Lom Chapter 7-sxs Chapter 20-essentials Chapter 12

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Portion of the urinary bladder:

    • A.

      Pylorus

    • B.

      Hilum

    • C.

      Trigone

    • D.

      Medulla

    • E.

      Fundus

    Correct Answer
    C. Trigone
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Trigone. The trigone is a triangular-shaped area in the urinary bladder that is formed by the two ureteral openings and the urethral opening. It is important because it acts as a funnel to direct urine flow from the ureters into the urethra. The trigone is also smooth and relatively free of muscle, which helps prevent urine from being trapped and causing infections.

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  • 2. 

    Glomerular:

    • A.

      Pertaining to a tube in the bladder

    • B.

      Pertaining to small balls of capillaries in the kidney

    • C.

      Pertaining to a collecting chamber in the kidney

    • D.

      Pertaining to a tube leading from the kidney to the bladder

    • E.

      Pertaining to the urinary bladder

    Correct Answer
    B. Pertaining to small balls of capillaries in the kidney
    Explanation
    The term "glomerular" refers to small balls of capillaries in the kidney. This is the correct answer because the glomerulus is a network of tiny blood vessels in the kidney that filters waste products from the blood and produces urine. The other options, such as a tube in the bladder or a collecting chamber in the kidney, do not accurately describe the term "glomerular".

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  • 3. 

    Meatal stenosis:

    • A.

      Enalrgement of an opening

    • B.

      Incision of an opening

    • C.

      Stoppage of blood flow to the kidney

    • D.

      Narrowing of the urethral opening to the outside of the body

    • E.

      Widening of the bladder orifice

    Correct Answer
    D. Narrowing of the urethral opening to the outside of the body
    Explanation
    Meatal stenosis refers to the narrowing of the urethral opening to the outside of the body. This condition occurs when the meatus, the external opening of the urethra, becomes abnormally narrow. It can lead to difficulties in urination, such as a weak urine stream or pain during urination. Treatment options for meatal stenosis may include dilation of the meatus or surgical correction to widen the opening.

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  • 4. 

    Electrolyte:

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Albumin

    • C.

      Bilirubin

    • D.

      Creatinine

    • E.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    A. Sodium
    Explanation
    Sodium is the correct answer because it is the only substance listed that can be classified as an electrolyte. Electrolytes are substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water, allowing for the conduction of electric current. Sodium is an essential electrolyte in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, nerve function, and muscle contraction. The other substances listed, such as albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, and glucose, do not possess electrolyte properties.

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  • 5. 

    Nitrogenous waste:

    • A.

      Creatinine

    • B.

      Lipid

    • C.

      Fatty acid

    • D.

      Sugar

    • E.

      Carbon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    A. Creatinine
    Explanation
    Creatinine is a nitrogenous waste product that is produced in the body as a result of muscle metabolism. It is formed from the breakdown of creatine, which is found in muscle tissue. Creatinine is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine. The level of creatinine in the blood is used as an indicator of kidney function, as impaired kidney function can lead to a buildup of creatinine in the blood. Therefore, creatinine is the correct answer as it is a nitrogenous waste product.

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  • 6. 

    Renal pelvis:

    • A.

      Nephr/o

    • B.

      Cyst/o

    • C.

      Pyel/o

    • D.

      Ren/o

    • E.

      Py/o

    Correct Answer
    C. Pyel/o
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "pyel/o". Pyel/o refers to the renal pelvis, which is the funnel-shaped part of the kidney that collects urine before it passes through the ureter.

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  • 7. 

    A term that means no urine production is:

    • A.

      Diuresis

    • B.

      Anuria

    • C.

      Nocturia

    • D.

      Voiding

    • E.

      Micturition

    Correct Answer
    B. Anuria
    Explanation
    Anuria is the correct answer because it refers to the absence or lack of urine production. It is a medical term used to describe a condition where the kidneys are not producing urine or producing an extremely small amount of urine. This can be caused by various factors such as kidney failure, urinary tract obstruction, or severe dehydration. Anuria is a serious condition that requires medical attention as it can indicate underlying health issues and can lead to complications if not treated promptly.

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  • 8. 

    Surrounding the urinary bladder:

    • A.

      Perinephric

    • B.

      Perivisceral

    • C.

