Biology Quiz: Infection Control

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Biology Quiz: Infection Control - Quiz

Welcome to this awesome quiz on the topic of biology, with specific reference to the little guys that we strive to get rid of from our kitchen counters, food, and hands to avoid the spread of illness and infection. In this quiz, we’re going to be testing your knowledge on infection control – the proper protocols and terminology behind ensuring a safe and infection-free environment.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The one-celled microorganisms also known as germs or microbes are:

    • A.

      Viruses

    • B.

      Fungi

    • C.

      Bacteria

    • D.

      Cilia

    Correct Answer
    C. Bacteria
    Explanation
    Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms that are commonly known as germs or microbes. They are single-celled organisms that can be found almost everywhere, including in soil, water, and inside the human body. Bacteria can be both harmful and beneficial to humans. Some bacteria can cause diseases, while others play important roles in processes such as digestion and nutrient recycling. They are distinct from viruses and fungi, which are also microorganisms but have different characteristics and structures.

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  • 2. 

    Parasites are types of:

    • A.

      Disease

    • B.

      Pathogenic virus

    • C.

      Nonpathogenic bacteria

    • D.

      Pathogenic bacteria

    Correct Answer
    D. Pathogenic bacteria
    Explanation
    Parasites are organisms that live in or on another organism and obtain nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. While parasites can include various types of organisms such as viruses and bacteria, the correct answer in this case is pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria refers to bacteria that can cause disease in their host organism. These bacteria can invade tissues, release toxins, and disrupt normal bodily functions, leading to illness or infection. Therefore, parasites can be classified as pathogenic bacteria when they cause harm to their host.

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  • 3. 

    Bacteria that cause disease are called:

    • A.

      Nonpathogenic

    • B.

      Protozoa

    • C.

      Pathogenic

    • D.

      Saprophytes

    Correct Answer
    C. Pathogenic
    Explanation
    Bacteria that cause disease are called pathogenic because they have the ability to invade and harm the host organism, leading to the development of various illnesses and infections. Unlike nonpathogenic bacteria, which do not cause disease, pathogenic bacteria possess specific virulence factors that allow them to colonize and multiply within the host, evade the immune system, and produce toxins that damage tissues. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms and not bacteria. Saprophytes, on the other hand, are bacteria that obtain their nutrients from dead organic matter and do not cause disease.

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  • 4. 

    Disease in plant or animal tissue is caused by:

    • A.

      Acidophilus

    • B.

      Saprophytes

    • C.

      Pathogenic bacteria

    • D.

      Nonpathogenic bacteria

    Correct Answer
    C. Pathogenic bacteria
    Explanation
    Pathogenic bacteria are responsible for causing diseases in plant or animal tissues. These bacteria have the ability to invade and infect the tissues, leading to various symptoms and health issues. Unlike nonpathogenic bacteria, which do not cause harm, pathogenic bacteria have specific mechanisms and virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage the host tissues. Acidophilus and saprophytes are not typically associated with causing diseases in plant or animal tissues, making pathogenic bacteria the correct answer.

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  • 5. 

    Technical term for bacteria that live on dead matter is:

    • A.

      Parasites

    • B.

      Viruses

    • C.

      Saprophytes

    • D.

      Flagella

    Correct Answer
    C. Saprophytes
    Explanation
    The technical term for bacteria that live on dead matter is saprophytes. Saprophytes are organisms that obtain their nutrients by decomposing dead organic matter. They play a crucial role in the ecosystem by breaking down dead material and recycling nutrients back into the environment. Unlike parasites, which rely on living hosts for their survival, saprophytes thrive on non-living organic material. Viruses and flagella are not the correct terms in this context as they do not specifically refer to bacteria that live on dead matter.

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  • 6. 

    The spirilla bacteria Trepnema pallida causes:

    • A.

      Syphilis

    • B.

      Tuberculosis

    • C.

      Pneumonia

    • D.

