Management Theory Quiz Questions

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Management Theory Quiz Questions - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    According to J.C Collins and J.L. Porras, a well conceived vision consists of two major components:

    • A.

      A 10-30 year BHAG and vivid descriptions

    • B.

      Core values and core purpose

    • C.

      Core ideology and envisioned future

    • D.

      Core values and vivid descriptions

    • E.

      Core purpose and vivid descriptions

    Correct Answer
    C. Core ideology and envisioned future
    Explanation
    A well-conceived vision consists of two major components: core ideology and envisioned future. Core ideology refers to the organization's fundamental values and purpose, which provide a sense of identity and guide decision-making. Envisioned future, on the other hand, is a compelling and inspiring picture of what the organization aims to achieve in the long term. By combining core ideology and envisioned future, a vision can effectively guide and motivate the organization towards its goals.

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  • 2. 

    According to Henry Mintzberg, very large firms typically ______ mode of strategic management.

    • A.

      Adaptive

    • B.

      Entrepreneurial

    • C.

      Corporate

    • D.

      Planing

    • E.

      Business

    Correct Answer
    D. Planing
    Explanation
    According to Henry Mintzberg, very large firms typically use the mode of strategic management called "planning." This means that these firms tend to carefully analyze and formulate their strategies in advance, setting clear goals and objectives. They rely on systematic and structured processes to develop their strategies, considering various factors such as market conditions, competition, and internal capabilities. Planning helps these firms to align their actions with their long-term goals and make informed decisions based on thorough analysis.

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  • 3. 

    The ideal strategic management team includes decision makers from:

    • A.

      All three company levels (the corporate, business, and functional)

    • B.

      Just the corporate level

    • C.

      Just the corporate and business level

    • D.

      Just the functional and corporate level

    • E.

      Just the top management

    Correct Answer
    A. All three company levels (the corporate, business, and functional)
    Explanation
    The ideal strategic management team includes decision makers from all three company levels (the corporate, business, and functional) because each level brings unique perspectives and expertise to the decision-making process. The corporate level provides overall direction and sets the strategic goals for the company. The business level focuses on specific business units or divisions and makes decisions that align with the overall corporate strategy. The functional level consists of managers from different functional areas (such as marketing, finance, operations) who contribute their specialized knowledge to the decision-making process. By including decision makers from all three levels, the strategic management team can ensure comprehensive and well-informed decision making.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is a generic strategy option?

    • A.

      Integration

    • B.

      Diversification

    • C.

      Differentiation

    • D.

      Retrenchment

    • E.

      Concentration

    Correct Answer
    C. Differentiation
    Explanation
    Differentiation is a generic strategy option because it involves creating a unique and distinct product or service that is perceived as valuable by customers. This strategy focuses on offering something different from competitors, such as superior quality, innovative features, or exceptional customer service. By differentiating themselves, companies can attract customers who are willing to pay a premium price for the unique benefits they provide. This strategy can help companies gain a competitive advantage and build customer loyalty.

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  • 5. 

    Market development is an example of a:

    • A.

      Generic strategy

    • B.

      Grand strategy

    • C.

      Functional level strategy

    • D.

      SBU strategy

    • E.

      BHAG

    Correct Answer
    B. Grand strategy
    Explanation
    Market development is considered a grand strategy because it involves expanding into new markets with existing products. Grand strategies are high-level approaches that organizations use to achieve their long-term goals and objectives. Market development focuses on finding new customers or target markets for existing products, which aligns with the broader strategic direction of the organization. This strategy aims to increase market share, revenue, and profitability by reaching new customer segments or geographic areas.

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  • 6. 

    A strategy is a company's

    • A.

      "game plan"

    • B.

      Pricing policy

    • C.

      Net income

    • D.

      Long-term objective

    • E.

      Short-term objective

    Correct Answer
    A. "game plan"
    Explanation
    A strategy refers to the overall plan or approach that a company adopts to achieve its goals and objectives. It involves making decisions on various aspects such as market positioning, product development, resource allocation, and competitive advantage. The term "game plan" is often used metaphorically to describe this strategic approach, highlighting the idea of thinking strategically and making calculated moves to succeed in the business "game". Therefore, "game plan" is an appropriate term to describe a company's strategy.

