Long Test - Energy Metabolism (40 Items)

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Quizzes Created: 5 | Total Attempts: 18,562
Questions: 40 | Attempts: 1,635

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Long Test - Energy Metabolism (40 Items) - Quiz



25 Items - True or False
15 Items - Identification
Total of 40 items (40 points)
Wrong spelling is marked wrong so be very careful when typing in your answers.
You have 30 minutes to complete the test. Do not forget to print the Score Report Certificate generated at the end of the test.
Good luck!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    True or False Cellular respiration is a complex series of chemical reactions that harvests the energy trapped in the bonds of glucose sugar molecules and converts it into a chemical form that can be stored for later use.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is indeed a complex series of chemical reactions that occur in cells to release energy from glucose molecules and convert it into a usable form called ATP. This process is essential for the survival of organisms as it provides the energy needed for various cellular activities.

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  • 2. 

    True or False Cellular respiration is critical for the survival of most organisms because the energy in glucose will never be used by the cells until it is stored in molecules of ATP.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is critical for the survival of most organisms because it is the process by which cells convert glucose into ATP, the main energy currency of cells. Glucose cannot be directly used by cells, so it needs to be broken down through cellular respiration to release energy in the form of ATP. Without cellular respiration, the energy in glucose would remain unused and organisms would not be able to carry out essential life processes. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 3. 

    True or False Anaerobic cellular respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Anaerobic cellular respiration is a process that occurs in the absence of oxygen. It is a metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to produce energy in the form of ATP without the need for oxygen. This process is commonly observed in microorganisms and some types of cells in our body, such as muscle cells, during intense exercise or in low oxygen conditions. Therefore, the statement "Anaerobic cellular respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen" is false.

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  • 4. 

    True or False Glucose is the only requirement for cellular respiration to take place.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is a complex process that involves the breakdown of glucose molecules to produce energy in the form of ATP. While glucose is an essential component for cellular respiration, it is not the only requirement. Other requirements include oxygen and enzymes that facilitate the various steps of cellular respiration. Therefore, the statement that glucose is the only requirement for cellular respiration is false.

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  • 5. 

    True or False Cellular respiration transfers/converts about 60% of the energy of glucose to ATP.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration does not transfer/convert about 60% of the energy of glucose to ATP. The correct answer is False.

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  • 6. 

    True or False Compared to other energy conversion processes, cellular respiration is very inefficient in converting energy to a usable form.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is actually a highly efficient process in converting energy to a usable form. Through a series of metabolic reactions, it converts glucose and oxygen into ATP, which is the energy currency of cells. This process occurs in the mitochondria and is essential for the functioning of all living organisms. While some energy is lost as heat during cellular respiration, the overall efficiency is quite high, making it a crucial and efficient energy conversion process.

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  • 7. 

    True or False To control the release of heat, cells build up and break down most molecules in a linked series of small reactions called metabolic pathways that release only a little bit of heat energy at a time.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cells control the release of heat by carrying out metabolic pathways, which involve breaking down and building up molecules in a series of small reactions. These pathways release heat energy gradually, preventing an excessive build-up of heat that could be harmful to the cell. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 8. 

    True or False Cellular respiration not only protects the cell from lethal temperature increases but also provides the cell with a mechanism for transfering the energy of glucose to ATP in a controlled manner.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is a vital process that occurs in cells to convert glucose into ATP, the primary energy currency of the cell. This process not only provides the cell with energy but also regulates the transfer of energy from glucose to ATP in a controlled manner. Additionally, cellular respiration helps in maintaining the cell's temperature within a safe range, protecting it from lethal temperature increases. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 9. 

    True or False Both fructose and galactose may be directly used by the cell to produce energy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Fructose and galactose cannot be directly used by the cell to produce energy. Before they can be used, they need to be converted into glucose, which is the primary source of energy for cells. Fructose is converted into glucose in the liver, while galactose is converted into glucose in the liver as well. Therefore, the statement that both fructose and galactose may be directly used by the cell to produce energy is false.

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  • 10. 

    True or False Glycolysis takes place in the cell's mitochondria.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the process of breaking down glucose to produce energy in the form of ATP. It takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell, not in the mitochondria. The mitochondria is responsible for the later stages of cellular respiration, where the products of glycolysis are further broken down to generate more ATP. Therefore, the statement "Glycolysis takes place in the cell's mitochondria" is false.

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  • 11. 

    True or False In glycolysis, a glucose molecule is broken down to 2 three-carbon molecules called pyruvate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In glycolysis, a process that occurs in the cytoplasm of cells, a glucose molecule is indeed broken down into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvate. This process involves a series of enzymatic reactions and is the first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The pyruvate molecules produced in glycolysis can then be further utilized in other metabolic pathways to produce energy in the form of ATP.