      Abscesses

    Correct Answer
    A. Syphilis
    Explanation
    The spirilla bacteria Trepnema pallida is responsible for causing syphilis. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can lead to various complications if left untreated. The bacteria is typically transmitted through sexual contact, but it can also be passed from mother to baby during childbirth. Syphilis can progress through different stages, each with distinct symptoms. Early symptoms may include painless sores or rashes, while later stages can lead to severe health issues such as damage to the heart, brain, and other organs. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent complications and further transmission of the disease.

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  • 7. 

    The type of bacteria called cocci have a:

    • A.

      Spiral shape

    • B.

      Round shape

    • C.

      Rod shape

    • D.

      Corkscrew shape

    Correct Answer
    B. Round shape
    Explanation
    The correct answer is round shape because cocci bacteria are spherical or round in shape. This shape allows them to easily divide and multiply. The term "cocci" is derived from the Greek word for "berry," which accurately describes the appearance of these bacteria. Their round shape enables them to form colonies and adhere to surfaces, making them common causes of infections.

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  • 8. 

    The type of bacteria that has a rod shape is called:

    • A.

      Diplococci

    • B.

      Staphylococci

    • C.

      Spirilla

    • D.

      Bacilli

    Correct Answer
    D. Bacilli
    Explanation
    Bacilli are a type of bacteria that have a rod shape. They are characterized by their elongated cylindrical form, which distinguishes them from other types of bacteria such as diplococci (which are round and appear in pairs), staphylococci (which are round and appear in clusters), and spirilla (which are spiral-shaped). Bacilli can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body, and some species of bacilli can cause diseases such as tuberculosis and anthrax.

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  • 9. 

    Pus-forming bacteria that cause strep throat and blood poisoning are:

    • A.

      Streptococci

    • B.

      Bacilli

    • C.

      Staphylococci

    • D.

      Diplococci

    Correct Answer
    A. Streptococci
    Explanation
    Streptococci are pus-forming bacteria that can cause strep throat and blood poisoning. These bacteria are known for their ability to form chains or clusters and are commonly found in the throat and on the skin. Strep throat is a common infection caused by streptococci, while blood poisoning, or sepsis, can occur when these bacteria enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. Therefore, streptococci are the correct answer for the given question.

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  • 10. 

    The bacteria with a corkscrew or spiral shape are:

    • A.

      Staphylococci

    • B.

      Spirilla

    • C.

      Diplococci

    • D.

      Bacilli

    Correct Answer
    B. Spirilla
    Explanation
    Spirilla are bacteria that have a corkscrew or spiral shape. Staphylococci are spherical bacteria that occur in clusters, diplococci are bacteria that occur in pairs, and bacilli are rod-shaped bacteria. Therefore, the correct answer is spirilla.

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  • 11. 

    In California in 2000, a normally harmless bacteria that cause infections in over 100 pedicure clients was:

    • A.

      Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis

    • B.

      Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • C.

      Borrelia burgdorferi

    • D.

      Treponema pallida

    Correct Answer
    D. Treponema pallida
    Explanation
    Treponema pallida is the correct answer because it is the bacteria that causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection. The question mentions that the bacteria caused infections in over 100 pedicure clients in California in 2000, indicating that it was transmitted through a common source, such as contaminated equipment or practices at a pedicure salon. Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Borrelia burgdorferi are not associated with pedicure-related infections or syphilis.

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  • 12. 

    Cocci rarely:

    • A.

      Show self-movement

    • B.

      Undergo mitosis

    • C.

      Reproduce

    • D.

      Are pathogenic

    Correct Answer
    A. Show self-movement
    Explanation
    Cocci rarely show self-movement because they are typically spherical bacteria that lack flagella or other structures for locomotion. Instead, they often rely on external factors such as air or liquid flow to move.

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  • 13. 

    Certain bacteria move about with the help of hair like extensions called:

    • A.

      Spores

    • B.

      Saprophytes

    • C.

      Diplococci

    • D.