      Perivesical

    • D.

      Infrarenal

    • E.

      Suprarenal

    Correct Answer
    C. Perivesical
    Explanation
    Perivesical refers to the area surrounding the urinary bladder. It is the correct answer because the other options (perinephric, perivisceral, infrarenal, suprarenal) do not specifically pertain to the bladder but rather to other anatomical structures.

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  • 9. 

    Uremia:

    • A.

      Dysuria

    • B.

      Azotemia

    • C.

      Hemorrhage

    • D.

      Dysuria

    • E.

      Cystitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Azotemia
    Explanation
    Azotemia refers to an increased level of nitrogenous waste products, such as urea and creatinine, in the blood. It occurs when the kidneys are unable to effectively filter these waste products from the body. Uremia, on the other hand, is a condition that arises from the build-up of these waste products in the blood, leading to various symptoms including dysuria (painful urination). Although dysuria can be a symptom of uremia, azotemia is a more specific term that directly relates to the increased levels of nitrogenous waste products in the blood. Therefore, azotemia is the correct answer in this case.

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  • 10. 

    X-ray of the urinary tract:

    • A.

      BUN

    • B.

      Cystoscopy

    • C.

      Renal ultrasonography

    • D.

      KUB

    • E.

      Renal dialysis

    Correct Answer
    D. KUB
    Explanation
    KUB stands for Kidneys, Ureters, and Bladder. A KUB x-ray is a diagnostic imaging test that helps visualize the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. It is commonly used to detect kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and other abnormalities in the urinary tract. Renal ultrasonography is another imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of the kidneys and urinary tract. Cystoscopy is a procedure that involves inserting a thin tube with a camera into the urethra to examine the bladder and urethra. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) is a blood test that measures the level of urea nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, in the blood. Renal dialysis is a treatment for kidney failure where a machine filters waste products and excess fluid from the blood.

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  • 11. 

    Oliguria:

    • A.

      Scanty urination

    • B.

      Pus in the urine

    • C.

      Nocturia

    • D.

      Bacteriuria

    • E.

      Polyuria

    Correct Answer
    A. Scanty urination
    Explanation
    Oliguria refers to a condition characterized by reduced urine output. The term "scanty urination" accurately describes this condition, as it indicates a decrease in the volume of urine produced. The other options, such as "pus in the urine," "nocturia," "bacteriuria," and "polyuria," do not accurately represent oliguria and are therefore incorrect.

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  • 12. 

    Diabetes insipidus is characterized by all of the following except:

    • A.

      Glycosuria

    • B.

      Polydipsia

    • C.

      Insufficient ADH

    • D.

      Pituitary gland malfunction

    • E.

      Ployuria

    Correct Answer
    A. Glycosuria
    Explanation
    Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by insufficient production or release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland, leading to excessive thirst (polydipsia) and excessive urine production (polyuria). This condition does not involve the presence of glucose in the urine (glycosuria), which is a characteristic of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the correct answer is glycosuria.

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  • 13. 

    Hernia of the tube connecting the kidney and urinary bladder:

    • A.

      Urethroileostomy

    • B.

      Herniorrhaphy

    • C.

      Ureterocele

    • D.

      Urethrostomy

    • E.

      Urethrocele

    Correct Answer
    C. Ureterocele
    Explanation
    A ureterocele is a hernia that occurs in the tube connecting the kidney and urinary bladder. It is a condition where the lower end of the ureter, the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder, balloons out and forms a pouch. This can cause obstruction of urine flow and lead to various symptoms such as urinary tract infections, urinary frequency, and pain. Treatment options for ureterocele include surgical intervention to remove or repair the herniated portion of the ureter.

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  • 14. 

    Artificial kidney machine:

    • A.

      CAPD

    • B.

      Hemodialysis

    • C.

      Renal biopsy

    • D.

      Renal transplantation

    • E.

      Lithotripsy

    Correct Answer
    B. Hemodialysis
    Explanation
    Hemodialysis is the correct answer because it is a method used in an artificial kidney machine to filter waste and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform this function. During hemodialysis, blood is pumped out of the body into a machine called a dialyzer, where it is filtered and then returned to the body. This process helps to remove toxins and maintain the balance of electrolytes in the blood.

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  • 15. 

    Nephrolithotomy:

    • A.