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  • 7. 

    Strategic issues:

    • A.

      Require large amounts of the firm's resources

    • B.

      Often affect the firm's long-term prosperity

    • C.

      Usually have multifunctional or multibusiness consequences

    • D.

      Are future oriented

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above." Strategic issues require large amounts of the firm's resources, often affect the firm's long-term prosperity, usually have multifunctional or multibusiness consequences, and are future-oriented. This means that strategic issues are significant and have wide-ranging impacts on the organization, requiring careful consideration and planning for the future.

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  • 8. 

    An accurate assessment of the impact of strategy formulation on organizational performance requires not only financial evaluation criteria bu also nonfinancial evaluation criteria. This statement is:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An accurate assessment of the impact of strategy formulation on organizational performance requires both financial and nonfinancial evaluation criteria. This means that simply considering financial factors such as profits and costs is not sufficient to fully understand the effectiveness of a strategy. Nonfinancial evaluation criteria, such as customer satisfaction, employee engagement, and market share, provide a more comprehensive view of organizational performance. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 9. 

    Broad, precedent-setting decisions that guide or substitute for repetitive or time-sensitive managerial decision making are called:

    • A.

      Goals

    • B.

      Strategies

    • C.

      Objectives

    • D.

      Policies

    • E.

      Game plans

    Correct Answer
    D. Policies
    Explanation
    Policies are broad, precedent-setting decisions that guide or substitute for repetitive or time-sensitive managerial decision making. They provide a framework for decision making and help ensure consistency and fairness in organizational practices. Goals, strategies, objectives, and game plans are all important elements of managerial decision making, but they are not specifically designed to guide or substitute for repetitive or time-sensitive decision making in the same way that policies do.

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  • 10. 

    _____ is are concerned with tracking a strategy as it is being implemented, detecting problems or changes in its underlying premises, and making necessary adjustments.

    • A.

      Postaction control

    • B.

      Strategic control

    • C.

      Internal analysis

    • D.

      Functional tactics

    • E.

      Strategy formulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Strategic control
    Explanation
    Strategic control refers to the process of monitoring and evaluating the implementation of a strategy, identifying any issues or changes in the assumptions on which the strategy is based, and making the necessary adjustments. It involves tracking the progress of the strategy and ensuring that it is being executed effectively. Strategic control is important for ensuring that the strategy remains aligned with the organization's goals and objectives and can adapt to any changes in the external environment.

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  • 11. 

    The results that an organization seeks over a multiyear period are its _____.

    • A.

      Grand strategies

    • B.

      Long-term objectives

    • C.

      Long-term strategies

    • D.

      Short term goals

    • E.

      Functional tactics

    Correct Answer
    B. Long-term objectives
    Explanation
    Long-term objectives refer to the desired outcomes or goals that an organization aims to achieve over a multiyear period. These objectives provide a clear direction and focus for the organization's actions and decision-making. Unlike short-term goals, which are more immediate and specific, long-term objectives are broader and encompass the overall vision and mission of the organization. By setting long-term objectives, an organization can effectively plan and allocate resources, measure performance, and monitor progress towards its desired outcomes.

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  • 12. 

    The general plan of major actions through which a firm intends to achieve its long-term objectives is called its:

    • A.

      Corporate plan

    • B.

      Action plan

    • C.

      Grand strategy

    • D.

      Mission statement

    • E.

      Functional tactic

    Correct Answer
    C. Grand strategy
    Explanation
    A grand strategy refers to the overall plan of actions that a firm implements to achieve its long-term objectives. It involves making strategic decisions at a high level, such as determining the scope of the firm's operations, identifying target markets, and allocating resources. A grand strategy provides a roadmap for the firm's future direction and guides decision-making across all levels of the organization. It is different from a corporate plan, which typically focuses on specific goals and objectives, and from functional tactics, which are more specific and operational in nature. A mission statement, on the other hand, is a concise statement that communicates the purpose and values of the organization.

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  • 13. 

    ______ are detailed statements of the 'means' of activities that will be used to achieve short-term objectives and establish competitive advantage.

    • A.

      Generic strategies

    • B.

      Policies

    • C.

      Functional tactics

    • D.

      Grand strategies

    • E.

