Mammography Toughest Trivia Quiz: Can You Pass This Test?

By Carrie Ann
Carrie Ann, Supervisor and Lead Mammographer
Carrie Ann Gibson, an Imaging Supervisor and Lead Mammographer at a large clinic, has a fervent dedication to mammography and imaging and a strong enthusiasm for educating others in this field.
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, Supervisor and Lead Mammographer
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Mammography Toughest Trivia Quiz: Can You Pass This Test? - Quiz

Below is Mammography's toughest trivia quiz: can you pass this test? Mammography is taken by mot male and female patients who think that they may have breast cancer or are trying to eliminate chances of having it by going to regular checkups. Do take the quiz below and get to see how much you know about the whole process, and what is expected of you as a medical practitioner.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The biggest risk factor for breast disease is

    • A.

      A family history of breast cancer

    • B.

      A personal history of breast cancer

    • C.

      Gender

    • D.

      Not breast-feeding

    Correct Answer
    C. Gender
    Explanation
    The correct answer is gender. Gender is the biggest risk factor for breast disease. Women are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer compared to men. This is because women have more breast tissue and hormonal factors that increase their susceptibility to breast diseases.

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  • 2. 

    One of the minor risk factors for breast cancer could include

    • A.

      Gender

    • B.

      Aging

    • C.

      Genetic risk factors

    • D.

      Not breast-feeding

    Correct Answer
    D. Not breast-feeding
    Explanation
    Not breast-feeding is considered a minor risk factor for breast cancer. Breast-feeding has been shown to have a protective effect against breast cancer, as it helps to reduce the number of menstrual cycles a woman has in her lifetime. This, in turn, decreases the exposure to estrogen, a hormone that can promote the growth of breast cancer cells. Therefore, not breast-feeding may slightly increase the risk of developing breast cancer.

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  • 3. 

    What is the approximate risk of developing breast cancer for a woman whose father's sister has the disease?

    • A.

      Higher than normal risk

    • B.

      No significant change

    • C.

      Lower than normal risk

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Higher than normal risk
    Explanation
    A woman whose father's sister has breast cancer is at a higher than normal risk of developing the disease. This is because breast cancer can have a genetic component, and having a close relative with the disease increases the likelihood of inheriting certain genetic mutations that can predispose someone to breast cancer. Therefore, the woman's familial history puts her at an increased risk compared to the general population.

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  • 4. 

    Seventy-seven percent of breast cancers are discovered in women in which age group?

    • A.

      Age 30 or below

    • B.

      Above age 50

    • C.

      Between ages 30 and 40

    • D.

      Above age 20 but below age 30

    Correct Answer
    B. Above age 50
    Explanation
    The correct answer is above age 50 because the question asks for the age group in which seventy-seven percent of breast cancers are discovered. This implies that the majority of breast cancers are found in women above the age of 50.

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  • 5. 

    Symptoms of a malignant breast cancer can include 1. skin thickening 2. nipple discharge 3. calcifications

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      2 and 3 only

    • C.

      1 and 3 only

    • D.

      1, 2, and 3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 2, and 3
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1, 2, and 3. Symptoms of a malignant breast cancer can include skin thickening, nipple discharge, and calcifications. These symptoms can be indicative of breast cancer and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional for further diagnosis and treatment.

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  • 6. 

    Skin thickening can be malignant but could also be caused by 1. a breast abscess 2. a calcified fibroadenoma 3. postradiation

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      2 only

    • C.

      1 and 2 only

    • D.

      1 and 3 only

    Correct Answer
    D. 1 and 3 only
    Explanation
    Skin thickening can be caused by various factors, including malignancy, breast abscess, and postradiation. Option 1 is correct because a breast abscess can cause skin thickening. Option 3 is also correct because postradiation can lead to thickening of the skin. Option 2 is incorrect because a calcified fibroadenoma does not typically cause skin thickening. Therefore, the correct answer is 1 and 3 only.

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  • 7. 

    The two main classifications of breast cancer are 1. ductal 2. lobular 3. medullary

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      2 only

    • C.

      1 and 2 only

    • D.

      1 and 3 only

    Correct Answer
    C. 1 and 2 only
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1 and 2 only. This means that the two main classifications of breast cancer are ductal and lobular. Ductal breast cancer starts in the milk ducts of the breast, while lobular breast cancer starts in the lobules, which are the milk-producing glands. Medullary breast cancer is not included in the two main classifications.

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  • 8. 