      Removal of the urinary bladder and kidney stones

    • B.

      Hardening of a stone

    • C.

      Removal of the kidney and stones

    • D.

      Incision to remove a renal calculus

    • E.

      Bladder calculi

    Correct Answer
    D. Incision to remove a renal calculus
    Explanation
    Nephrolithotomy refers to the surgical procedure of making an incision to remove a renal calculus. A renal calculus is a medical term for a kidney stone. Therefore, the correct answer is "incision to remove a renal calculus." This procedure involves making an opening in the kidney to access and remove the stone, providing relief to the patient and preventing further complications.

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  • 16. 

    Protein in the urine:

    • A.

      Albuminuria

    • B.

      Acetonuria

    • C.

      Ketonuria

    • D.

      Hyperbilirubinemia

    • E.

      Bilirubinuria

    Correct Answer
    A. Albuminuria
    Explanation
    Albuminuria is the presence of excessive amounts of albumin, a protein, in the urine. This condition can be an indication of kidney damage or dysfunction, as the kidneys normally filter out waste products and excess substances, including proteins, from the blood. The presence of albumin in the urine can be a sign of kidney disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, or other underlying health conditions. Regular monitoring of albumin levels in the urine is important for early detection and management of kidney problems.

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  • 17. 

    Renal abscess may lead to:

    • A.

      Nephroptosis

    • B.

      Ascites

    • C.

      Pyuria

    • D.

      Diabetes insipidus

    • E.

      Diabetes mellitus

    Correct Answer
    C. Pyuria
    Explanation
    A renal abscess is a collection of pus in the kidney, usually caused by a bacterial infection. Pyuria refers to the presence of white blood cells in the urine, which is a common sign of infection. Therefore, it is likely that a renal abscess may lead to pyuria as a result of the infection present in the kidney.

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  • 18. 

    Alkaline:

    • A.

      PH

    • B.

      Acetone

    • C.

      Water

    • D.

      Acidic

    • E.

      Basic

    Correct Answer
    E. Basic
    Explanation
    The given list consists of different substances and their corresponding pH levels. The term "alkaline" refers to substances that have a pH level higher than 7, indicating that they are basic. Since the word "basic" is mentioned in the list, it can be inferred that the answer is referring to the pH level of alkaline substances.

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  • 19. 

    A group of symptoms marked by edema, proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia:

    • A.

      Renal ischemia

    • B.

      Essential hypertension

    • C.

      Polycystic kidney

    • D.

      Nephrotic syndrome

    • E.

      Diabetes mellitus

    Correct Answer
    D. Nephrotic syndrome
    Explanation
    Nephrotic syndrome is a condition characterized by a group of symptoms including edema (swelling), proteinuria (presence of excess protein in urine), and hypoalbuminemia (low levels of albumin in the blood). This condition is typically caused by damage to the glomeruli in the kidneys, leading to increased permeability and loss of protein. Renal ischemia refers to reduced blood flow to the kidneys, essential hypertension is high blood pressure without a known cause, polycystic kidney is a genetic disorder causing the growth of cysts in the kidneys, and diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting blood sugar levels.

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  • 20. 

    High levels of ketones in the blood can lead to:

    • A.

      Excessive elimination of fats

    • B.

      Acidosis

    • C.

      High pH of urine

    • D.

      Low specific gravity

    • E.

      Diabetes insipidus

    Correct Answer
    B. Acidosis
    Explanation
    High levels of ketones in the blood can lead to acidosis. This is because the presence of ketones indicates that the body is breaking down fats for energy instead of glucose. This process, known as ketosis, can occur in conditions such as uncontrolled diabetes or starvation. When ketones accumulate in the blood, it can cause an imbalance in the body's pH levels, leading to acidosis. Acidosis is a condition where there is an excess of acid in the blood, which can have various health implications and can be potentially life-threatening if left untreated.

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  • 21. 

    Childhood renal carcinoma:

    • A.

      Hypernephroma

    • B.

      Polycystic kidney

    • C.

      Glomerulonephritis

    • D.

      Wilms tumor

    • E.