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  • 12. 

    True or False Glycolysis is an aerobic cellular process.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is actually an anaerobic cellular process, meaning it does not require oxygen to occur. It is the first step in cellular respiration and occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, releasing a small amount of energy in the form of ATP. This process is followed by either aerobic or anaerobic pathways, depending on the availability of oxygen.

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  • 13. 

    True or False The Citric Acid Cycle is an anaerobic cellular process.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The Citric Acid Cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle, is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria of cells to generate energy. This cycle requires oxygen to function properly, making it an aerobic cellular process. Therefore, the statement that the Citric Acid Cycle is an anaerobic cellular process is false.

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  • 14. 

    True or False Most glycogen storage-related diseases result from the absence of certain enzymes needed in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Most glycogen storage-related diseases result from the absence of certain enzymes needed in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. This means that individuals with these diseases are unable to properly break down glycogen, resulting in a buildup of glycogen in their cells. This can lead to various health problems and symptoms associated with these glycogen storage-related diseases. Therefore, the statement "Most glycogen storage-related diseases result from the absence of certain enzymes needed in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose" is true.

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  • 15. 

    True or False A single human brain cell uses an estimated 10 million ATP molecules per second to carry out its tasks. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A single human brain cell uses an estimated 10 million ATP molecules per second to carry out its tasks. This is because ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the primary energy source for cellular processes, including brain cell functions. The brain is a highly active organ that requires a significant amount of energy to support its various activities such as neurotransmission, ion transport, and maintaining membrane potential. Therefore, it is plausible that a single brain cell would utilize such a large number of ATP molecules per second to fuel its operations.

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  • 16. 

    True or False The NADH and FADH2 molecules act like specialized delivery trucks that dump off their loads of electrons and H+ ions for conversion to ATP via the electron transport chain.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    NADH and FADH2 molecules function as electron carriers in cellular respiration. They transport electrons and hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain, where these molecules are oxidized, releasing energy that is used to generate ATP. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 17. 

    True or False The Citric Acid Cycle is otherwise known as the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the Citric Acid Cycle is not otherwise known as the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway. The Citric Acid Cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle, is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria of cells to generate energy. On the other hand, the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway, also known as glycolysis, is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of energy. These are two distinct pathways in cellular metabolism.

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  • 18. 

    True or False Glycogenolysis is the exact reverse of all the reactions of glycogenesis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Glycogenolysis is not the exact reverse of all the reactions of glycogenesis. While glycogenesis is the process of synthesizing glycogen from glucose, glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. Although they are related processes, they are not exact reverses of each other. Glycogenolysis involves different enzymes and reactions compared to glycogenesis.

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  • 19. 

    True or False ATP has 3 high-energy bonds.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) actually has two high-energy bonds, not three. These high-energy bonds are located between the phosphate groups in the molecule. When these bonds are broken, energy is released, which is then used by cells for various processes. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 20. 

    True or False ADP may be converted back to ATP through a  process called phosphorylation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    ADP (adenosine diphosphate) can indeed be converted back to ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through a process called phosphorylation. Phosphorylation involves the addition of a phosphate group to ADP, resulting in the formation of ATP. This process occurs during cellular respiration, where energy is transferred and stored in the form of ATP molecules.

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  • 21. 

    True or False Glucagon and epinephrine function by removing glucose from the bloodstream.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Glucagon and epinephrine actually function by increasing the levels of glucose in the bloodstream. Glucagon is a hormone released by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or danger. It increases blood sugar levels by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen in the liver and muscles into glucose. Therefore, the statement that glucagon and epinephrine remove glucose from the bloodstream is false.

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  • 22. 

    True or False The hexose monophospahte shunt is important for the synthesis of the five-carbon sugar, ribose, which, in turn, is used for the synthesis of nucleic acids and nucleotides.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The hexose monophosphate shunt, also known as the pentose phosphate pathway, is indeed important for the synthesis of ribose, a five-carbon sugar. Ribose is a key component in the production of nucleic acids and nucleotides, which are essential for DNA and RNA synthesis. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 23. 

    True or False Fermentation produces only 2 ATPs for every glucose molecule processed.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fermentation is a metabolic process that occurs in the absence of oxygen. During fermentation, glucose is broken down into smaller molecules, such as lactic acid or ethanol, in order to produce energy. Unlike aerobic respiration, which produces a much larger amount of ATP, fermentation only produces a small amount of ATP. This is because the process of fermentation is less efficient in extracting energy from glucose compared to aerobic respiration. Therefore, it is true that fermentation produces only 2 ATPs for every glucose molecule processed.

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  • 24. 