    MRI could be used 1. as a primary breast cancer detection tool 2. to image patients with breast implants to evaluate ruptures 3. to determine tumor margins and the extent of tumor spread

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      1 and 2 only

    • C.

      2 and 3 only

    • D.

      1 and 3 only

    Correct Answer
    D. 1 and 3 only
    Explanation
    Primary Breast Cancer Detection Tool: MRI can be used as a primary tool for breast cancer detection. It is particularly valuable in imaging dense breast tissue, providing detailed images that aid in the identification of tumors.
    Determine Tumor Margins and Spread: MRI is useful in determining the margins of tumors and assessing the extent of tumor spread. It provides a comprehensive view, assisting in surgical planning and treatment decisions.
    While MRI can be used for imaging patients with breast implants to evaluate ruptures (Option 2), this is not typically considered a primary use. Therefore, the correct combination is 1 and 3.

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  • 9. 

    Chemotherapy

    • A.

      Involves the use of drugs to treat cancer that may have spread

    • B.

      Is the destruction of cancer cells using high-energy radiation

    • C.

      Involves mapping the area around a tumor with the injection of a radioactive tracer

    • D.

      Is the removal of only the cancerous tissue from the breast

    Correct Answer
    A. Involves the use of drugs to treat cancer that may have spread
    Explanation
    Chemotherapy is a treatment method that involves the use of drugs to treat cancer. These drugs are designed to target and kill cancer cells, either by stopping their growth or by causing them to die. Chemotherapy is often used when cancer has spread to other parts of the body, as the drugs can travel through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells in different areas. This treatment approach is different from the other options mentioned, as it does not involve radiation, mapping, or surgical removal of tissue.

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  • 10. 

    The ACS recommends that 1. all women should have a screening mammogram every year. 2. women above 40 should have a screening mammogram every year. 3. new masses or lumps in the breast should be checked by a health-care provider.

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      2 only

    • C.

      1 and 3 only

    • D.

      2 and 3 only

    Correct Answer
    D. 2 and 3 only
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 2 and 3 only. This is because the American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends that women above 40 should have a screening mammogram every year, which aligns with option 2. Additionally, the ACS also recommends that new masses or lumps in the breast should be checked by a health-care provider, which aligns with option 3. Option 1, stating that all women should have a screening mammogram every year, is not in line with the ACS recommendation, as they specify that it is for women above 40.

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  • 11. 

    A health-care provider should evaluate which of the following breast changes? 1. lumps or swellings 2. skin irritation or dimpling 3. milky discharge from the nipple

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      1 and 2 only

    • C.

      2 and 3 only

    • D.

      1, 2 and 3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 2 and 3
    Explanation
    Any of the mentioned breast changes can be potential signs of underlying health issues, including breast cancer. It is important for a health-care provider to evaluate all of these changes:

     

    Lumps or swellings: Any abnormal lumps, bumps, or swellings in the breast tissue can be a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare provider.

     

    Skin irritation or dimpling: Changes in the skin texture, such as irritation, puckering, or dimpling, can be symptoms of breast cancer and should be examined by a healthcare professional.

     

    Milky discharge from the nipple: This discharge can be a sign of several conditions, including a hormonal imbalance, a benign breast condition, or a malignant tumor.

     

    It is crucial to have it checked by a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

    These changes might not always indicate a serious health issue, but it is essential to have them evaluated to ensure early detection and treatment if necessary.

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  • 12. 

    A CBE should be performed every 1. year after age 40 2. 3 years between ages 20 and 39 3. month after age 50

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      2 only

    • C.

      1 and 2 only

    • D.

      2 and 3 only

    Correct Answer
    C. 1 and 2 only
    Explanation
    A CBE (Clinical Breast Exam) should be performed every year after age 40 and every 3 years between ages 20 and 39. This means that option 1, which states "1 only," is correct because it includes the recommendation for women over 40. Option 2, which states "2 only," is also correct because it includes the recommendation for women between ages 20 and 39. Option 3, which states "2 and 3 only," is incorrect because it includes the recommendation for women after age 50, which is not mentioned in the given information.

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  • 13. 

    A CBE can be performed by which of the following? 1. the radiologist 2. the patient 3. a health-care professional

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      2 only

    • C.

      2 and 3 only

    • D.

      1 and 3 only

    Correct Answer
    D. 1 and 3 only
    Explanation
    A CBE (Clinical Breast Examination) is a procedure that involves the physical examination of a patient's breasts to check for any abnormalities or signs of breast cancer. It can be performed by both the radiologist and a health-care professional. The radiologist is trained to interpret the results of imaging tests and can also conduct a physical examination if required. A health-care professional, such as a nurse or a physician, is also qualified to perform a CBE as part of routine breast health check-ups. The patient, however, is not qualified to perform a CBE on their own.