      Mission statements

    Correct Answer
    C. Functional tactics
    Explanation
    Functional tactics are detailed statements of the 'means' of activities that will be used to achieve short-term objectives and establish competitive advantage. These tactics are specific actions and plans implemented by different functional areas of an organization, such as marketing, operations, finance, and human resources, to support the overall strategic goals. They outline the specific steps and activities that need to be taken to execute the broader strategies and achieve desired outcomes. Functional tactics are essential for aligning the day-to-day operations with the organization's strategic objectives and gaining a competitive edge in the market.

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  • 14. 

    A ________ manager's principal responsibility is to implement or execute the firm's strategic plans.

    • A.

      Functional level

    • B.

      Corporate level

    • C.

      Business level

    • D.

      Organizational level

    • E.

      SBU level

    Correct Answer
    A. Functional level
    Explanation
    A functional level manager's principal responsibility is to implement or execute the firm's strategic plans. This means that their main focus is on carrying out the specific tasks and objectives set by the organization's higher-level managers. They are responsible for overseeing and coordinating the activities within a specific department or function of the organization, such as marketing, finance, or operations. By effectively executing the strategic plans at the functional level, these managers contribute to the overall success and achievement of the organization's goals and objectives.

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  • 15. 

    ______ is defined as the set of decisions and actions that result in the formulation and implementation of plans designed to achieve a company's objectives.

    • A.

      Strategic policy

    • B.

      Business policy

    • C.

      Strategic management

    • D.

      A functional tactic

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Strategic management
    Explanation
    Strategic management refers to the set of decisions and actions that are taken to develop and implement plans aimed at achieving a company's objectives. It involves the formulation of strategies and policies that guide the organization towards its goals. This includes activities such as analyzing the competitive environment, setting objectives, allocating resources, and monitoring progress. Strategic management is crucial for the long-term success of a company as it helps in aligning the organization's activities with its overall vision and mission.

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  • 16. 

    An implication of viewing strategic management as a process is that strategy formulation and implementation are:

    • A.

      Sequential

    • B.

      Simultaneous

    • C.

      Random

    • D.

      Partial

    • E.

      Reversible

    Correct Answer
    A. Sequential
    Explanation
    Viewing strategic management as a process implies that strategy formulation and implementation occur in a sequential manner. This means that strategy formulation comes before strategy implementation, as formulation involves developing and deciding on a plan, while implementation involves executing that plan. Sequentiality allows for a systematic approach to strategic management, ensuring that strategies are well thought out and planned before being implemented.

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  • 17. 

    All business firms exist in an open system. They affect and are affected by external conditions that are largely beyond their control. This statement is:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because all business firms operate within an open system, meaning they are influenced by external factors that are mostly beyond their control. These external conditions can include economic, political, social, and technological factors, among others. As a result, businesses need to adapt and respond to these external conditions in order to survive and thrive in the market.

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  • 18. 

    Compared to business-level and functional-level decisions, corporate-level decisions:

    • A.

      Tend to be more value oriented

    • B.

      Tend to be more conceptual

    • C.

      Tend to be less concrete

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Corporate-level decisions tend to be more value oriented because they involve making choices that align with the overall mission, vision, and values of the organization. These decisions are often driven by the desire to create long-term value and achieve strategic objectives. They also tend to be more conceptual because they involve setting broad goals, formulating strategies, and making high-level decisions that impact the entire organization. Additionally, corporate-level decisions are often less concrete because they involve shaping the overall direction of the company rather than focusing on specific operational or functional details. Therefore, all of the above statements accurately describe corporate-level decisions.

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  • 19. 

    ______ level decisions involve action-oriented operational issues and are relatively short range and low risk

    • A.

      Corporate

    • B.

      Functional

    • C.

      Business

    • D.

      Board

    • E.

      Stockholder

    Correct Answer
    B. Functional
    Explanation
    Functional level decisions involve action-oriented operational issues and are relatively short range and low risk. These decisions are typically made by middle-level managers who are responsible for specific functions within the organization, such as marketing, finance, or operations. Functional level decisions are focused on implementing the strategies and plans developed at the corporate and business levels. They involve day-to-day activities and tasks that directly impact the operations of the organization. These decisions are important for ensuring the smooth functioning of the organization and achieving its short-term goals.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is not an economic goal that guides the strategic direction of almost every business organization?

