Microbiology - Chapter 8

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Microbiology - Chapter 8 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The synthesis of DNA, in which small nucleotides are joined together to make a single large molecule would be most correctly described as being a/n ________ reaction.

    • A.

      Metabolic

    • B.

      Anabolic

    • C.

      Catabolic

    • D.

      Cytobolic

    Correct Answer
    B. Anabolic
    Explanation
    Anabolic reactions involve the building or synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones, typically requiring energy input. In the case of DNA synthesis, small nucleotides are joined together to form a single large molecule, which aligns with the definition of anabolic reactions. Therefore, the correct answer is anabolic.

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  • 2. 

    Photoautotrophs obtain energy from

    • A.

      Light and use carbon dioxide as a carbon source

    • B.

      Organic molecules and use carbon dioxide as a carbon source

    • C.

      Inorganic substances and use carbon dioxide as a carbon source

    • D.

      Light and use inorganic substances as a carbon source

    Correct Answer
    A. Light and use carbon dioxide as a carbon source
    Explanation
    Photoautotrophs are organisms that can produce their own food using energy from light. They obtain this energy from light and use carbon dioxide as a carbon source for photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, they convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of organic molecules, such as glucose, using carbon dioxide as a raw material. Therefore, the correct answer is "light and use carbon dioxide as a carbon source."

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  • 3. 

    Organisms which get their carbon from other organisms are

    • A.

      Autotrophs

    • B.

      Chemotrophs

    • C.

      Phototrophs

    • D.

      Heterotrophs

    Correct Answer
    D. Heterotrophs
    Explanation
    Heterotrophs are organisms that obtain their carbon from other organisms. They are unable to produce their own organic compounds, so they rely on consuming organic matter produced by autotrophs. This can include consuming other organisms or feeding on organic material in their environment. Heterotrophs play an important role in ecosystems as they break down and recycle organic matter, releasing nutrients back into the environment.

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  • 4. 

    Digestive reactions where large molecules are broken down into smaller ones is called:

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Catabolism

    • C.

      Biosynthesis

    • D.

      Anabolism

    Correct Answer
    B. Catabolism
    Explanation
    Catabolism is the correct answer because it refers to the process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones. This is an essential part of digestion, where complex nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are broken down into simpler forms that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. Catabolism releases energy that is stored in these molecules, allowing the body to perform various functions and maintain cellular activities.

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  • 5. 

    Enzymes work by

    • A.

      Lowering the energy of the reactants

    • B.

      Raising the energy of the products

    • C.

      Decreasing the activation energy of the reaction

    • D.

      Increasing the activation energy of the reaction

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreasing the activation energy of the reaction
    Explanation
    Enzymes work by decreasing the activation energy of the reaction. Activation energy is the energy required to start a chemical reaction. Enzymes lower this energy barrier by providing an alternative pathway for the reaction to occur. They do this by binding to the reactants and stabilizing their transition state, making it easier for the reaction to proceed. By decreasing the activation energy, enzymes increase the rate of the reaction without being consumed in the process.

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  • 6. 

    Factors that affect the rate of enzyme catalyzed reactions include

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      PH

    • C.

      Concentration of enzyme

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The factors that affect the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions include temperature, pH, and the concentration of the enzyme. Temperature influences the kinetic energy of the reactant molecules, affecting the rate of collisions between the enzyme and substrate. pH affects the enzyme's structure and its ability to bind with the substrate. The concentration of the enzyme determines the number of active sites available for substrate binding. Therefore, all of these factors play a crucial role in determining the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not a carrier molecule that carries hydrogen atoms or electrons in oxidative

    • A.

      Iron

    • B.

      FAD

    • C.

      Niacin

    • D.