      Flagella

    Correct Answer
    D. Flagella
    Explanation
    Flagella are hair-like extensions that certain bacteria use for movement. They are long, whip-like structures that rotate in a corkscrew motion, propelling the bacteria forward. These flagella allow bacteria to navigate through their environment, seeking out nutrients or avoiding harmful substances. They are essential for the motility of many bacteria and play a crucial role in their survival and ability to colonize different environments.

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  • 14. 

    Mitosis is the process by which bacteria:

    • A.

      Divide

    • B.

      Release toxins

    • C.

      Move about

    • D.

      Become inactive

    Correct Answer
    A. Divide
    Explanation
    Mitosis is the process by which bacteria divide. During mitosis, the bacterial cell replicates its DNA and then divides into two identical daughter cells. This is an essential process for bacteria to reproduce and increase their population. Through division, bacteria can multiply and colonize different environments, contributing to their survival and adaptation. Therefore, the correct answer is "divide."

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  • 15. 

    Certain bacteria, during their inactive stage, form outer coverings called:

    • A.

      Daughter cells

    • B.

      Flagella

    • C.

      Spores

    • D.

      Toxins

    Correct Answer
    C. Spores
    Explanation
    Certain bacteria have the ability to form outer coverings called spores during their inactive stage. These spores help the bacteria survive in unfavorable conditions such as extreme temperatures or lack of nutrients. The spore's tough outer coating protects the bacteria's genetic material and other essential components, allowing them to remain dormant until conditions become more favorable for growth and reproduction. Once conditions improve, the spores can germinate and give rise to active bacterial cells again.

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  • 16. 

    A disease that is transmitted from one person to another by contact is said to be:

    • A.

      Occupational

    • B.

      Communicable

    • C.

      Chronic

    • D.

      Congenital

    Correct Answer
    B. Communicable
    Explanation
    A disease that is transmitted from one person to another by contact is said to be communicable. This means that the disease can be spread through direct or indirect contact with an infected individual, such as through physical touch, respiratory droplets, or contaminated surfaces. Examples of communicable diseases include the common cold, influenza, and sexually transmitted infections.

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  • 17. 

    A typical example of a general infection is:

    • A.

      An epidemic

    • B.

      A pimple

    • C.

      Syphillis

    • D.

      A skin lesion

    Correct Answer
    C. Syphillis
    Explanation
    Syphilis is a typical example of a general infection because it is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It can affect various parts of the body and can be transmitted through sexual contact, blood transfusions, or from an infected mother to her baby during pregnancy. Syphilis is characterized by the development of painless sores, rashes, and flu-like symptoms. If left untreated, it can progress to more severe stages, affecting the heart, brain, and other organs. Therefore, syphilis fits the description of a general infection as it can affect multiple systems in the body.

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  • 18. 

    A sign of bacterial infection is:

    • A.

      Pus

    • B.

      Bleeding

    • C.

      A cold

    • D.

      Parasites

    Correct Answer
    A. Pus
    Explanation
    Pus is a thick, yellowish fluid that is produced as a response to bacterial infection. It is composed of dead white blood cells, bacteria, and tissue debris. The presence of pus is a clear indication of the body's immune response to fight off bacterial infection. Bleeding, a cold, and parasites are not specific signs of bacterial infection, making pus the correct answer.

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  • 19. 

    Diseases caused by viruses include:

    • A.

      Measles and hepatitis

    • B.

      Abcesses and boils

    • C.

      Strep throat and blood poisoning

    • D.

      Tuberculosis and tetanus

    Correct Answer
    A. Measles and hepatitis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is measles and hepatitis. Measles is caused by the measles virus, while hepatitis can be caused by several different viruses, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. These viruses infect the liver and can cause inflammation and damage to the organ.

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  • 20. 

    Penetrating cells and becoming part of them is characteristic of:

    • A.

      Bacteria

    • B.

      Parasites

    • C.

      Viruses

    • D.