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  • 14. 

    A BSE should be done regularly by 1. the radiologist 2. the patient 3. a health-care professional

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      2 only

    • C.

      2 and 3 only

    • D.

      1 and 3 only

    Correct Answer
    B. 2 only
    Explanation
    Regular BSE (Breast Self-Examination) should be done by the patient. This is because BSE is a method for individuals to examine their own breasts to detect any changes or abnormalities that may indicate breast cancer. It is an important part of breast health awareness and early detection. A radiologist may perform a clinical breast examination (CBE) or a health-care professional may provide guidance on how to perform BSE correctly, but the responsibility of conducting regular self-examinations lies with the patient.

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  • 15. 

    All women above the age _________ should perform a BSE regularly.

    • A.

      20

    • B.

      30

    • C.

      40

    • D.

      50

    Correct Answer
    A. 20
    Explanation
    Women of all ages should perform a breast self-examination (BSE) regularly to detect any changes or abnormalities in their breasts. It is important to start performing BSE at an early age, such as 20, to establish a baseline and become familiar with the normal look and feel of the breasts. This allows women to better identify any changes or potential signs of breast cancer at an early stage. Regular BSE can help in the early detection of breast cancer and improve the chances of successful treatment.

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  • 16. 

    The two-step method of BSE is to

    • A.

      Look and feel for changes in the breast

    • B.

      Examine your breasts and have a regular mammogram

    • C.

      Check for lumps in the breast and keep a journal of changes in the breast

    • D.

      Examine your breasts and nipples

    Correct Answer
    A. Look and feel for changes in the breast
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to look and feel for changes in the breast. This is because the two-step method of BSE (Breast Self-Examination) involves visually inspecting the breasts for any changes in size, shape, or appearance, as well as physically feeling for any lumps or abnormalities. By regularly checking for changes, individuals can detect any potential issues early on and seek medical attention if needed. It is important to note that BSE is not a substitute for regular mammograms or clinical breast exams, but rather a complementary practice for breast health awareness.

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  • 17. 

    When visually inspecting the breast, the changes that should be recorded include 1. changes in size and shape 2. changes in texture or color 3. indentations

    • A.

      1 and 2 only

    • B.

      2 and 3 only

    • C.

      1 and 3 only

    • D.

      1, 2 and 3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 2 and 3
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1, 2 and 3. When visually inspecting the breast, changes in size and shape, changes in texture or color, and indentations should all be recorded. These changes can be important indicators of potential breast abnormalities or conditions, such as breast cancer. By noting these changes, healthcare professionals can better assess and monitor the breast health of an individual.

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  • 18. 

    The patient's medical history and documentation will 1. provide the radiologist with information on the patient's risk factors for breast cancer 2. give the radiologist information about general symptoms of breast cancer 3. provide information about possible benign breast conditions of the patient

    • A.

      1 and 2 only

    • B.

      2 and 3 only

    • C.

      1 and 3 only

    • D.

      1, 2 and 3

    Correct Answer
    C. 1 and 3 only
    Explanation
    The patient's medical history and documentation can provide the radiologist with information on the patient's risk factors for breast cancer. This includes factors such as family history, previous biopsies, and hormonal factors that may increase the patient's likelihood of developing breast cancer. Additionally, the medical history and documentation can also provide information about possible benign breast conditions that the patient may have, which can help the radiologist in interpreting the imaging findings and making a more accurate diagnosis.

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  • 19. 

    The importance of BSE and a CBE is stressed because 1. both will detect benign breast diseases, which are very common 2. both will help in the detection of malignant breast conditions 3. a mammogram is not 100% effective

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      2 only

    • C.

      2 and 3 only

    • D.

      1 and 3 only

    Correct Answer
    C. 2 and 3 only
    Explanation
    The importance of BSE (Breast Self-Examination) and a CBE (Clinical Breast Examination) is stressed because they both help in the detection of malignant breast conditions. This is important because early detection of breast cancer greatly increases the chances of successful treatment. Additionally, a mammogram is not 100% effective, so relying solely on mammograms may result in missed diagnoses. Therefore, both BSE and CBE are important tools in detecting breast cancer and ensuring early intervention.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following are methods used in BSE? 1. using the pads of the three middle fingers to palpate the entire breast 2. palpating around the breast in a vertical pattern 3. using varying degrees of pressure while palpation of the breast

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      1 and 2 only

    • C.