      NAD

    Correct Answer
    C. Niacin
    Explanation
    Niacin is not a carrier molecule that carries hydrogen atoms or electrons in oxidative processes. Iron, FAD, and NAD are all examples of carrier molecules that play crucial roles in transferring hydrogen atoms or electrons during oxidative reactions. Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is involved in other metabolic processes such as the synthesis of NAD and NADP, which are important coenzymes involved in cellular energy production. However, it does not directly participate in carrying hydrogen atoms or electrons in oxidative reactions.

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  • 8. 

    In glycolysis each molecule of glucose eventually produces ________ molecules of pyruvic acid.

    • A.

      One

    • B.

      Two

    • C.

      Three

    • D.

      Four

    Correct Answer
    B. Two
    Explanation
    In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose undergoes a series of reactions and is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid. This process involves the breakdown of glucose into smaller molecules, which eventually leads to the production of two molecules of pyruvic acid. Therefore, the correct answer is two.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is true about glycolysis?

    • A.

      The net yield of ATP is two ATPs for each molecule of glucose

    • B.

      It provides cells with a relatively large amount of energy

    • C.

      Four molecules of ATP are used in the initial phosphorylation steps

    • D.

      The ATP that is used up during glycolysis is not considered in calculating the net yield of ATP

    Correct Answer
    A. The net yield of ATP is two ATPs for each molecule of glucose
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate, generating ATP and NADH in the process. The net yield of ATP in glycolysis is two ATPs for each molecule of glucose. This means that for every molecule of glucose that undergoes glycolysis, two molecules of ATP are produced. The other statements are not true about glycolysis. Although glycolysis does provide cells with a relatively small amount of energy compared to other cellular respiration processes, it is not a large amount. Additionally, four molecules of ATP are not used in the initial phosphorylation steps of glycolysis. Finally, the ATP that is used up during glycolysis is indeed considered in calculating the net yield of ATP.

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  • 10. 

    During glycolysis, electrons are initially transferred to

    • A.

      NAD

    • B.

      FAD

    • C.

      NADP

    • D.

      H2O

    Correct Answer
    A. NAD
    Explanation
    During glycolysis, electrons are initially transferred to NAD. NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular respiration. It acts as an electron carrier, accepting electrons and hydrogen ions from glucose during glycolysis. This transfer of electrons to NAD allows for the production of NADH, which can then be used in subsequent steps of cellular respiration to generate ATP. Therefore, NAD is the correct answer as it is directly involved in the initial electron transfer process during glycolysis.

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  • 11. 

    Organisms that can use oxygen for metabolic reactions but can also function in an environment devoid of oxygen are termed

    • A.

      Aerobes

    • B.

      Anaerobes

    • C.

      Aerophiles

    • D.

      Facultative anaerobes

    Correct Answer
    D. Facultative anaerobes
    Explanation
    Facultative anaerobes are organisms that have the ability to use oxygen for metabolic reactions when it is present, but can also function in an environment devoid of oxygen by switching to anaerobic metabolism. This means that they have the flexibility to switch between aerobic and anaerobic respiration depending on the availability of oxygen. This adaptation allows facultative anaerobes to survive and thrive in a wide range of environments, making them highly adaptable organisms.

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  • 12. 

    Aerotolerant anaerobes

    • A.

      Can only utilize oxygen and can detoxify it

    • B.

      Require a small amount of oxygen to survive and grow

    • C.

      Can't survive in presence of oxgen

    • D.

      Do not utilize oxygen but can survive ad grow in its presence

    Correct Answer
    D. Do not utilize oxygen but can survive ad grow in its presence
    Explanation
    Aerotolerant anaerobes are microorganisms that do not utilize oxygen for their growth and metabolism. However, unlike strict anaerobes, they are able to survive and grow in the presence of oxygen. They have the ability to detoxify oxygen, which means they can tolerate its presence without being harmed. This allows them to thrive in environments where oxygen is present, such as in the human gut or in certain types of fermentation processes.

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  • 13. 

    In fermentation reactions occuring in yeast to produce wine, two products of the reactions are _______ and ____________.

    • A.

      Acid; hydrogen gas

    • B.

