Medical Terminology -- Urinary

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Medical Terminology Quizzes & Trivia

Med. Term. 2 Final Study -- In Chabner: The Language of Medicine


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Oliguria

    • A.

      Scanty urination

    • B.

      Pus in the urine

    • C.

      Bacteriuria

    • D.

      Polyuria

    • E.

      Nocturia

    Correct Answer
    A. Scanty urination
    Explanation
    Oliguria refers to a condition where there is a decreased amount of urine production. It is characterized by scanty urination, which means that the amount of urine passed is significantly reduced. The other options, such as pus in the urine (pyuria), presence of bacteria in the urine (bacteriuria), excessive urination (polyuria), and increased urination at night (nocturia), do not accurately describe the symptom of oliguria.

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  • 2. 

    Diabetes insipidus is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Polydipsia

    • B.

      Glycosuria

    • C.

      Polyuria

    • D.

      Pituitary gland malfunction

    • E.

      Insufficient ADH

    Correct Answer
    B. Glycosuria
    Explanation
    Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by excessive thirst (polydipsia), excessive urination (polyuria), and a malfunction in the pituitary gland or insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Glycosuria, on the other hand, is the presence of glucose in the urine, which is not a characteristic of diabetes insipidus. Therefore, glycosuria is the exception among the listed symptoms of diabetes insipidus.

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  • 3. 

    Protein in the urine

    • A.

      Bilirubinuria

    • B.

      Hyperbilirubinemia

    • C.

      Albuminuria

    • D.

      Acetonuria

    • E.

      Ketonuria

    Correct Answer
    C. Albuminuria
    Explanation
    Albuminuria refers to the presence of albumin, a type of protein, in the urine. It is a condition that occurs when the kidneys are not functioning properly and are unable to effectively filter out waste products, including proteins, from the blood. This can be a sign of kidney damage or disease, such as glomerulonephritis or diabetes. Detecting albuminuria through urine tests is important in diagnosing and monitoring kidney function and overall health. Bilirubinuria, hyperbilirubinemia, acetonuria, and ketonuria are not related to the presence of protein in the urine.

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  • 4. 

    Glomerular

    • A.

      Pertaining to a tube leading from the kidney to the bladder

    • B.

      Pertaining to a tube in the bladder

    • C.

      Pertaining to a collecting chamber in the kidney

    • D.

      Pertaining to small balls of capillaries in the kidney

    • E.

      Pertaining to the urinary bladder

    Correct Answer
    D. Pertaining to small balls of capillaries in the kidney
    Explanation
    The term "glomerular" refers to small balls of capillaries in the kidney. The glomerulus is a network of tiny blood vessels in the kidney that filters waste products and excess fluid from the blood, forming urine. This structure plays a crucial role in the process of filtration and is essential for maintaining proper kidney function. Therefore, the answer "Pertaining to small balls of capillaries in the kidney" accurately describes the term "glomerular."

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  • 5. 

    High levels of ketones in the blood can lead to

    • A.

      High pH of urine

    • B.

      Excessive elimination of fats

    • C.

      Diabetes insipidus

    • D.

      Low specific gravity

    • E.

      Acidosis

    Correct Answer
    E. Acidosis
    Explanation
    High levels of ketones in the blood can lead to acidosis. Ketones are produced when the body breaks down fat for energy instead of glucose. When there is an excessive production of ketones, it can cause an imbalance in the body's pH levels, leading to acidosis. Acidosis is a condition where there is too much acid in the body, which can disrupt normal bodily functions and potentially be life-threatening if left untreated.

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  • 6. 

    Childhood renal carcinoma

    • A.

      Wilms tumor

    • B.

      Hypernephroma

    • C.

      Polycystic kidney

    • D.

      Glomerulonephritis

    • E.

      Phenylketonuria

    Correct Answer
    A. Wilms tumor
    Explanation
    Wilms tumor is the most likely explanation for the given answer choices. It is a type of childhood renal carcinoma, also known as nephroblastoma, which is a malignant tumor that arises from the kidneys. It is the most common kidney cancer in children and typically affects children between the ages of 2 and 5. The other answer choices, such as hypernephroma (renal cell carcinoma), polycystic kidney, glomerulonephritis, and phenylketonuria, are unrelated conditions that do not fit the description of childhood renal carcinoma.

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  • 7. 

    Urine is held in the bladder

    • A.

      Urinary incontinence

    • B.

      Urinary retention

    • C.

      Pyuria

    • D.

      Polyuria

    • E.

      Nocturia

    Correct Answer
    B. Urinary retention
    Explanation
    Urinary retention refers to the inability to completely empty the bladder, leading to a buildup of urine. This condition can occur due to various reasons, such as a blockage in the urinary tract or weakened bladder muscles. When urinary retention occurs, the bladder becomes distended and can cause discomfort or pain. Treatment options for urinary retention may include medication, catheterization, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause.

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  • 8. 

    Pyo-

    • A.

      Prolapse

    • B.

      Pee

    • C.

      Pus

    • D.

      Period

    • E.