      Fungi

    Correct Answer
    C. Viruses
    Explanation
    Viruses are known for their ability to penetrate cells and become part of them. Unlike bacteria, which are independent organisms, viruses are not considered living organisms. They are composed of genetic material (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat. Viruses rely on host cells to replicate and reproduce, entering the cells and taking control of their machinery. This characteristic of viruses is what allows them to cause infections and diseases in various organisms, including humans. Parasites, bacteria, and fungi have different mechanisms of survival and reproduction, making viruses unique in their ability to penetrate cells.

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  • 21. 

    Hepatitis is caused by a bloodborne virus and involves inflammation of the:

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Kidneys

    • C.

      Stomach

    • D.

      Heart

    Correct Answer
    A. Liver
    Explanation
    Hepatitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the liver. It is caused by a bloodborne virus, which means it is transmitted through contact with infected blood. The virus attacks the liver cells, leading to inflammation and potential damage to the organ. Symptoms of hepatitis can include fatigue, jaundice, abdominal pain, and nausea. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of hepatitis, but they often involve antiviral medications, rest, and supportive care.

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  • 22. 

    The disease that breaks down the body's immune system is known as:

    • A.

      Hepatitis

    • B.

      Pediculosis capitis

    • C.

      Tuberculosis

    • D.

      AIDS

    Correct Answer
    D. AIDS
    Explanation
    AIDS is the correct answer because it is a disease that weakens and destroys the immune system, leaving the body vulnerable to various infections and diseases. It is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can be transmitted through various means such as unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth or breastfeeding. AIDS is a global health concern and there is currently no cure for the disease.

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  • 23. 

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by:

    • A.

      The herpes virus

    • B.

      Contaminated food

    • C.

      Poor personal hygiene

    • D.

      The HIV virus

    Correct Answer
    D. The HIV virus
    Explanation
    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV weakens the immune system over time, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. It is primarily transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth or breastfeeding. The herpes virus, contaminated food, and poor personal hygiene are not direct causes of AIDS.

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  • 24. 

    The HIV virus is not transmitted:

    • A.

      Through unprotected sexual contact

    • B.

      By kissing or hugging

    • C.

      Through cuts and sores

    • D.

      By IV users sharing needles

    Correct Answer
    B. By kissing or hugging
    Explanation
    HIV is not transmitted through kissing or hugging because the virus is not present in saliva or sweat. HIV is primarily transmitted through specific body fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. It can be transmitted through unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles among intravenous drug users, and transmission of infected blood through cuts or sores. However, casual contact like kissing or hugging does not pose a risk of HIV transmission.

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  • 25. 

    One way in which bacteria and viruses can enter the body is through:

    • A.

      Dry skin

    • B.

      Oily skin

    • C.

      Broken skin

    • D.

      Moist skin

    Correct Answer
    C. Broken skin
    Explanation
    Bacteria and viruses can enter the body through broken skin because when the skin is broken, it creates an opening that allows these microorganisms to directly access the bloodstream or underlying tissues. This can occur through cuts, wounds, or any other form of injury that disrupts the integrity of the skin barrier. In contrast, dry, oily, or moist skin alone does not provide a direct entry point for bacteria and viruses, as they primarily rely on broken skin to invade the body.

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  • 26. 

    Fungi, or vegetable parasites, cause contagious diseases such as:

    • A.

      Flu

    • B.

      Ringworm

    • C.

      Hepatitis

    • D.

      Tuberculosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Ringworm
    Explanation
    Fungi, specifically vegetable parasites, can cause contagious diseases such as ringworm. Ringworm is a common fungal infection that affects the skin, scalp, and nails. It is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or animal, or by touching contaminated objects. The infection causes a red, circular rash that is often itchy and can spread to other parts of the body. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications to eliminate the infection.

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  • 27. 

    Clients showing signs of a contagious disease or condition should be:

    • A.

      Sanitized and disinfected

    • B.

      Given medications

    • C.

      Referred to a physician

    • D.