      Hydrogen gas; propionic acid

    • C.

      Ethyl alcohol; methane

    • D.

      Carbon dioxide; ethyl alcohol

    Correct Answer
    D. Carbon dioxide; ethyl alcohol
    Explanation
    In fermentation reactions occurring in yeast to produce wine, carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol are the two products. Yeast undergoes fermentation, a process where sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is released as a byproduct, creating the bubbles in wine, while ethyl alcohol is the main product responsible for the alcoholic content.

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  • 14. 

    The initial substrate molecule for the Krebs cycle is

    • A.

      Pyruvic acid

    • B.

      Acetyl-CoA

    • C.

      Acetic acid

    • D.

      Butanediol

    Correct Answer
    B. Acetyl-CoA
    Explanation
    The correct answer is acetyl-CoA because it is the molecule that enters the Krebs cycle. Acetyl-CoA is derived from pyruvic acid, which is produced during glycolysis. Acetyl-CoA is then further broken down in the Krebs cycle to generate energy in the form of ATP. Acetic acid and butanediol are not directly involved in the Krebs cycle.

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  • 15. 

    In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Oxygen

    • C.

      Sulfur

    • D.

      Coenzyme Q

    Correct Answer
    B. Oxygen
    Explanation
    In aerobic respiration, oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor. During the process of aerobic respiration, glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce energy in the form of ATP. Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, which is the last stage of aerobic respiration. This chain transfers electrons from molecules derived from glucose to oxygen, resulting in the production of water and the release of a large amount of energy. Therefore, oxygen is the correct answer as the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.

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  • 16. 

    The prokaryotic aerobic metabolism of glucose produces a total (net) of ________ molecules of ATP.

    • A.

      24

    • B.

      30

    • C.

      34

    • D.

      38

    Correct Answer
    D. 38
    Explanation
    In prokaryotic aerobic metabolism, glucose is broken down through a series of reactions called cellular respiration. During this process, glucose is completely oxidized, resulting in the production of a total of 38 molecules of ATP. ATP is the main energy currency of cells, and it is produced through the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. These processes generate a significant amount of ATP, allowing the cell to carry out its metabolic activities efficiently. Therefore, the correct answer is 38.

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  • 17. 

    Which reaction takes place in the mitochondrial matrix?

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Fermentation

    • C.

      Krebs cycle

    • D.

      Electron transport

    Correct Answer
    D. Electron transport
    Explanation
    The electron transport chain is the reaction that takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. This process occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria and is responsible for generating ATP, the cell's main energy source. During electron transport, electrons from molecules such as NADH and FADH2 are passed through a series of protein complexes, creating a flow of electrons that ultimately drives the production of ATP. This reaction is essential for cellular respiration and occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.

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  • 18. 

    The first step in protein metabolism is the breakdown of proteins into

    • A.

      Nucleotides

    • B.

      Fatty acids

    • C.

      Amino acids

    • D.

      Coenzymes

    Correct Answer
    C. Amino acids
    Explanation
    In protein metabolism, the first step involves breaking down proteins into amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are essential for various biological processes. Once proteins are broken down into amino acids, they can be used for energy production, synthesis of new proteins, or conversion into other molecules such as neurotransmitters or hormones. This initial breakdown of proteins into amino acids is crucial for the body to efficiently utilize and recycle these important molecules.

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  • 19. 

    The green sulfur and purple sulfur bacteria are capable of

    • A.

      Carrying out photosynthesis

    • B.

      Only obtaining energy from organic molecules

    • C.

      Bypassing glycolysis for the Krebs cycle

    • D.

      Metabolizing without enzymes

    Correct Answer
    A. Carrying out photosynthesis
    Explanation
    The green sulfur and purple sulfur bacteria are capable of carrying out photosynthesis. This means that they are able to convert light energy into chemical energy by using pigments such as chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll. Through this process, they can synthesize organic compounds, such as sugars, using carbon dioxide as a carbon source. This ability to carry out photosynthesis allows these bacteria to generate their own energy and sustain their metabolic processes.