    True or False In the absence of glucose, the body may switch into preparing energy from non-carbohydrate sources like fatty acids, glycerol and amino acids.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the absence of glucose, the body may switch into preparing energy from non-carbohydrate sources like fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids. This is because the body can undergo a process called gluconeogenesis, where it can convert these non-carbohydrate sources into glucose to be used as fuel for energy production. This allows the body to maintain its energy needs even when glucose is not readily available.

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  • 25. 

    True or False Acetyl CoA serves as fuel in the third stage of cellular respiration known as Krebs Cycle.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Acetyl CoA does indeed serve as fuel in the third stage of cellular respiration, known as the Krebs Cycle. In this cycle, Acetyl CoA enters the mitochondria and combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which then undergoes a series of reactions to produce energy-rich molecules such as NADH and FADH2. These molecules are later used in the electron transport chain to generate ATP, the cell's main source of energy. Therefore, the statement "Acetyl CoA serves as fuel in the third stage of cellular respiration known as Krebs Cycle" is true.

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  • 26. 

    Identification The total number of ATP molecules produced in fermentation.

    Correct Answer
    2
    two
    Explanation
    The answer is 2 or two because fermentation is an anaerobic process that does not involve the electron transport chain. As a result, only a small amount of ATP is produced through substrate-level phosphorylation. In glycolysis, a total of 2 ATP molecules are produced per glucose molecule, regardless of the type of fermentation. Therefore, the correct answer is 2 or two.

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  • 27. 

    Identification The total number of ATP molecules produced when glucose is metabolized aerobically.

    Correct Answer
    36
    thirty six
    Explanation
    When glucose is metabolized aerobically, it goes through a process called cellular respiration. During this process, glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the energy currency of cells. In aerobic respiration, each molecule of glucose can produce a maximum of 36 ATP molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is 36.

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  • 28. 

    Identification The stage of cellular respiration where the pyruvate molecules, produced from glycolysis, are moved from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria where they are converted to 2 molecules of acetyl CoA.

    Correct Answer
    Transition Stage
    Explanation
    The stage of cellular respiration where the pyruvate molecules are converted to 2 molecules of acetyl CoA is known as the transition stage. In this stage, the pyruvate molecules are transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria and undergo a series of reactions that result in the formation of acetyl CoA. This step is crucial as it prepares the acetyl CoA molecules to enter the next stage of cellular respiration, the citric acid cycle.

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  • 29. 

    Identification The term used to refer to the normal quantity of glucose in the blood during a period of fasting.

    Correct Answer
    normal fasting blood sugar value
    normal fasting blood sugar
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "normal fasting blood sugar value" or "normal fasting blood sugar". This refers to the standard or typical amount of glucose present in the blood after a period of fasting. Fasting blood sugar levels are commonly used to diagnose and monitor diabetes.

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  • 30. 

    Identification The primary fuel used in the Citric Acid Cycle.

    Correct Answer
    Acetyl CoA
    Acetyl Coenzyme A
    Explanation
    Acetyl CoA, also known as Acetyl Coenzyme A, is the primary fuel used in the Citric Acid Cycle. This molecule is formed from the breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, and it enters the Citric Acid Cycle to be further metabolized and generate energy. Acetyl CoA plays a crucial role in the production of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell, making it an essential component in cellular respiration.

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  • 31. 

    Identification The process performed by the liver and the muscles that removes the extra glucose from the blood especially after digestion.

    Correct Answer
    glycogenesis
    Explanation
    Glycogenesis is the process of converting excess glucose into glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles. This process helps regulate blood glucose levels by removing the extra glucose from the bloodstream, especially after digestion. The liver and muscles play a crucial role in this process, as they store the excess glucose as glycogen for later use when energy is needed. Glycogenesis is an essential mechanism in maintaining blood sugar balance and ensuring that glucose is stored efficiently in the body.

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  • 32. 

    Identification A disease resulting from the abnormal storage of glycogen in the liver.

    Correct Answer
    Von Gierke's Disease
    Pompe's Disease
    Forbe's Disease
    Andersen's Disease
    McArdle's Syndrome
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Von Gierke's Disease, Pompe's Disease, Forbe's Disease, Andersen's Disease, and McArdle's Syndrome. These are all metabolic disorders that involve the abnormal storage of glycogen in the liver. Von Gierke's Disease is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, which leads to the accumulation of glycogen in the liver. Pompe's Disease is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase, resulting in the buildup of glycogen in various tissues. Forbe's Disease, also known as glycogen storage disease type III, is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme amylo-1,6-glucosidase, leading to the abnormal storage of glycogen. Andersen's Disease, or glycogen storage disease type IV, is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme glycogen branching enzyme, causing glycogen to accumulate in tissues. McArdle's Syndrome, or glycogen storage disease type V, is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme muscle glycogen phosphorylase, resulting in the buildup of glycogen in muscle tissue.