      Phenylketonuria

    Correct Answer
    D. Wilms tumor
    Explanation
    Wilms tumor is the correct answer because it is a type of childhood renal carcinoma. It is a malignant tumor that develops in the kidneys, specifically in the cells that give rise to the kidneys during fetal development. Wilms tumor is most commonly found in children aged 3 to 4 years and is rare in older children or adults. It typically presents as a painless abdominal mass and may be associated with other symptoms such as fever, hypertension, and hematuria. Treatment usually involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by chemotherapy and sometimes radiation therapy.

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  • 22. 

    Urine is held in the bladder:

    • A.

      Pyuria

    • B.

      Urinary retention

    • C.

      Polyuria

    • D.

      Urinary incontinence

    • E.

      Nocturia

    Correct Answer
    B. Urinary retention
    Explanation
    Urinary retention refers to the inability to completely empty the bladder, leading to the accumulation of urine. This condition can be caused by various factors such as obstruction, nerve damage, or weakened bladder muscles. It can result in symptoms such as frequent urination, difficulty starting or stopping urination, weak urine flow, or a constant feeling of needing to urinate. Therefore, urinary retention is the most appropriate answer as it directly relates to the concept of urine being held in the bladder.

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  • 23. 

    Test that measures the amount of urea in the blood:

    • A.

      RP

    • B.

      CT scan

    • C.

      Creatinine clearance test

    • D.

      VCU

    • E.

      BUN

    Correct Answer
    E. BUN
    Explanation
    BUN stands for Blood Urea Nitrogen, which is a test that measures the amount of urea in the blood. Urea is a waste product produced by the liver when it breaks down proteins. The BUN test is commonly used to evaluate kidney function and to diagnose or monitor conditions such as kidney disease or dehydration. A high BUN level may indicate kidney dysfunction, while a low BUN level may suggest liver disease or malnutrition. Therefore, the BUN test is an important tool in assessing overall kidney and liver health.

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  • 24. 

    Nephrosclerosis:

    • A.

      A test of kidney function

    • B.

      Loss of protein in the urine

    • C.

      Prolapse of the kidney

    • D.

      Hardening of blood vessels in the kidney

    • E.

      Excess fluid in the kidney

    Correct Answer
    D. Hardening of blood vessels in the kidney
    Explanation
    Nephrosclerosis refers to the hardening of blood vessels in the kidney. This condition occurs due to the deposition of fatty materials, calcium, and other substances in the blood vessels, leading to their narrowing and reduced blood flow. As a result, the kidney's ability to filter waste and regulate fluid balance is compromised. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, proteinuria (presence of protein in urine), and decreased kidney function. Treatment options aim to manage underlying conditions, such as hypertension, and prevent further damage to the kidneys.

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  • 25. 

    Lithotripsy:

    • A.

      Shock waves crush urinary tract stones

    • B.

      Panendoscopy

    • C.

      Renal transplant

    • D.

      Foley catheterization

    • E.

      Radioscopic study

    Correct Answer
    A. Shock waves crush urinary tract stones
    Explanation
    Lithotripsy is a medical procedure that uses shock waves to break down urinary tract stones. It is a non-invasive technique where the shock waves are generated outside the body and then directed towards the stones. These shock waves create vibrations that cause the stones to break into smaller pieces, making it easier for them to pass through the urinary tract and be eliminated from the body. This method is preferred over invasive surgeries as it reduces the risk of complications and allows for a quicker recovery.

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  • 26. 

    Swelling;fluid in tissues:

    • A.

      Edema

    • B.

      Edemia

    • C.

      Ademia

    Correct Answer
    A. Edema
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 27. 

    Visual examination of the bladder:

    • A.

      Cystascopy

    • B.

      Sistoscopy

    • C.

      Cystoscopy

    Correct Answer
    C. Cystoscopy
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 28. 

    Hardening of vessels in the kidney:

    • A.

      Neferosclerosis

    • B.

      Nephrosclerosis

    • C.

      Nephroscherosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Nephrosclerosis
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 29. 

    Protein in the urine:

    • A.

      Albuminuria

    • B.

      Albuminurea

    • C.

      Albumenuria

    Correct Answer
    A. Albuminuria
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 30. 

    Stone:

    • A.

      Calculis

    • B.

      Calculus

    • C.

      Calkulus

    Correct Answer
    B. Calculus
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 31. 

    Excessive thirst:

    • A.

      Polydipsia

    • B.