      Diagnosed and treated

    Correct Answer
    C. Referred to a physician
    Explanation
    Clients showing signs of a contagious disease or condition should be referred to a physician because a physician is a medical professional who is trained to diagnose and treat diseases. By referring the client to a physician, they can receive proper medical evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment for their condition. This ensures that they receive the appropriate care and prevent the spread of the contagious disease or condition to others. Sanitizing and disinfecting, giving medications, or attempting to diagnose and treat the client without medical expertise may not be sufficient or effective in addressing their condition.

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  • 28. 

    Immunity is the ability of the body to resist:

    • A.

      Immunization

    • B.

      Antibiotics

    • C.

      The immune system

    • D.

      Infection

    Correct Answer
    D. Infection
    Explanation
    Immunity refers to the body's ability to resist or fight against infections. When the body is exposed to pathogens, such as bacteria or viruses, the immune system recognizes and responds to eliminate them. This response can involve various mechanisms, including the production of antibodies, activation of immune cells, and the release of chemical signals. Therefore, immunity is closely related to the body's defense against infections.

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  • 29. 

    Surfaces such as tables, walls, doorknobs, or your hands, no matter how clean they look, are very likely:

    • A.

      Infected

    • B.

      Sterile

    • C.

      Pathogenic

    • D.

      Contaminated

    Correct Answer
    D. Contaminated
    Explanation
    Surfaces such as tables, walls, doorknobs, or hands can appear clean but still be contaminated with various microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses. These microorganisms can be transferred from one surface to another or from person to person through contact, leading to potential infections. Therefore, the correct answer is "contaminated."

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  • 30. 

    There are three main levels of decontamination:

    • A.

      Steam autoclave, dry heat, disinfection

    • B.

      Sterilization, disinfection, sanitation

    • C.

      Sterilization, cleaning, sanitation

    • D.

      Disinfection, scrubbing, sanitation

    Correct Answer
    B. Sterilization, disinfection, sanitation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "sterilization, disinfection, sanitation." Sterilization is the highest level of decontamination, as it completely eliminates or destroys all forms of microbial life. Disinfection is the process of reducing the number of microorganisms to a level that is considered safe for public health. Sanitation refers to the cleaning and maintenance of an environment to prevent the growth and spread of microorganisms. These three levels of decontamination are essential in various settings, such as healthcare facilities, food processing plants, and public spaces, to ensure a safe and clean environment.

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  • 31. 

    Only one level of decontamination, sterilization, is capable of killing:

    • A.

      Tuberculosis bacteria

    • B.

      The HIV virus

    • C.

      Bacterial spores

    • D.

      Both bacteria and viruses

    Correct Answer
    C. Bacterial spores
    Explanation
    Sterilization is the only level of decontamination that is capable of killing bacterial spores. Bacterial spores are highly resistant structures formed by certain bacteria, allowing them to survive in harsh conditions. While other levels of decontamination, such as disinfection, may be effective against bacteria and viruses, they are not capable of destroying bacterial spores. Sterilization, on the other hand, involves the use of methods like heat, pressure, or chemicals to completely eliminate all forms of microbial life, including bacterial spores.

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  • 32. 

    Surgeons and dentists are required to practice ___________with their tools.

    • A.

      Rinsing

    • B.

      Disinfection

    • C.

      Sterilization

    • D.

      Sanitation

    Correct Answer
    C. Sterilization
    Explanation
    Surgeons and dentists are required to practice sterilization with their tools to ensure that they are free from any microorganisms or pathogens that could potentially cause infections or diseases. Sterilization involves using various techniques such as heat, chemicals, or radiation to eliminate all forms of microbial life, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This process is crucial in maintaining a safe and hygienic environment for patients and preventing the transmission of infections during medical procedures.

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  • 33. 

    Disinfection may be used on:

    • A.

      Nail plates

    • B.

      Wood

    • C.

      Skin

    • D.

      Nonporous surfaces

    Correct Answer
    D. Nonporous surfaces
    Explanation
    Disinfection is a process that involves killing or inactivating microorganisms on surfaces to prevent the spread of infections. Nonporous surfaces are those that do not have any pores or openings, making it difficult for microorganisms to penetrate and survive. Therefore, disinfection is commonly used on nonporous surfaces to effectively eliminate any potential pathogens present.