    • A.

      Survival

    • B.

      Growth

    • C.

      Profitability

    • D.

      Market share

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Market share
    Explanation
    Market share is not an economic goal that guides the strategic direction of almost every business organization. While survival, growth, and profitability are common goals for businesses, market share refers to the percentage of the total market that a company holds and is more of a measure of success rather than a specific goal. Businesses may strive to increase their market share as a means to achieve their economic goals, but it is not a goal in itself.

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  • 21. 

    Competitors are an example of

    • A.

      Inside stakeholders

    • B.

      Outside stakeholders

    • C.

      Inside stockholders

    • D.

      Outside stockholders

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Outside stakeholders
    Explanation
    Competitors are considered outside stakeholders because they are individuals or organizations that are not directly involved in the day-to-day operations of a company but still have a significant impact on its success. Competitors can influence market dynamics, pricing strategies, and overall industry trends, making them an important external factor that companies must consider and respond to.

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  • 22. 

    In combination, the cost of agency problems and the cost of actions taken to minimize agency problems, are called:

    • A.

      Corporate and social responsibility costs

    • B.

      Agency costs

    • C.

      Organizational costs

    • D.

      Moral hazard problem costs

    • E.

      Adverse selection costs

    Correct Answer
    B. Agency costs
    Explanation
    Agency costs refer to the total costs incurred by a principal-agent relationship. These costs arise due to conflicts of interest between the principal (shareholders) and the agent (management). The principal may incur costs to monitor and control the agent's actions, such as hiring auditors or implementing internal controls. The agent may also incur costs to align their interests with the principal, such as providing performance incentives or acquiring information. Therefore, the combination of the costs associated with agency problems and the costs of actions taken to minimize these problems is referred to as agency costs.

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  • 23. 

    As a business grows or is forced by competitive pressures to alter its product-market- technology.

    • A.

      The mission statement should remain unchanged

    • B.

      Redefining the mission statement may be necessary

    • C.

      Redefining the mission statement is mandatory

    • D.

      The mission statement remains unaffected

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Redefining the mission statement may be necessary
    Explanation
    As a business grows or faces competitive pressures, it may need to adapt its product-market-technology strategy to stay relevant and successful. This could involve redefining the mission statement to reflect the new direction or goals of the business. While it is not mandatory to do so, it may be necessary in order to align the mission statement with the evolving needs and objectives of the business. Therefore, the correct answer is "redefining the mission statement may be necessary."

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  • 24. 

    No matter how profit is measured of defined, _______ is the clearest indication of a firm's ability to satisfy the principle claims and desires of employees and stockholders

    • A.

      Profit over the long term

    • B.

      Profit over the short term

    • C.

      Return on investment

    • D.

      The number of lawsuits brought against the firm

    • E.

      The price to earnings ration of the firm's common stock

    Correct Answer
    A. Profit over the long term
    Explanation
    Profit over the long term is the clearest indication of a firm's ability to satisfy the principle claims and desires of employees and stockholders because it demonstrates the company's ability to generate sustainable and consistent earnings. Short-term profits may fluctuate and not provide a reliable measure of the firm's overall performance. Return on investment is related to profitability and indicates the efficiency of the firm's investments. The number of lawsuits brought against the firm and the price to earnings ratio of the firm's common stock are not direct indicators of its ability to satisfy claims and desires.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is usually an assumed goal of a corporation?

    • A.

      Growth

    • B.

      Variety of product

    • C.

      Short-term profits

    • D.

      Asset proliferation

    • E.

      Growth through acquisition

    Correct Answer
    A. Growth
    Explanation
    The assumed goal of a corporation is typically growth. This means that the company aims to increase its size, market share, and profitability over time. Growth is often seen as a measure of success for a corporation as it indicates that the company is expanding, reaching more customers, and generating more revenue. By focusing on growth, a corporation can attract investors, create job opportunities, and have a greater impact on the economy.

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  • 26. 

    According to the text, which of the following is not an indispensable component of the mission statement?

    • A.

      Specification of a profile of the firm's present and prospective customers

    • B.

      Specification of the basic product or service

    • C.

      Specification of the primary market

    • D.