      1 and 3 only

    • D.

      1, 2 and 3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 2 and 3
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1, 2 and 3. These methods are used in BSE (Breast Self-Examination). Method 1 involves using the pads of the three middle fingers to palpate the entire breast. Method 2 involves palpating around the breast in a vertical pattern. Method 3 involves using varying degrees of pressure while palpating the breast. These methods are important for detecting any abnormalities or changes in the breast tissue, which can be indicative of breast cancer or other breast conditions.

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  • 21. 

    For a menstruating woman, when is the best time of the month to perform a BSE?

    • A.

      1 week before the start of menstruation

    • B.

      On the first day of the month

    • C.

      On the last day of the month

    • D.

      When the breast is least tender

    Correct Answer
    D. When the breast is least tender
    Explanation
    The best time for a menstruating woman to perform a breast self-exam (BSE) is when the breast is least tender. This is because breast tenderness is a common symptom experienced by many women during their menstrual cycle. Performing a BSE when the breast is least tender can help ensure a more comfortable and accurate examination, as tenderness can make it difficult to detect any abnormalities or changes in the breast tissue.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following statements are true? 1. Breast cancer death rates in the United States are going down. 2. Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. 3. The second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States is breast cancer.

    • A.

      1 and 2 only

    • B.

      2 and 3 only

    • C.

      1 and 3 only

    • D.

      1, 2 and 3

    Correct Answer
    C. 1 and 3 only
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1 and 3 only. The explanation for this answer is that statement 1 is true because breast cancer death rates in the United States have been declining over the years due to advancements in early detection and treatment. Statement 2 is false because while breast cancer is a significant cause of cancer death in women, it is not the leading cause. The leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States is lung cancer. Statement 3 is true because breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States, after lung cancer.

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  • 23. 

    Postmenopausal obesity is associated with

    • A.

      A relatively high risk of developing breast cancer

    • B.

      Overall reduction in breast cancer risks

    • C.

      Circulating estrogen that is produced in fat tissue

    • D.

      A lower overall estrogen level

    Correct Answer
    C. Circulating estrogen that is produced in fat tissue
    Explanation
    Postmenopausal obesity is associated with a relatively high risk of developing breast cancer because fat tissue produces estrogen. After menopause, the ovaries stop producing estrogen, but fat cells continue to produce small amounts of this hormone. Therefore, women who are obese have higher levels of circulating estrogen, which can increase the risk of developing breast cancer. This is why postmenopausal obesity is linked to a higher risk of breast cancer compared to women with lower overall estrogen levels.

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  • 24. 

    A process of removing tissue, muscle and fat from the belly and transferring that tissue to reconstruct the breast is called

    • A.

      TRAM flap

    • B.

      Latissimus dorsi flap

    • C.

      Implant placement

    • D.

      Silicone implant

    Correct Answer
    A. TRAM flap
    Explanation
    The correct answer is TRAM flap. TRAM flap stands for transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It is a surgical procedure in which tissue, muscle, and fat are taken from the belly and used to reconstruct the breast. This technique is commonly used in breast reconstruction surgeries after mastectomy. The TRAM flap provides a natural-looking and feeling breast reconstruction option for women who desire autologous tissue reconstruction.

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  • 25. 

    Antiestrogen drugs such as tamoxifen can be used to 1. slow or stop the cancer's growth 2. prevent breast cancer in high-risk women 3. prevent the recurrence of breast cancer

    • A.

      1 and 2 only

    • B.

      2 and 3 only

    • C.

      1 and 3 only

    • D.

      1, 2 and 3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 2 and 3
    Explanation
    Antiestrogen drugs such as tamoxifen are used to slow or stop the growth of cancer cells. They can also be used to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women by reducing the risk of developing the disease. Additionally, these drugs can help prevent the recurrence of breast cancer in patients who have already been treated for the disease. Therefore, options 1, 2, and 3 are all correct.

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  • 26. 

    In routine mammogaphy, the radiation dose per projection is generally about

    • A.

      0.1-0.2 rad

    • B.

      1.0-2.0 rad

    • C.

      0.01-0.02 rad

    • D.

      2-3 mrad

    Correct Answer
    A. 0.1-0.2 rad
    Explanation
    Routine mammography is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses X-rays to examine the breasts for any abnormalities. The radiation dose per projection refers to the amount of radiation exposure a patient receives during each X-ray image taken. The correct answer, 0.1-0.2 rad, indicates that the typical radiation dose range for routine mammography is between 0.1 and 0.2 rad. This range is considered safe and within acceptable limits for the purpose of breast cancer screening.

