vast number of species. Felidae is a family that includes all species of cats, including the ones in the Panthera genus. Carnivora is an order that includes various carnivorous mammals, including the Felidae family. Therefore, Panthera has the fewest number of species among the given options.

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  • 38. 

    Animals that possess homologous structures probably_____________

    • A.

      Evoloved from the same ancestor

    • B.

      Are headed for extinction

    • C.

      By chance had similar mutations in the past

    • D.

      Are not related

    • E.

      Have increased genetic diversity

    Correct Answer
    A. Evoloved from the same ancestor
    Explanation
    Animals that possess homologous structures probably evolved from the same ancestor. This is because homologous structures are similar in form and function, indicating a common ancestry. These structures may have undergone slight modifications over time to adapt to different environments, but their underlying similarities suggest a shared evolutionary history.

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  • 39. 

    The worldwide die-off of frogs has been traced to infection by what type of fungus?

    • A.

      Basidiomycetes

    • B.

      Ascomycetes

    • C.

      Zygomycetes

    • D.

      Imperfect fungi

    • E.

      Chytrids

    Correct Answer
    E. Chytrids
    Explanation
    The correct answer is chytrids. Chytrids are a type of fungus that has been identified as the cause of the worldwide die-off of frogs. This fungus infects the skin of frogs, leading to a disease known as chytridiomycosis. Chytridiomycosis has had devastating effects on frog populations around the world, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Chytrids are unique among fungi because they have a motile stage in their life cycle, allowing them to actively infect and spread among amphibians.

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  • 40. 

    The science of naming and classifying organisms is called:

    • A.

      Biology

    • B.

      Phylogeny

    • C.

      Genectics

    • D.

      Taxonomy

    • E.

      Parisimony

    Correct Answer
    D. Taxonomy
    Explanation
    Taxonomy is the correct answer because it refers to the scientific discipline that involves the naming, classification, and categorization of organisms based on their characteristics and evolutionary relationships. It helps in organizing and understanding the vast diversity of living organisms. Biology is the broader study of living organisms, while phylogeny focuses on the evolutionary history and relationships among organisms. Genetics is the study of genes and heredity. Parisimony is a term used in phylogenetics to describe the principle of choosing the simplest explanation for a given set of observations.

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  • 41. 

    Most Prokaryotes

    • A.

      Obtain energy from sunlight and carbon from organic compounds

    • B.

      Obtain both energy and carbon from inorganic compounds

    • C.

      Obtain energy from inorganic compounds and carbon from CO2

    • D.

      Obtain energy from sunlight and carbon from CO2

    • E.

      Obtain both energy and carbon from organic compounds

    Correct Answer
    E. Obtain both energy and carbon from organic compounds
    Explanation
    Prokaryotes are organisms that lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. They obtain energy and carbon from various sources. The given answer states that most prokaryotes obtain both energy and carbon from organic compounds. This means that they derive energy by breaking down organic molecules, such as sugars or proteins, and also utilize these organic compounds as a source of carbon for their own growth and metabolism. This is a common strategy used by many prokaryotes to meet their energy and carbon requirements for survival and reproduction.

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  • 42. 

    The largest seaweeds belong to which group?

    • A.

      Red algae

    • B.

      Green algae

    • C.

      Brown algae

    • D.

      Golden algae

    • E.

      Blue algae

    Correct Answer
    C. Brown algae
    Explanation
    Brown algae are the largest seaweeds, making them the correct answer. This group of algae includes species such as kelp, which can grow to be over 100 feet long. Brown algae are found in marine environments and are known for their complex structures and ability to form underwater forests. They play an important role in marine ecosystems by providing habitat and food for various organisms.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following taxonomic categories contains all the others?

    • A.

      Genus

    • B.

      Class

    • C.

      Family

    • D.

      Subclass

    • E.

      Order

    Correct Answer
    B. Class
    Explanation
    The taxonomic category that contains all the others is the class. In the Linnaean classification system, organisms are grouped into different categories based on their similarities and differences. The class is a higher taxonomic rank than the genus, family, subclass, and order. It represents a broader group of organisms that share common characteristics. The genus, family, subclass, and order are all subdivisions within the class. Therefore, the class category encompasses all the other taxonomic categories listed.

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  • 44. 

    _________ and ___________ mean the same thing.

    • A.

      Clade. . . parsimony

    • B.

      Parsimony. . . analogy

    • C.

      Clade. . . monophyletic taxon

    • D.

      Derived. . . ancestral

    • E.

      Derived. . . outgroup

    Correct Answer
    C. Clade. . . monophyletic taxon
    Explanation
    Clade and monophyletic taxon mean the same thing. A clade refers to a group of organisms that includes an ancestor and all of its descendants, while a monophyletic taxon is a taxonomic group that includes a common ancestor and all of its descendants. Both terms emphasize the concept of including all descendants from a common ancestor in a group. Therefore, they can be used interchangeably to describe the same idea.