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  • 34. 

    Disinfectants are too strong to use on:

    • A.

      Shampoo bowls

    • B.

      Manicure implements

    • C.

      Skin, hair, or nails

    • D.

      Haircutting tools

    Correct Answer
    C. Skin, hair, or nails
    Explanation
    Disinfectants are too strong to use on skin, hair, or nails because they can cause irritation, dryness, and damage to these delicate areas. Disinfectants are specifically designed to kill germs and bacteria on hard surfaces, such as shampoo bowls and manicure implements, but they are not suitable for direct contact with the skin, hair, or nails. Using disinfectants on these areas can strip away natural oils, disrupt the pH balance, and lead to various skin and hair problems. It is important to use products specifically formulated for skin, hair, and nail care to maintain their health and integrity.

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  • 35. 

    Each individual state and the _______must approve all disinfectants.

    • A.

      OSHA

    • B.

      FDA

    • C.

      MSDS

    • D.

      EPA

    Correct Answer
    D. EPA
    Explanation
    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for regulating and approving disinfectants in the United States. This federal agency ensures that disinfectants meet safety and efficacy standards before they can be used. Therefore, it is necessary for both individual states and the EPA to approve all disinfectants to ensure their effectiveness and safety. The other options, OSHA, FDA, and MSDS, are not directly involved in the approval process of disinfectants.

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  • 36. 

    A Material Safety Data Sheet on every product used in the cosmetology school is required by:

    • A.

      State law

    • B.

      School regulations

    • C.

      Federal law

    • D.

      Most instructors

    Correct Answer
    C. Federal law
    Explanation
    The requirement of having a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on every product used in the cosmetology school indicates that it is mandated by federal law. State laws and school regulations may also require MSDS, but the fact that federal law is mentioned suggests that it is the primary authority governing this requirement. The mention of "most instructors" does not provide any indication of a legal requirement.

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  • 37. 

    An MSDS contains important information about a product, including:

    • A.

      Other uses of product

    • B.

      Other suppliers of product

    • C.

      Storage requirements

    • D.

      Resale value of product

    Correct Answer
    C. Storage requirements
    Explanation
    An MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) is a document that provides detailed information about a product, including its storage requirements. This information is crucial for ensuring the safe handling and storage of the product to prevent accidents, spills, or other hazards. It outlines the specific conditions, such as temperature, ventilation, and containment, that are necessary for storing the product safely. By following the storage requirements mentioned in the MSDS, users can minimize the risk of accidents and maintain the product's effectiveness and quality. The other options listed, such as other uses of the product, other suppliers, and resale value, are not typically included in an MSDS.

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  • 38. 

    The government agency that regulates and enforces safety and health standards in the workplace is:

    • A.

      FBI

    • B.

      OSHA

    • C.

      EPA

    • D.

      FDA

    Correct Answer
    B. OSHA
    Explanation
    OSHA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, is the government agency responsible for regulating and enforcing safety and health standards in the workplace. They ensure that employers provide a safe and healthy working environment for employees by setting and enforcing regulations, conducting inspections, and providing training and education. OSHA plays a crucial role in preventing workplace accidents, injuries, and illnesses, and promoting the overall well-being of workers.

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  • 39. 

    In order to be considered "Formulated for Hospitals and Health Care Facilities," a disinfectant must be pseudomonacidal, bactericidal, fungicidal, and:

    • A.

      Virucidal

    • B.

      Inexpensive

    • C.

      Easy to dilute

    • D.

      Pneumonicidal

    Correct Answer
    A. Virucidal
    Explanation
    To be considered "Formulated for Hospitals and Health Care Facilities," a disinfectant must not only be pseudomonacidal, bactericidal, and fungicidal, but it must also be virucidal. This means that it is effective in killing viruses. This is important in healthcare settings where there is a high risk of viral infections spreading. Inexpensiveness and ease of dilution are not necessarily criteria for a disinfectant to be considered suitable for hospitals and healthcare facilities. Pneumonicidal, on the other hand, is not a recognized term in the context of disinfectants and does not provide any relevant information for the question.