      Specification of the principal technology for production of delivery

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Specification of a profile of the firm's present and prospective customers
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the text states that specifying a profile of the firm's present and prospective customers is an indispensable component of the mission statement. Therefore, it is not the answer to the question asking for the component that is not indispensable.

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  • 27. 

    According to the text, the mission attempts to:

    • A.

      Provide a unifying purpose for the company

    • B.

      Set policy

    • C.

      Create a board of directors

    • D.

      Identify stakeholders

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Provide a unifying purpose for the company
    Explanation
    The mission attempts to provide a unifying purpose for the company. This means that it aims to establish a common goal or objective that all employees can work towards. A mission statement typically outlines the company's core values, aspirations, and overall direction. By having a clear and shared purpose, the mission helps align the efforts of the employees and creates a sense of unity within the organization.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is not an area covered by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002?

    • A.

      Corporate responsibility

    • B.

      Mission statement

    • C.

      Increased disclosure

    • D.

      Audit committees

    • E.

      Auditor independence

    Correct Answer
    B. Mission statement
    Explanation
    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a legislation that aims to protect investors and ensure the accuracy and reliability of financial statements. It focuses on areas such as corporate responsibility, increased disclosure, audit committees, and auditor independence. However, a mission statement is not specifically addressed in the Act. While a mission statement is an important aspect of a company's overall strategy and goals, it is not directly related to the financial reporting and governance requirements that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act addresses.

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  • 29. 

    Harvard professor Michael E. Porter - in his seminal article on the industry environment and its impact of strategic management - argues that:

    • A.

      The state of competition in an industry depends on four basic forces

    • B.

      The strongest competitive force or forces determine the profitability of an industry and so are of the greatest importance in strategy formulation

    • C.

      The weaker the forces collectively, the greater the opportunity for superior performance

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    E. B and C
    Explanation
    In his article, Harvard professor Michael E. Porter explains that the state of competition in an industry is influenced by four basic forces. He further argues that the strongest competitive force or forces have the greatest impact on the profitability of the industry and are therefore crucial in the formulation of strategies. Additionally, Porter suggests that when the collective strength of these forces is weaker, there is a greater opportunity for achieving superior performance. Therefore, the correct answer is B and C, which aligns with Porter's arguments.

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  • 30. 

    The learning curve effect is an example of which barrier to entry?

    • A.

      Cost disadvantages independent of size

    • B.

      Product differentiation

    • C.

      Economics of scale

    • D.

      Government policy

    • E.

      Market differentiation

    Correct Answer
    A. Cost disadvantages independent of size
    Explanation
    The learning curve effect refers to the phenomenon where a company becomes more efficient and productive over time as it gains experience and expertise in producing a product or service. This results in lower costs per unit and a competitive advantage. Cost disadvantages independent of size, as the correct answer, means that even small companies can achieve cost advantages through learning curve effects, making it a barrier to entry for new competitors. This suggests that new entrants would face difficulties in matching the cost efficiency achieved by established players due to their learning curve advantage.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is not a reason why defining an industry's boundaries is important?

    • A.

      It helps executives determine the arena in which their firm is competing

    • B.

      It enables the firm to identify its competitors and producers of substitute products

    • C.

      It helps executives determine key factors for success

    • D.

      Stakeholders demand it

    • E.

      It gives executives another basis on which to evaluate their firm's goals

    Correct Answer
    D. Stakeholders demand it
    Explanation
    Defining an industry's boundaries is important because it helps executives determine the arena in which their firm is competing, enables the firm to identify its competitors and producers of substitute products, helps executives determine key factors for success, and gives executives another basis on which to evaluate their firm's goals. However, stakeholders demanding it is not a reason why defining industry boundaries is important.

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  • 32. 

    Defining industry boundaries is a very difficult task because:

    • A.

      The evolution of industries over time creates new opportunities and threats

    • B.

      Industrial evolution creates industries within industries

    • C.

      Industries are becoming global in scope

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is all of the above. Defining industry boundaries is a difficult task because the evolution of industries over time creates new opportunities and threats. As industries evolve, they also create industries within industries, further complicating the task of defining boundaries. Additionally, industries are becoming increasingly global in scope, making it even more challenging to determine where one industry ends and another begins. Therefore, all of these factors contribute to the difficulty of defining industry boundaries.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following is not a variable that comprises industry structure?