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  • 27. 

    Which age group is likely to get the most radiation dose from a mammogram?

    • A.

      Between 20 and 35

    • B.

      Between 40 and 50

    • C.

      Between 55 and 60

    • D.

      Above 70

    Correct Answer
    A. Between 20 and 35
    Explanation
    The age group between 20 and 35 is likely to get the most radiation dose from a mammogram because younger women tend to have denser breast tissue, which requires more radiation to produce clear images. As women age, their breast tissue becomes less dense, requiring less radiation for imaging. Therefore, the younger age group is more likely to receive a higher radiation dose during a mammogram.

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  • 28. 

    The 5-year survival rate for a patient with a stage 0 breast cancer is about

    • A.

      49%

    • B.

      76%

    • C.

      88%

    • D.

      100%

    Correct Answer
    D. 100%
    Explanation
    The 5-year survival rate for a patient with stage 0 breast cancer is 100% because stage 0 breast cancer, also known as carcinoma in situ, is the earliest stage of breast cancer where the cancer cells are confined to the milk ducts or lobules and have not spread to nearby tissues or lymph nodes. At this stage, the cancer is highly treatable and the chances of survival are very high.

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  • 29. 

    During a mammogram, which of the following will affect the average glandular dose per breast? 1. degree of breast compression 2. the half-value layer (HVL) of the x-ray beam 3. breast size and composition

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      2 only

    • C.

      3 only

    • D.

      1, 2 and 3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 2 and 3
    Explanation
    During a mammogram, the average glandular dose per breast is affected by multiple factors. The degree of breast compression plays a significant role as it helps to spread out the breast tissue, reducing its thickness and allowing for better imaging. The half-value layer (HVL) of the x-ray beam also affects the dose as it determines the penetration power of the radiation. A higher HVL means that the radiation will penetrate deeper into the breast tissue, resulting in a higher dose. Lastly, breast size and composition impact the dose as larger breasts or denser breast tissue require more radiation to achieve a clear image. Therefore, all three factors - breast compression, HVL, and breast size/composition - affect the average glandular dose per breast during a mammogram.

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  • 30. 

    In general, the optimal duration of tamoxifen treatment is

    • A.

      2 years

    • B.

      3 years

    • C.

      4 years

    • D.

      5 years

    Correct Answer
    D. 5 years
    Explanation
    The optimal duration of tamoxifen treatment is 5 years because this is the recommended time period for reducing the risk of recurrence and improving survival rates in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Studies have shown that longer durations of tamoxifen therapy provide greater benefits in terms of preventing the return of cancer cells. Therefore, it is important for patients to complete the full 5-year course of treatment to maximize its effectiveness.

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  • 31. 

    Lumpectomy describes the process of

    • A.

      Removing the entire breast including the nipple

    • B.

      Removal of the breast cancer tumor and surrounding margins of normal breast

    • C.

      Making a small incision over or near the site of breast lesion

    • D.

      Removing benign lumps from the breast

    Correct Answer
    B. Removal of the breast cancer tumor and surrounding margins of normal breast
    Explanation
    Lumpectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the breast cancer tumor along with a small margin of normal breast tissue surrounding it. This procedure aims to remove the cancerous tissue while preserving as much of the breast as possible. It is a common treatment option for early-stage breast cancer and is often followed by radiation therapy to ensure complete removal of any remaining cancer cells. Unlike other options that involve removing the entire breast, lumpectomy allows women to retain their breast shape and size to a large extent.

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  • 32. 

    Radiation therapy can be used 1. combined with other treatment options 2. to kill any remaining cancer cells in the breast, or chest wall area 3. to shrink the size of a tumor before surgery

    • A.

      1 and 2 only

    • B.

      2 and 3 only

    • C.

      1 and 3 only

    • D.

      1, 2 and 3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 2 and 3
    Explanation
    Radiation therapy can be used in combination with other treatment options to effectively treat cancer. It is used to kill any remaining cancer cells in the breast or chest wall area after surgery, reducing the risk of recurrence. Additionally, radiation therapy can also be used to shrink the size of a tumor before surgery, making it easier to remove. Therefore, all three options are correct.

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  • 33. 

    Chemotherapy is a class of drugs that can be used to

    • A.

      Stop the spread of cancer to other parts of the body

    • B.

      Block estrogen from cancer cells

    • C.

      Reduce estrogen levels in the body

    • D.