      Partial

    Correct Answer
    C. Pus
    Explanation
    The given words are all related to medical conditions or terms. "Pus" is a substance that forms at the site of an infection and is often associated with inflammation or an abscess. It is a common symptom of various infections and can indicate the presence of bacteria or other pathogens.

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  • 9. 

    Test that measures the amount of urea in the blood

    • A.

      KUN

    • B.

      CT Scan

    • C.

      UA

    • D.

      BUN

    • E.

      VCU

    Correct Answer
    D. BUN
    Explanation
    BUN stands for Blood Urea Nitrogen, which is a test that measures the amount of urea in the blood. Urea is a waste product that is produced when the liver breaks down proteins. The BUN test is commonly used to evaluate kidney function and to diagnose and monitor conditions such as kidney disease and dehydration. Therefore, BUN is the correct answer as it directly relates to the measurement of urea in the blood.

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  • 10. 

    Nephr/o

    • A.

      Nerve

    • B.

      Bladder

    • C.

      Urine

    • D.

      Pus

    • E.

      Kidney

    Correct Answer
    E. Kidney
    Explanation
    The term "nephr/o" is a combining form that specifically refers to the kidney. It is derived from the Greek word "nephros" which means kidney. This combining form is commonly used in medical terminology to describe conditions or procedures related to the kidney. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is "kidney".

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  • 11. 

    Hardening of vessels in the kidney (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Nephrosclerosis

    • B.

      Nephroscherosis

    • C.

      Nephrosclirosis

    • D.

      Neprohsclerosis

    • E.

      Nephroclerosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Nephrosclerosis
    Explanation
    Nephrosclerosis refers to the hardening of the blood vessels in the kidney. This condition is characterized by the thickening and narrowing of the small arteries and arterioles in the kidney, leading to reduced blood flow and impaired kidney function. It is often associated with hypertension and can result in chronic kidney disease or kidney failure. The correct spelling of this condition is "nephrosclerosis".

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  • 12. 

    Stone (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Callas

    • B.

      Calculus

    • C.

      Calculas

    • D.

      Callcullas

    • E.

      Calculass

    Correct Answer
    B. Calculus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "calculus" because it is the only option that is spelled correctly. The other options, "callas," "calculas," "callcullas," and "calculass," contain spelling errors.

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  • 13. 

    Excessive thirst (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Polydipsya

    • B.

      Polydypsia

    • C.

      Polydipsia

    • D.

      Polydyipsia

    • E.

      Polydipsa

    Correct Answer
    C. Polydipsia
    Explanation
    Polydipsia is the correct spelling for excessive thirst. The term "polydipsia" is derived from the Greek words "poly" meaning excessive and "dipsa" meaning thirst. It is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal increase in thirst and a constant desire to drink fluids. This condition can be caused by various factors such as diabetes, certain medications, kidney problems, and hormonal imbalances. Therefore, polydipsia accurately represents the condition of excessive thirst.

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  • 14. 

    Collecting area in the kidney (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Calyis

    • B.

      Calics

    • C.

      Callics

    • D.

      Calyx

    • E.

      Callyx

    Correct Answer
    D. Calyx
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "calyx." The calyx is a part of the kidney that serves as a collecting area. It is responsible for receiving urine from the renal pyramids and directing it towards the renal pelvis. The other options provided, such as "calyis," "calics," "callics," and "callyx," are incorrect spellings and do not represent the correct term for the collecting area in the kidney.

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  • 15. 

    Hormone secreted by the kidney to increase red blood cells (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Erythropoetin

    • B.

      Erithropoeitin

    • C.

      Erythropoeitin

    • D.

      Erithropoietin

    • E.

      Erythropoietin

    Correct Answer
    E. Erythropoietin
    Explanation
    Erythropoietin is the correct answer. It is a hormone secreted by the kidney that stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. This hormone plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of red blood cells in the body, ensuring that enough oxygen is transported to tissues and organs.

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  • 16. 

    A term that means no urine production is

    • A.

      Anuria

    • B.

      Voiding

    • C.

      Micturition

    • D.

      Nocturia

    • E.

      Diuresis

    Correct Answer
    A. Anuria
    Explanation
    Anuria is the correct answer because it refers to the medical condition where there is a complete absence or extremely low production of urine. It is characterized by the inability to pass urine, which can be caused by various factors such as kidney failure, urinary tract obstruction, or severe dehydration. The term "anuria" is derived from the Greek words "a" meaning without and "ouron" meaning urine, indicating the absence of urine production.

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  • 17. 

    Surrounding the urinary bladder

    • A.

      Suprarenal

    • B.

      Perivisceral

    • C.

      Perivesical

    • D.

      Perinephric

    • E.

      Infrarenal

    Correct Answer
    C. Perivesical
    Explanation
    Perivesical refers to the area surrounding the urinary bladder. It is the correct answer because it accurately describes the location mentioned in the question. The term "peri-" means around or surrounding, and "vesical" refers to the urinary bladder. Therefore, perivesical refers to the region around the bladder.

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