    • A.

      Concentration

    • B.

      Economics of scale

    • C.

      Suppliers' bargaining power

    • D.

      Barriers to entry

    • E.

      Product differentiation

    Correct Answer
    C. Suppliers' bargaining power
    Explanation
    Suppliers' bargaining power is not a variable that comprises industry structure. Industry structure refers to the overall framework and characteristics of an industry, including factors such as concentration (the number and size of firms in the industry), economies of scale (cost advantages gained by increasing production), barriers to entry (obstacles that make it difficult for new firms to enter the industry), and product differentiation (the extent to which products in the industry are perceived as unique or distinct). Suppliers' bargaining power, on the other hand, relates to the influence and leverage that suppliers have over firms in terms of pricing, quality, and availability of inputs.

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  • 34. 

    The external environment can be divided into three interrelated subcategories:

    • A.

      Remote, operating, and task

    • B.

      Remote, competitive, and task

    • C.

      Remote, industry, and operating

    • D.

      Remote, competitive, and operating

    • E.

      Remote, intermediate, and industry.

    Correct Answer
    C. Remote, industry, and operating
    Explanation
    The correct answer is remote, industry, and operating. The external environment of a business can be divided into three subcategories: remote, industry, and operating. The remote environment includes factors that are beyond the control of the business, such as economic conditions and political factors. The industry environment includes factors that directly affect the industry in which the business operates, such as competitors and suppliers. The operating environment includes factors that directly affect the day-to-day operations of the business, such as customers and employees.

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  • 35. 

    How do executives draw accurate boundaries for an industry? The starting point is:

    • A.

      The firm's mission statement

    • B.

      A focus group session with the firm's top managers

    • C.

      The federal government's definition of the industry

    • D.

      A definition of the industry in global terms

    • E.

      By defining its product segments

    Correct Answer
    D. A definition of the industry in global terms
    Explanation
    Executives draw accurate boundaries for an industry by defining it in global terms. This means considering the industry's scope and boundaries on a global scale, taking into account factors such as international competition, market trends, and global market segments. By looking at the industry from a global perspective, executives can gain a comprehensive understanding of its reach and potential, enabling them to make informed decisions and strategies that align with the industry's global dynamics. This approach helps executives avoid narrow or limited perspectives and ensures a broader and more accurate industry definition.

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  • 36. 

    Intense rivalry is most likely when:

    • A.

      Industry growth is fast

    • B.

      The product or service has high swithching costs

    • C.

      Exit barriers are high

    • D.

      There are few competitors

    • E.

      The product or service is highly differentiated

    Correct Answer
    C. Exit barriers are high
    Explanation
    When exit barriers are high, it means that it is difficult for companies to leave the industry. This can lead to intense rivalry because companies are forced to compete fiercely in order to survive and make profits. High exit barriers may include factors such as high fixed costs, long-term contracts, or specialized assets that cannot easily be sold or repurposed. In such a situation, companies are more likely to engage in aggressive tactics, such as price wars or extensive marketing campaigns, to gain a competitive advantage and attract customers.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is not a major source of barriers to entry in an industry?

    • A.

      Market differentiation

    • B.

      Access to distribution channels

    • C.

      Economics of scale

    • D.

      Cost disadvantages independent of size

    • E.

      Product differentiation

    Correct Answer
    A. Market differentiation
    Explanation
    Market differentiation is not a major source of barriers to entry in an industry. Barriers to entry are factors that make it difficult for new firms to enter and compete in a particular industry. Market differentiation refers to the ability of a firm to distinguish its products or services from those of its competitors. While market differentiation can provide a competitive advantage, it does not necessarily create significant barriers to entry. Other factors such as access to distribution channels, economies of scale, cost disadvantages independent of size, and product differentiation are more likely to create barriers to entry in an industry.

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  • 38. 

    A buyer group is powerful if:

    • A.

      It earns low profits, which create great incentive to lower its purchasing costs

    • B.

      The industry's product is important to the quality of the buyers' products or services

    • C.

      The industry's product saves the buyer money

    • D.

      It is not concentrated or does not purchase in large volumes

    • E.