      Kill cancer cells by using high-energy radiation

    Correct Answer
    A. Stop the spread of cancer to other parts of the body
    Explanation
    Chemotherapy is a class of drugs that can be used to stop the spread of cancer to other parts of the body. It works by targeting and killing cancer cells, preventing them from multiplying and spreading to other organs or tissues. Chemotherapy drugs can be administered orally or intravenously and they work by interfering with the cancer cells' ability to divide and grow. By stopping the spread of cancer, chemotherapy can help to control the disease and improve the patient's chances of survival.

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  • 34. 

    Breast reconstruction can involve the placement of small fluid-filled sacs behind the pectoral muscle. Two common types of such implants are

    • A.

      Saline and flap surgery

    • B.

      TRAM flap and silicone implant

    • C.

      Silicone or saline implants

    • D.

      Saline-filled implant and latissimus dorsi flap implant

    Correct Answer
    C. Silicone or saline implants
    Explanation
    Breast reconstruction can involve the placement of small fluid-filled sacs behind the pectoral muscle. The two common types of implants used in this procedure are silicone implants and saline implants. Silicone implants are made of a silicone outer shell filled with silicone gel, while saline implants are filled with sterile saltwater. Both types of implants have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them depends on factors such as personal preference, body type, and desired outcome.

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  • 35. 

    With its high sensitivity, MRI is ideal as

    • A.

      A routine screen tool for breast cancer

    • B.

      A replacement for mammography screening in detecting breast cancers

    • C.

      An adjunctive tool in detecting breast

    • D.

      A screening tool for older women

    Correct Answer
    C. An adjunctive tool in detecting breast
    Explanation
    MRI is an adjunctive tool in detecting breast cancer. It means that MRI can be used in addition to other screening methods, such as mammography, to improve the accuracy of detecting breast cancers. MRI has high sensitivity, meaning it can detect even small abnormalities in breast tissue. However, it is not recommended as a routine screening tool or a replacement for mammography screening. Instead, it is used as an additional tool for specific cases, such as in women with dense breast tissue or those at high risk for breast cancer.

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  • 36. 

    MRI imaging involves the use of

    • A.

      Radiation to detect breast lesions

    • B.

      Sound waves in the imaging of the breast

    • C.

      Magnetic properties plus radio waves to image the breast

    • D.

      Strong sound an radio waves in imaging the breast

    Correct Answer
    C. Magnetic properties plus radio waves to image the breast
    Explanation
    MRI imaging involves the use of magnetic properties and radio waves to image the breast. This technique utilizes a strong magnetic field and radio waves to generate detailed images of the breast tissue. The magnetic field aligns the protons in the body, and when radio waves are applied, the protons emit signals that are detected by the MRI machine. These signals are then processed to create high-resolution images of the breast, allowing for the detection and evaluation of breast lesions or abnormalities.

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  • 37. 

    Ultrasound uses

    • A.

      High-frequency sound waves to image the breast

    • B.

      Low-frequency sound waves to image the breast

    • C.

      Longitudinal microwaves to image the breast

    • D.

      Radiofrequency waves to image the breast

    Correct Answer
    A. High-frequency sound waves to image the breast
    Explanation
    Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to image the breast. These sound waves are emitted by a transducer and penetrate the breast tissue. When the sound waves encounter different tissues, they bounce back and create echoes. These echoes are then converted into images by a computer, allowing healthcare professionals to visualize the internal structures of the breast. High-frequency sound waves are used because they can provide detailed images and are safe for the patient as they do not involve ionizing radiation.

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  • 38. 

    MRI can be used to 1. map the extent of a tumor 2. image patients with implants 3. evaluate patients with dense breast

    • A.

      1 and 2 only

    • B.

      2 and 3 only

    • C.

      1 and 3 only

    • D.

      1, 2 and 3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 2 and 3
    Explanation
    MRI can be used to map the extent of a tumor, as it provides detailed images of the body's soft tissues. It can also be used to image patients with implants, as it does not involve the use of radiation and is therefore safe for individuals with implants. Additionally, MRI can be used to evaluate patients with dense breasts, as it is able to detect abnormalities that may not be visible on a mammogram. Therefore, all three options (1, 2, and 3) are correct.

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  • 39. 

    Conventional ultrasound imaging of the breast is often used to

    • A.

      Map the extent of a breast tumor

    • B.

      Verify that a lesion seen on the mammogram is solid or fluid filled

    • C.

      Verify the presence of microcalcifications

    • D.