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  • 33. 

    Identification The hormone responsible for increasing the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream during periods of strong emotional stress.

    Correct Answer
    epinephrine
    adrenaline
    fight or flight hormone
    Explanation
    Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is the hormone responsible for increasing the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream during periods of strong emotional stress. It is often referred to as the "fight or flight hormone" because it prepares the body for intense physical activity in response to a perceived threat or danger. Epinephrine triggers the release of stored glucose from the liver, providing the body with a quick source of energy to respond to the stressful situation.

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  • 34. 

    Identification Once it is absorbed by the cell, glucose has to immediately undergo __________ to make it more reactive and to trap it in the cytoplasm of the cell.

    Correct Answer
    phosphorylation
    Explanation
    When glucose is absorbed by the cell, it needs to undergo phosphorylation in order to become more reactive and to be trapped in the cytoplasm of the cell. Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group to a molecule, in this case, glucose. This modification makes glucose more reactive and allows it to be utilized by the cell for energy production or other metabolic processes. By trapping glucose in the cytoplasm, phosphorylation ensures that it remains within the cell and can be properly utilized.

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  • 35. 

    Identification The stage of cellular respiration where most of the energy of glucose is harvested.

    Correct Answer
    Krebs Cycle
    Citric Acid Cycle
    Explanation
    The Krebs Cycle, also known as the Citric Acid Cycle, is the stage of cellular respiration where most of the energy of glucose is harvested. During this cycle, glucose is broken down and converted into energy-rich molecules such as ATP. This process occurs in the mitochondria of cells and involves a series of chemical reactions that release carbon dioxide and transfer high-energy electrons to carrier molecules. The energy stored in these molecules is then used to produce ATP, the main energy currency of cells.

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  • 36. 

    Identification A metabolic pathway where glucose is used as a starting material.

    Correct Answer
    glycolysis
    pentose shunt
    hexose monophosphate shunt
    glycogenesis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is glycolysis, pentose shunt, hexose monophosphate shunt, and glycogenesis. These are all metabolic pathways that involve the use of glucose as a starting material. Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, while the pentose shunt and hexose monophosphate shunt are alternative pathways for the metabolism of glucose, producing different products. Glycogenesis, on the other hand, is the process of converting glucose into glycogen for storage.

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  • 37. 

    Identification The fourth and last stage of cellular respiration

    Correct Answer
    electron transport chain
    electron transport system
    oxidative phosphorylation
    Explanation
    The fourth and final stage of cellular respiration is known as the electron transport chain, electron transport system, or oxidative phosphorylation. During this stage, electrons from molecules like NADH and FADH2 are transferred along a series of protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This transfer of electrons generates a proton gradient, which is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Overall, the electron transport chain, electron transport system, and oxidative phosphorylation work together to produce the majority of ATP in cellular respiration.

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  • 38. 

    Identification The stage of fermentation that regenerates NAD+.

    Correct Answer
    Recycling Stage
    Explanation
    The recycling stage of fermentation is the stage where NAD+ is regenerated. During fermentation, NADH is produced as a result of glycolysis. However, in order for glycolysis to continue, NAD+ is needed. The recycling stage involves the conversion of NADH back into NAD+ so that it can be used again in glycolysis. This allows the production of ATP to continue in the absence of oxygen. Therefore, the recycling stage is responsible for replenishing the supply of NAD+ in fermentation.

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  • 39. 

    Identification Condition that may result from high blood sugar level.

    Correct Answer
    hyperglycemia
    glycosuria
    diabetes
    acidosis
    ketosis
    Explanation
    Hyperglycemia is a condition characterized by high blood sugar levels. It can occur due to various reasons such as diabetes, where the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels. Glycosuria refers to the presence of glucose in the urine, which can be a sign of high blood sugar levels. Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood. Acidosis is a condition where there is an excessive buildup of acid in the body, which can occur in uncontrolled diabetes. Ketosis is a metabolic state where the body starts using fat for energy instead of glucose, which can occur in uncontrolled diabetes.

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  • 40. 

    Identification The hormone that promotes glycogenesis but inhibits glycogenolysis.

    Correct Answer
    insulin
    Explanation
    Insulin is the correct answer because it is a hormone that promotes glycogenesis, which is the process of converting glucose into glycogen for storage. Insulin also inhibits glycogenolysis, which is the breakdown of glycogen back into glucose. Therefore, insulin plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels by promoting the storage of glucose as glycogen and preventing its release back into the bloodstream.

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  • Mar 19, 2023
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