      The products it purchases from the industry are unique or differentiated

    Correct Answer
    A. It earns low profits, which create great incentive to lower its purchasing costs
    Explanation
    A buyer group is powerful if it earns low profits because this creates a strong incentive for the group to lower its purchasing costs. When a buyer group is not making high profits, they are more motivated to negotiate better prices and terms with suppliers in order to increase their own profitability. This gives them more leverage and power in the industry, as suppliers may be more willing to accommodate their demands in order to maintain their business.

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  • 39. 

    A(n)_________ is a collection of firms that offer similar products or services.

    • A.

      Substitute

    • B.

      Market segment

    • C.

      Industry

    • D.

      Target market

    • E.

      Niche

    Correct Answer
    D. Target market
    Explanation
    A target market refers to a specific group of consumers that a collection of firms aim to reach with their similar products or services. This group of consumers share common characteristics and preferences, making them the ideal audience for the firms' offerings. By focusing on a specific target market, firms can tailor their marketing strategies and product development to better meet the needs and desires of these consumers, ultimately increasing their chances of success in the market.

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  • 40. 

    The________environment is typically much more subject to the firm's influence or control than the_________environment

    • A.

      Task, competitive

    • B.

      Competitive, task

    • C.

      Remote, operating

    • D.

      Operating, remote

    • E.

      Operating, task

    Correct Answer
    D. Operating, remote
    Explanation
    The operating environment refers to the internal factors and conditions within a firm that can be influenced or controlled by the organization. On the other hand, the remote environment includes external factors and conditions that are beyond the direct control of the firm, such as economic conditions, political factors, and technological advancements. Therefore, the operating environment is typically much more subject to the firm's influence or control than the remote environment.

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  • 41. 

    A supplier group is powerful if:

    • A.

      Its product is unique or at least differentiated, or if it has built-up switching costs

    • B.

      It is not obliged to contend with other products for sale to the industry

    • C.

      It poses a credible threat of integrating forward into the industry's business

    • D.

      The industry is not an important customer of the supplier group

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Its product is unique or at least differentiated, or if it has built-up switching costs
    Explanation
    A supplier group is considered powerful if its product is unique or differentiated because this allows them to have a competitive advantage in the market. Additionally, if they have built-up switching costs, it means that customers will face difficulties or incur expenses when switching to a different supplier, making it less likely for them to switch. These factors give the supplier group more bargaining power and control over the industry.

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  • 42. 

    New entrants to an industry bring:

    • A.

      New capacity

    • B.

      New customers

    • C.

      Few resources

    • D.

      Bigger margins

    • E.

      Government intervention

    Correct Answer
    A. New capacity
    Explanation
    New entrants to an industry bring new capacity, meaning they bring additional production capabilities and resources to the industry. This can result in increased competition and potentially lower prices for consumers. By introducing new capacity, these entrants can also help meet growing demand in the market and stimulate further innovation and development.

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  • 43. 

    As an industry matures,

    • A.

      Its growth rate is unchanged

    • B.

      Profits are higher

    • C.

      Its growth rate changes

    • D.

      New products emerge

    • E.

      New firms enter

    Correct Answer
    C. Its growth rate changes
    Explanation
    As an industry matures, its growth rate changes. This is because in the early stages of an industry, there is usually rapid growth as new products and firms enter the market. However, as the industry becomes more established and reaches a saturation point, the growth rate tends to slow down. This can be due to various factors such as market saturation, increased competition, or changes in consumer demand. Therefore, it is expected that the growth rate of an industry will change as it matures.

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  • 44. 

    Substitute products that deserve the most attention strategically are those that:

    • A.

      Are subject to trends improving their price-performance trade-off with the industry's product

    • B.

      Are produced by industries earning high profits

    • C.

      Are produced by industries earning low profits

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B
    Explanation
    The substitute products that deserve the most attention strategically are those that are subject to trends improving their price-performance trade-off with the industry's product and are produced by industries earning high profits. This means that the substitute products are becoming more cost-effective and competitive with the industry's product, while also being produced by industries that are successful and profitable. By focusing on these substitute products, a company can identify potential threats to their market share and develop strategies to counteract them.

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  • 45. 

    In intense competition, competitors are characteristically:

    • A.

      Few

    • B.

      Of unequal power

    • C.

      Equal in size

    • D.