      Biopsy a lesion seen only on MRI

    Correct Answer
    B. Verify that a lesion seen on the mammogram is solid or fluid filled
    Explanation
    Conventional ultrasound imaging of the breast is often used to verify that a lesion seen on the mammogram is solid or fluid filled. Ultrasound can provide additional information about the nature of the lesion, helping to determine if it is a benign cyst (fluid-filled) or a solid mass. This can assist in guiding further diagnostic and treatment decisions.

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  • 40. 

    In mammography, selecting extremely low kVp values

    • A.

      Reduces contrast and lowers patient dose

    • B.

      Increases contrast but increases patient dose

    • C.

      Reduces contrast but increases patient dose

    • D.

      Increases contrast and reduces patient dose

    Correct Answer
    B. Increases contrast but increases patient dose
    Explanation
    Selecting extremely low kVp values in mammography increases contrast but also increases patient dose. This is because low kVp values result in a higher absorption of X-rays by the patient's tissues, leading to increased image contrast. However, this also means that the patient receives a higher dose of radiation during the procedure.

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  • 41. 

    What target-filtration combination provides the best penetration for dense or thick breast?

    • A.

      Molybdenum target with molybdenum filtration

    • B.

      Rhodium target with rhodium filtration

    • C.

      Tungsten target with tungsten filtration

    • D.

      Molybdenum target with appropriate K-edge filtration

    Correct Answer
    B. Rhodium target with rhodium filtration
    Explanation
    Rhodium target with rhodium filtration provides the best penetration for dense or thick breast. Rhodium has a higher atomic number than molybdenum or tungsten, which means it can produce higher energy X-rays. This higher energy allows the X-rays to penetrate dense breast tissue more effectively. Additionally, using rhodium filtration further enhances the penetration by removing low energy X-rays, which are more likely to be absorbed by the breast tissue. Therefore, the combination of rhodium target with rhodium filtration is the most suitable for dense or thick breast imaging.

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  • 42. 

    The material used for the exit port of the mammography tube is necessary because

    • A.

      The intensity of the beam is less on the anode side than on the cathode side.

    • B.

      Regular glass would harden the emerging beam

    • C.

      The intensity of the beam is more on the anode side than the cathode side.

    • D.

      Regular glass would soften the emerging beam.

    Correct Answer
    B. Regular glass would harden the emerging beam
    Explanation
    The material used for the exit port of the mammography tube is necessary because regular glass would harden the emerging beam. This means that if regular glass were used, it would cause the beam to become more intense and potentially harmful. By using a different material for the exit port, the beam can be controlled and maintained at a safe intensity level.

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  • 43. 

    The intensity of the x-ray beam from the cathode side of the tube is generally higher because

    • A.

      Soft characteristic radiation emerges from the anode side

    • B.

      The cathode side is directed to the thickest part of the breast.

    • C.

      The heel effect causes variation in the intensity of the x-ray beam.

    • D.

      The heel effect increases the intensity of the beam at the anode side.

    Correct Answer
    C. The heel effect causes variation in the intensity of the x-ray beam.
    Explanation
    The heel effect causes variation in the intensity of the x-ray beam. The heel effect occurs because of the geometry of the x-ray tube, where the x-ray beam is more intense on the cathode side and less intense on the anode side. This is because the x-rays are emitted from the focal spot on the anode and diverge as they travel towards the cathode. As a result, the intensity of the x-ray beam is higher on the cathode side compared to the anode side.

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  • 44. 

    The design of the lip of the compression paddle (both height and angle along the chest wall) affects all of the following except that it

    • A.

      Prevents the posterior and axillary fat from overlapping the body of the breast

    • B.

      Allows uniform compression of the posterior breast tissue

    • C.

      Helps to increase structural strength of the compression paddle

    • D.

      Ensures greater compression of the anterior breast tissue

    Correct Answer
    D. Ensures greater compression of the anterior breast tissue
    Explanation
    The design of the lip of the compression paddle, including its height and angle along the chest wall, affects several aspects of mammography. It helps to prevent the posterior and axillary fat from overlapping the body of the breast, allowing for better visualization of the breast tissue. It also allows for uniform compression of the posterior breast tissue, ensuring that all areas of the breast are adequately compressed for accurate imaging. Additionally, the design helps to increase the structural strength of the compression paddle, ensuring its durability and effectiveness. However, it does not specifically ensure greater compression of the anterior breast tissue.

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  • 45. 

    The primary goal of compression is to

    • A.

      Reduce the OID of the lesion

    • B.

      Allow uniform penetration of structures within the breast

    • C.

      Reduce the possibility of motion during the exposure

    • D.