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  • 40. 

    An EPA-registered tuberculocidal disinfectant or one that kills the HVB and HIV virus is required by OSHA for implements that come into contact with:

    • A.

      All bacteria and fungi

    • B.

      Clients' hair

    • C.

      The Pseudomonas bacteria

    • D.

      Blood or body fluids

    Correct Answer
    D. Blood or body fluids
    Explanation
    OSHA requires the use of an EPA-registered tuberculocidal disinfectant or one that kills the HVB and HIV virus for implements that come into contact with blood or body fluids. This is because blood and body fluids can potentially contain infectious pathogens, including the Hepatitis B virus (HVB) and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Using a disinfectant that is effective against these viruses helps to prevent the spread of infections in the salon or spa setting.

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  • 41. 

    Any item used to perform a salon service on a client must be disinfected or:

    • A.

      Discarded

    • B.

      Given to a client

    • C.

      Kept by the stylist

    • D.

      Washed

    Correct Answer
    A. Discarded
    Explanation
    Any item used to perform a salon service on a client must be disinfected or discarded. This is because proper sanitation is crucial in a salon setting to prevent the spread of infections and diseases. Disinfecting the item ensures that any harmful bacteria or viruses are killed, making it safe for future use. However, if the item cannot be effectively disinfected or is damaged, it should be discarded to avoid any potential risks to the client's health. Keeping the item or giving it to another client without proper disinfection would be unhygienic and could lead to cross-contamination.

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  • 42. 

    Implements must be thoroughly cleaned before they are:

    • A.

      Soaked in disinfectant

    • B.

      Stored in a clean container

    • C.

      Used on a new client

    • D.

      Disposed of properly

    Correct Answer
    A. Soaked in disinfectant
    Explanation
    Implements must be thoroughly cleaned before they are soaked in disinfectant because disinfectants are most effective on surfaces that are free of dirt, debris, and organic matter. Cleaning the implements removes visible dirt and debris, allowing the disinfectant to penetrate and kill any remaining bacteria, viruses, or fungi on the surface. This ensures that the implements are properly disinfected and safe to use on clients, minimizing the risk of infection or cross-contamination.

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  • 43. 

    To be effective in the salon, ultrasonic bath cleaners must be used with:

    • A.

      Sodium hypochlorite

    • B.

      An effective disinfectant

    • C.

      70% isopropyl alcohol

    • D.

      An effective astringent

    Correct Answer
    B. An effective disinfectant
    Explanation
    Ultrasonic bath cleaners are used in salons to clean and disinfect tools and equipment. In order for them to be effective, they must be used with an effective disinfectant. This is because ultrasonic cleaners use high-frequency sound waves to create tiny bubbles that implode, creating a scrubbing action that helps to remove dirt, grime, and bacteria from the surfaces being cleaned. However, the cleaning action alone may not be enough to kill all the bacteria and pathogens present. Therefore, using an effective disinfectant along with the ultrasonic cleaner ensures that all harmful microorganisms are eliminated, making the cleaning process more thorough and effective.

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  • 44. 

    An immersion time of 10 to 15 minutes is sufficient when disinfecting with:

    • A.

      Quats

    • B.

      Bleach

    • C.

      70% isopropyl alcohol

    • D.

      Formalin

    Correct Answer
    A. Quats
    Explanation
    An immersion time of 10 to 15 minutes is sufficient when disinfecting with quats because quats, also known as quaternary ammonium compounds, are effective disinfectants that can kill a wide range of microorganisms. They work by disrupting the cell membranes of bacteria and viruses, leading to their destruction. The recommended immersion time allows enough contact time for the quats to effectively kill the pathogens present on the surfaces being disinfected.

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  • 45. 