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  • 45. 

    In mammals, the presence of four limbs is ________ and hair is______. 

    • A.

      An optional feature . . . a required feature

    • B.

      A shared dervived character...a shared ancestral character that places mammals in the tetrapod clade

    • C.

      A shared ancestral character . . . a shared derived character unique to mammals

    • D.

      A homologous feature . . . an analogous feature

    • E.

      Monophyletic . . . parsimonious

    Correct Answer
    C. A shared ancestral character . . . a shared derived character unique to mammals
    Explanation
    Mammals have four limbs, which is a shared ancestral character because their ancestors also had four limbs. On the other hand, hair is a shared derived character unique to mammals because no other group of animals has hair. This combination of traits sets mammals apart from other organisms and helps to classify them within the tetrapod clade.

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  • 46. 

    A systematist includes a lizard in a phylogenetic analysis of relationships among bird families. In this analysis, the lizard would be treated as

    • A.

      The ingroup

    • B.

      The outgroup

    • C.

      A derived group

    • D.

      An analogous group

    • E.

      An independent origin of avian traits

    Correct Answer
    B. The outgroup
    Explanation
    In a phylogenetic analysis, the outgroup is a taxonomic group that is used as a reference point to determine the evolutionary relationships among other groups. The outgroup is chosen because it is closely related to the ingroup (the groups being studied) but is not part of it. In this case, including a lizard in the analysis of bird families suggests that the lizard is being used as the outgroup. By comparing the traits and characteristics of the lizard to those of the bird families, the systematist can gain insights into the evolutionary relationships and common ancestry of the birds.

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  • 47. 

    A(n) ________ has been used to estimate that HIV-1 M first spread to humans in the 1930s.

    • A.

      Parsimony analysis

    • B.

      Cladistic method

    • C.

      Epidermiological study

    • D.

      Outgroup comparison

    • E.

      Molecular clock

    Correct Answer
    E. Molecular clock
    Explanation
    A molecular clock is a method that uses the rate of genetic mutations to estimate the time of divergence between species or the time when an event, such as the spread of HIV-1 M to humans, occurred. By comparing the genetic sequences of different strains of HIV-1 M and calculating the rate of mutations, scientists can estimate when the virus first spread to humans. In this case, the molecular clock method has been used to estimate that HIV-1 M first spread to humans in the 1930s.

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  • 48. 

    The three-domain system

    • A.

      No longer recognizes eukaryotes as a monophyletic group

    • B.

      Subdivides the eukaryotes into two different domains

    • C.

      Subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains.

    • D.

      Separates plants, animals, and fungi into domains

    • E.

      Is based upon the presence or absence of cell walls.

    Correct Answer
    C. Subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains.
    Explanation
    The three-domain system is a classification system that categorizes all living organisms into three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. This system recognizes that prokaryotes (organisms without a nucleus) are not a single group and should be divided into two different domains, Archaea and Bacteria. The presence or absence of cell walls is not the basis for this classification system, and it does not separate plants, animals, and fungi into domains.

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  • 49. 

    An organism has a relatively large number of Hox genes in its genome. Which of the following is not true of this organism?

    • A.

      It evolved from evolutionary ancestors that had fewer Hox genes

    • B.

      It must have multiple paired appendages along the length of its body

    • C.

      It has the genetic potential to have a relatively complex anatomy

    • D.

      . At least some of its lox genes owe their existence to gene duplication events.

    • E.

      Its Hox genes cooperated to produce the positional patterns ofthis organism as it developed.

    Correct Answer
    B. It must have multiple paired appendages along the length of its body
    Explanation
    An organism having a relatively large number of Hox genes in its genome does not necessarily mean that it must have multiple paired appendages along the length of its body. The presence of a large number of Hox genes suggests that the organism has the genetic potential to have a relatively complex anatomy, and at least some of its Hox genes owe their existence to gene duplication events. Additionally, the Hox genes in this organism would have cooperated to produce the positional patterns as it developed.

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  • 50. 

    . All organisms called “algae” are

    • A.

      Unicellular

    • B.

      Autotrophic

    • C.

      Prokaryotic

    • D.

      Multicellular

    Correct Answer
    B. Autotrophic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is autotrophic. Autotrophic organisms are able to produce their own food using energy from sunlight or inorganic substances. Algae are a diverse group of organisms that can be found in various habitats such as freshwater, marine environments, and even on land. They are known for their ability to photosynthesize, converting sunlight into energy and producing oxygen as a byproduct. Algae can be both unicellular and multicellular, and they can range in size from microscopic to large seaweeds. However, regardless of their size or complexity, all algae are autotrophic.

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  • Feb 18, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
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    Quiz Created by
    Itsaliciayall8
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