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  • 20. 

    In photosynthesis, light energy is used to

    • A.

      Break down proteins

    • B.

      Phosphorylate ADP to form ATP

    • C.

      Metabolize glycerol

    • D.

      Synthesize carbohydrates

    Correct Answer
    D. Synthesize carbohydrates
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. This is achieved through a series of reactions in which carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose and oxygen. The synthesis of carbohydrates is a crucial step in photosynthesis as it provides plants with the necessary energy and building blocks for growth and survival. Therefore, the correct answer is to synthesize carbohydrates.

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  • 21. 

    In photosynthesis, chemical energy is used to make organic molecules in the

    • A.

      Light reaction

    • B.

      Dark reaction

    • C.

      Hydrolytic reaction

    • D.

      Photophosphorylation reaction

    Correct Answer
    B. Dark reaction
    Explanation
    The dark reaction, also known as the Calvin cycle, is the phase of photosynthesis where organic molecules are synthesized using the chemical energy produced in the light reaction. This process occurs in the stroma of the chloroplasts and involves the fixation of carbon dioxide and the subsequent reduction of carbon compounds to form glucose and other organic molecules. Unlike the light reaction, the dark reaction does not require light directly and can occur in the absence of light, hence the name "dark reaction".

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  • 22. 

    Bioluminescent microbes

    • A.

      May have evolved to remove oxygen from the atmosphere

    • B.

      Are often beneficiares of symbiotic relationships with a larger host, producing light in exchange for nutrients

    • C.

      Often have the enzyme luciferase which catalyzes the oxidation reaction that emits light

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Bioluminescent microbes may have evolved to remove oxygen from the atmosphere, as oxygen can be toxic to them. They are often beneficiaries of symbiotic relationships with a larger host, producing light in exchange for nutrients. Additionally, these microbes often have the enzyme luciferase, which catalyzes the oxidation reaction that emits light. Therefore, all of the above statements are true.

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  • 23. 

    Glucose is to photosynthesis as pyruvate is to 

    • A.

      Oxidative phosphorylation

    • B.

      Glycolysis

    • C.

      Fermentation

    • D.

      Krebs cycle

    Correct Answer
    B. Glycolysis
    Explanation
    Glucose is the starting molecule in photosynthesis, where it is converted into energy-rich molecules. Similarly, pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis, the process that breaks down glucose into smaller molecules to produce energy. Therefore, the correct answer is glycolysis, as pyruvate is directly involved in this metabolic pathway.

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  • 24. 

    Which one of the following pairs is mismatched

    • A.

      Alcohol-fermentation

    • B.

      Pyruvate-glycolysis

    • C.

      Carbon dioxide-glycolysis

    • D.

      NADH-Krebs cycle

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon dioxide-glycolysis
    Explanation
    The pair "carbon dioxide-glycolysis" is mismatched because carbon dioxide is not produced during the process of glycolysis. Glycolysis is the first step in cellular respiration, where glucose is broken down into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH. Carbon dioxide is produced later in the Krebs cycle, where pyruvate is further broken down.

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  • 25. 

    A holoenzyme consists of

    • A.

      An apoenzyme plus a cofactor

    • B.

      An apoenzyme plus a coenzyme

    • C.

      A protein and non-protein component

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    A holoenzyme consists of both an apoenzyme plus a cofactor and an apoenzyme plus a coenzyme. Additionally, it also consists of a protein and non-protein component. Therefore, all of the above options are correct.

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  • 26. 

    Calculate the number of organisms in the original inoculum

    Correct Answer
    10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 30 x 10-6 cfu/ml
    Explanation
    The given calculation shows the number of organisms in the original inoculum. The calculation is done by multiplying 10 by itself five times (10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10), which equals 100,000. The answer is then expressed as 30 x 10^-6 cfu/ml.

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