    Phenols in 5 percent solution are safe and extremely effective disinfectants used mostly for:

    • A.

      Metal implements

    • B.

      Skin sanitization

    • C.

      Blood spills

    • D.

      Rubber and plastic

    Correct Answer
    A. Metal implements
    Explanation
    Phenols in a 5 percent solution are safe and effective disinfectants for metal implements because they have strong antimicrobial properties that can kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms on the surface of the metal. This makes them suitable for disinfecting tools and equipment used in medical or laboratory settings, where preventing the spread of infections is crucial. Phenols may not be as suitable for skin sanitization or cleaning up blood spills, as they can be irritating to the skin and may not be as effective against certain types of pathogens. Additionally, phenols may have a negative effect on rubber and plastic materials, causing them to degrade or become damaged.

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  • 46. 

    Alcohol and bleach are:

    • A.

      No longer widely used as disinfectants

    • B.

      EPA-registered disinfectants

    • C.

      The most effective disinfectants

    • D.

      Completely ineffective disinfectants

    Correct Answer
    A. No longer widely used as disinfectants
    Explanation
    Alcohol and bleach are no longer widely used as disinfectants because they have been found to have limitations in terms of their effectiveness against certain types of microorganisms. While they can still be used for disinfection purposes in certain situations, there are now more advanced and specialized disinfectants available that are considered to be more effective in killing a wider range of pathogens.

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  • 47. 

    For disinfection of implements, states requiring hospital disinfection do not allow the use of:

    • A.

      EPA-registered disinfectants

    • B.

      Quats

    • C.

      Alcohol

    • D.

      Phenols

    Correct Answer
    C. Alcohol
    Explanation
    In states that require hospital disinfection, the use of alcohol for disinfecting implements is not allowed. This could be due to the fact that alcohol may not be as effective as other disinfectants in killing certain types of pathogens or because it may have adverse effects on certain materials commonly used in hospital settings. Therefore, alternative disinfectants such as EPA-registered disinfectants, quats, or phenols are typically preferred for implementing proper disinfection protocols.

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  • 48. 

    Sodium hypochlorite is more commonly known as:

    • A.

      Phenol

    • B.

      Alcohol

    • C.

      Formalin

    • D.

      Bleach

    Correct Answer
    D. Bleach
    Explanation
    Sodium hypochlorite is more commonly known as bleach. Bleach is a chemical compound used for disinfection, cleaning, and laundry purposes. It is a powerful oxidizing agent and is effective in removing stains and killing bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Sodium hypochlorite is the active ingredient in bleach and is responsible for its whitening and disinfecting properties. It is commonly used in households, industries, and healthcare settings for its versatile cleaning abilities.

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  • 49. 

    A product that was used in the past as a disinfectant but is no longer considered safe for salon use is:

    • A.

      Formalin

    • B.

      Alcohol

    • C.

      Bleach

    • D.

      Antiseptics

    Correct Answer
    A. Formalin
    Explanation
    Formalin is a product that was previously used as a disinfectant but is now considered unsafe for salon use. This indicates that formalin was once used in salons to disinfect surfaces or equipment, but due to safety concerns, it is no longer recommended. It is important for salons to use safe and effective disinfectants to ensure the well-being of their clients.

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  • 50. 

    Tongs, gloved hands, or a draining basket should be used to remove implements from:

    • A.

      Clean towels

    • B.

      Disinfectants

    • C.

      Storage containers

    • D.

      Soapy water

    Correct Answer
    B. Disinfectants
    Explanation
    To ensure proper hygiene and prevent cross-contamination, it is important to use tongs, gloved hands, or a draining basket to remove implements from disinfectants. Disinfectants are used to kill bacteria and other harmful microorganisms, and using these tools helps to maintain the cleanliness and effectiveness of the disinfectant solution. Using clean towels may introduce contaminants, storage containers may not provide a secure grip on the implements, and using soapy water may not effectively remove all the disinfectant residue. Therefore, it is best to use the specified tools for removing implements from disinfectants.

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