      Not foreign

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Equal in size
    Explanation
    In intense competition, competitors are typically equal in size. This means that they have similar resources, capabilities, and market presence, creating a level playing field for competition. When competitors are equal in size, it often leads to a more balanced and fair competition, where each player has a relatively equal chance of success. This can drive innovation, efficiency, and overall improvement in the industry as competitors strive to differentiate themselves and gain a competitive advantage.

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  • 46. 

    Perceived differentiation results from:

    • A.

      The way in which firms position their products in the market

    • B.

      A firm's success in persuading customers that their products differ slightly from competing products

    • C.

      Production and financial strategies

    • D.

      A lessening of competition

    • E.

      A competitive advantage new firms have as they attempt to enter the market

    Correct Answer
    A. The way in which firms position their products in the market
    Explanation
    Perceived differentiation results from the way in which firms position their products in the market. This means that firms can create a perception of uniqueness and distinctiveness for their products by strategically positioning them in a way that sets them apart from their competitors. By effectively communicating the unique features and benefits of their products, firms can persuade customers that their products differ slightly from competing products, thus creating a perceived differentiation. This positioning strategy helps firms stand out in the market and gain a competitive advantage by appealing to specific customer needs and preferences.

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  • 47. 

    Factors that increase the degree to which an industry is multidomestic include:

    • A.

      A need for standardized products

    • B.

      Fragmented industry with few competitors

    • C.

      Distribution channels unique to each country

    • D.

      The existence of economics of scale

    • E.

      High technological dependence of subsidiaries on R&D

    Correct Answer
    C. Distribution channels unique to each country
    Explanation
    An industry being multidomestic means that it operates differently in each country it operates in, tailoring its products and strategies to suit the local market. Distribution channels unique to each country can contribute to the industry being multidomestic because it implies that the industry needs to adapt its distribution methods to meet the specific needs and preferences of consumers in each country. This requires a localized approach to distribution, which further increases the degree to which the industry is multidomestic.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following statements is false?

    • A.

      A multidomestic industry is one in which competition is essentially segmented from country to country

    • B.

      The technological advantage once enjoyed by the United States has declined dramatically during the past 30 years

    • C.

      In a global industry, a firm's strategic moves in one country can be significantly affected by its competitive position in another country

    • D.

      A company with a geocentric orientation adopts a global systems approach to strategic decision making, thereby emphasizing global integration

    • E.

      Many authorities are convinced that almost all product-oriented industries soon will be multidomestic

    Correct Answer
    E. Many authorities are convinced that almost all product-oriented industries soon will be multidomestic
    Explanation
    The statement that "many authorities are convinced that almost all product-oriented industries soon will be multidomestic" is false. This is because multidomestic industries are characterized by competition being segmented from country to country, whereas the statement suggests that almost all product-oriented industries will become multidomestic, which implies a lack of segmentation. Therefore, this statement contradicts the definition of a multidomestic industry and is false.

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  • 49. 

    Strategic management planning must be global for at least six reasons. One of them is:

    • A.

      The increased scope of the global management task

    • B.

      The decreased globalization of firms

    • C.

      The increase in global monopolies

    • D.

      The slowing of technology

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. The increased scope of the global management task
    Explanation
    The increased scope of the global management task is a reason why strategic management planning must be global. This means that as businesses expand and operate in multiple countries, the complexities and challenges of managing global operations also increase. Therefore, strategic management planning needs to take into account the broader scope of the global management task in order to effectively address these challenges and ensure the success of the business in the global marketplace.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following is a key dimension of customer demand in foreign markets?

    • A.

      Customers' acceptance of standardized products

    • B.

      The rate of product innovation desired

    • C.

      The number of suppliers in that foreign market

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B
    Explanation
    Customers' acceptance of standardized products and the rate of product innovation desired are key dimensions of customer demand in foreign markets. Customers' acceptance of standardized products refers to the extent to which customers in foreign markets are willing to purchase standardized products that are the same as those sold in the domestic market. The rate of product innovation desired refers to the level of demand for new and innovative products in foreign markets. Both of these dimensions are important factors that businesses need to consider when entering foreign markets and developing their marketing strategies.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 23, 2018
    Quiz Created by
    Xtmmadhatter
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