A. Funding is totally centralized or decentralized.
B. Oversight is a public or private responsibility.
C. Health care team leadership is shared.
D. Pharmaceuticals are purchased through a payer system.
A. As a static, complex entity that the nurse must seek to understand
B. As clearly the best in the world and envied by other countries
C. As extremely effective, especially in high-technology care
D. As being in the midst of ongoing change that offers real opportunities
A. Helps orient students to their options for health insurance
B. Helps students understand health behaviors
C. Helps students determine where they wish to seek employment
D. Helps meet accreditation requirements for the curriculum
A. The number of resources expended by the system
B. The health of the population served
C. The number of noncitizens who seek health care in the system
D. The typical cost of routine primary care
A. It is a mixture of social welfare and comprehensive care.
B. It is decentralized and expensive.
C. It is highly centralized and autocratic.
D. It assures basic minimal care to everyone.
A. Federal system for military personnel and community system for others
B. Home-based care for wealthy and nursing home care for poor
C. Hospitals for acute care and outpatient clinics for chronic care
D. Private system for those who can pay and public system for some of the poor
A. Outcomes very similar to outcomes in other industrialized countries.
B. Superb outcomes, perhaps because of the advanced research and technology.
C. The highest life expectancy and lowest infant mortality.
D. The lowest life expectancy and highest infant mortality.
A. Local hospital
B. Privately owned, for-profit hospital
C. Proprietary hospital
D. Publicly owned hospital
A. Legislation that was passed giving the federal government that privilege.
B. Regulation of interstate commerce and its responsibility to provide for the general welfare.
C. Constitution, specifically allocating authority for health care to the federal government.
D. States requesting the federal government, because of its taxing ability, to accept that responsibility.
A. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
B. National Health Care Service Agency
C. Public Health Service
D. Veterans Administration Medical Services Branch
A. Delegation from the federal level to the states
B. Local governments requesting the state government accept that responsibility
C. The Constitution, which reserved for states all powers not specifically given to the federal government
D. The demand from citizens that a more regionalized authority be responsible
A. Every state health agency has a similar organizational structure and offers similar services to its citizens.
B. Each state health agency has many different departments, commissions, agencies, and boards.
C. Each state health agency depends primarily on federal funding and guidance in meeting health concerns.
D. Every state health agency delegates authority or funds to local boards of health.
A. Incredible progress; about half the states have done so.
B. Little progress; no state has completely done so.
C. Some progress; about one third of the states have done so.
D. Successful progress; most states have done so.
A. Meeting the demands of the local citizens
B. Implementing programs as directed by the state health commissioner
C. Addressing needs that have been delegated by state health agencies
D. Assuring that services are provided to meet the needs of vulnerable populations
A. Establishing guidelines for employees in hospitals
B. Establishing the rules of medical practice
C. Managing third-party reimbursement
D. Purchasing and managing hospitals and extended care facilities
A. Health care network
B. Health maintenance organization
C. Point of service plan
D. Preferred provider organization
A. Managed care decreases consumer use of outpatient health care.
B. Managed care ensures maximum value received from resources used.
C. Managed care decreases patient satisfaction.
D. Managed care ensures provider satisfaction.
A. HMOs provide creative ways to ensure hospitals can decrease their daily census.
B. HMOs employ a group of nurses who focus on health education programs.
C. HMOs encourage physicians to focus on health promotion and self-care.
D. HMOs organize a network of providers who offer services for a predetermined fee.
A. The physician is the budget officer, who makes decisions about the cost of care.
B. The physician is a collaborator, who is the leader of the health care team.
C. The physician is the expert medical diagnostician, who decides on interventions.
D. The physician is the primary care gatekeeper, who determines appropriate referrals.
A. Assisting with access to health care services
B. Promoting the use of inexpensive health care providers
C. Using creative approaches to solve health problems
D. Providing professional education to health care providers
A. Nurses are committed to caring for others.
B. Nurses are heavily involved in ongoing research programs.
C. Nurses are primarily employees of an organization.
D. Nurses do not expect a fair salary because nurses are primarily women.
A. Continued to emphasize prevention rather than hospital care
B. Forgot voters would rather pay for care from a private physician
C. Had significantly reduced many life-threatening health problems
D. Lobbyists were unable to influence legislators
A. Insurance companies were not worried about making a profit.
B. Many employees had such low co-pays and deductibles.
C. Expenses were paid by insurance reimbursement for employees who received insurance as a fringe benefit.
D. Physicians were receiving adequate reimbursements in a timely manner when they submitted claims correctly.
A. Drugs and medical supplies
B. Hospital care
C. Physician services
D. Public health
A. Decrease poverty levels.
B. Increase funding to health care on the state level.
C. Increase the number of outpatient clinics for site-focused care.
D. Decrease the number of specialty physicians.