      Reduce the radiation dose to the breast

    Correct Answer
    B. Allow uniform penetration of structures within the breast
    Explanation
    Compression in mammography is used to allow uniform penetration of structures within the breast. By applying compression, the breast tissue is spread out evenly, reducing overlapping structures and allowing for a clearer image. This helps in detecting small abnormalities and improves the accuracy of the mammogram. Compression also helps to immobilize the breast, reducing the possibility of motion artifacts during the exposure. While compression may slightly reduce the radiation dose to the breast, its primary goal is to ensure uniform penetration and image quality.

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  • 46. 

    AEC failure, resulting in an underexposed radiograph, can be caused by

    • A.

      Processing deficiencies such as fluctuating developer temperature

    • B.

      Improper placement of the dense breast tissue/size over the detector

    • C.

      Decreased radiographic contrast

    • D.

      Inadequate breast compression

    Correct Answer
    B. Improper placement of the dense breast tissue/size over the detector
    Explanation
    Improper placement of dense breast tissue/size over the detector can cause AEC failure and result in an underexposed radiograph. This is because the automatic exposure control (AEC) system relies on the detection of radiation passing through the breast tissue to determine the appropriate exposure. If the dense breast tissue is not properly positioned over the detector, it can block or attenuate the radiation, leading to an underexposed image.

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  • 47. 

    Most AEC circuitry in modern mammographic imaging has at least three detectors. Three or more detectors are recommended because

    • A.

      Multiple detectors allow for maximum variations in breast size and tissue density.

    • B.

      AEC detectors eliminate the guesswork in determining the proper exposure factor for each patient.

    • C.

      Detectors have the ability to terminate the exposure by back-up timer when a maximum exposure time or maximum milliamperes (mA) per second is reached.

    • D.

      All AEC detector systems provide consistent image densities because of the high-contrast mammography films.

    Correct Answer
    A. Multiple detectors allow for maximum variations in breast size and tissue density.
    Explanation
    Having multiple detectors in AEC circuitry allows for maximum variations in breast size and tissue density. This is because different breast sizes and tissue densities require different exposure factors for optimal imaging. By having multiple detectors, the system can adapt and adjust the exposure settings accordingly, ensuring that the images produced are of high quality and properly exposed for each patient. This eliminates the guesswork in determining the proper exposure factor for each patient and ensures consistent image densities. Additionally, detectors also have the ability to terminate the exposure when a maximum exposure time or maximum milliamperes (mA) per second is reached, further enhancing patient safety.

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  • 48. 

    The major difference between the general radiography grid and the grid used in mammography is that the

    • A.

      Grid used in general radiography causes an increase in exposure

    • B.

      Grids used in general radiography have higher ratios

    • C.

      Use of a grid in mammography increases patient dose

    • D.

      Grids in mammography improve the radiographic image contrast

    Correct Answer
    B. Grids used in general radiography have higher ratios
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "grids used in general radiography have higher ratios." In general radiography, the grid is used to reduce scatter radiation and improve image quality. The grid ratio refers to the ratio of the height of the lead strips to the distance between them. A higher grid ratio means that there are more lead strips per unit distance, which effectively reduces scatter radiation but also requires a higher exposure dose. In mammography, the grid ratio is typically lower to minimize patient dose while still improving image contrast.

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  • 49. 

    The grid ratio can vary in modern mammography units. A common grid ratio used is

    • A.

      8:1

    • B.

      6:1

    • C.

      4:1

    • D.

      2:1

    Correct Answer
    C. 4:1
    Explanation
    The grid ratio refers to the ratio of the height of the lead strips to the distance between them in a grid used in mammography units. A higher grid ratio indicates a greater amount of scatter radiation is absorbed, which helps improve image quality by reducing scattered radiation. Among the given options, 4:1 is the highest grid ratio, indicating that it is commonly used in modern mammography units to enhance image quality.

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  • 50. 

    As the size of the x-ray field decreases, to maintain a constant image density the exposure will

    • A.

      Increase

    • B.

      Decrease

    • C.

      Not change significantly

    • D.

      Decrease inversely

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase
    Explanation
    As the size of the x-ray field decreases, the same amount of radiation is concentrated in a smaller area. This means that the exposure per unit area increases, resulting in a higher overall exposure. Therefore, to maintain a constant image density, the exposure needs to be increased.

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Carrie Ann |Supervisor and Lead Mammographer |
Carrie Ann Gibson, an Imaging Supervisor and Lead Mammographer at a large clinic, has a fervent dedication to mammography and imaging and a strong enthusiasm for educating others in this field.
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