      Polidipsia

    • C.

      Polydypsia

    Correct Answer
    A. Polydipsia
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 32. 

    Collecting area in the kidney:

    • A.

      Kalyx

    • B.

      Calics

    • C.

      Calyx

    Correct Answer
    C. Calyx
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 33. 

    Inability to hold urine in bladder:

    • A.

      Incontinence

    • B.

      Incontinance

    • C.

      Incontenence

    Correct Answer
    A. Incontinence
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 34. 

    Chemical that carries an electrical charge

    • A.

      Electrolite

    • B.

      Electricolyte

    • C.

      Electrolyte

    Correct Answer
    C. Electrolyte
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 35. 

    Hormone secreted by the kidney to increase red blood cells:

    • A.

      Erythropoietin

    • B.

      Erithropoeitin

    • C.

      Erythropoeitin

    Correct Answer
    A. Erythropoietin
    Explanation
    select the term that is spelled correctly

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  • 36. 

    Disease of the kidney: nephro____________

    Correct Answer
    pathy
    Explanation
    The term "nephropathy" refers to a disease of the kidney. The word "pathy" is a suffix commonly used in medical terminology to indicate a disorder or disease. In this case, it is added to the root word "nephro-" which specifically relates to the kidney. Therefore, "nephropathy" accurately describes a disease or disorder affecting the kidney.

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  • 37. 

    Incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis: ____________lithotomy

    Correct Answer
    pyelo
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "pyelo." Pyelo refers to the renal pelvis, which is the part of the kidney where the stone is located. Therefore, an incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis is called pyelolithotomy.

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  • 38. 

    Protein in the urine: ____________________uria

    Correct Answer
    albumin
    Explanation
    Protein in the urine is referred to as albuminuria. Albumin is a type of protein that is normally present in the blood, but when it appears in the urine, it indicates a potential problem with kidney function. The presence of albumin in the urine can be a sign of kidney damage or disease, as the kidneys should normally filter out and retain proteins in the blood. Therefore, albuminuria is a term used to describe the condition of having albumin in the urine.

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  • 39. 

    Visual examination of the urinary bladder: _________________scopy

    Correct Answer
    cysto
    Explanation
    The term "cysto" is derived from the word "cystoscopy," which refers to the visual examination of the urinary bladder. This procedure involves using a cystoscope, a thin tube with a light and a camera, to view the inside of the bladder. By inserting the cystoscope through the urethra, healthcare professionals can diagnose and treat various bladder conditions, such as urinary tract infections, bladder stones, or bladder cancer. Therefore, "cysto" is the correct answer as it accurately represents the procedure of visual examination of the urinary bladder.

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  • 40. 

    Sugar in the urine: _____________uria

    Correct Answer
    glycos
    Explanation
    The term "glycosuria" is used to describe the presence of sugar in the urine. The word "glycos" is derived from the Greek word for sugar, and the suffix "-uria" refers to the presence of a substance in the urine. Therefore, "glycosuria" is the correct term to describe the condition of having sugar in the urine.

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  • 41. 

    Vesic/o

    Correct Answer
    urinary bladder
    Explanation
    Give the meanings of the combining forms

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  • 42. 

    Lith/o

    Correct Answer
    stone,calcus
    stone
    calcus
    Explanation
    Give the meanings of the combining forms

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  • 43. 

    Ren/o

    Correct Answer
    kidney
    Explanation
    Give the meanings of the combining forms

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  • 44. 

    Py/o

    Correct Answer
    pus
    Explanation
    Give the meanings of the combining forms

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  • 45. 

    -tripsy

    Correct Answer
    to crush
    Explanation
    give the meaning of the suffixes

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  • 46. 

    -poietin

    Correct Answer
    substance that forms
    formation
    Explanation
    give the meaning of the suffixes

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  • 47. 

    -sclerosis

    Correct Answer
    hardening
    Explanation
    give the meaning of the suffixes

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  • 48. 

    Peri-

    Correct Answer
    surrounding
    Explanation
    give meaning for the prefixes

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  • 49. 

    Poly-

    Correct Answer
    many, much
    many
    much
    Explanation
    give meaning for the prefixes

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  • 50. 

    Dys-

    Correct Answer
    painful
    Explanation
    give meaning for the prefixes

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  • Mar 21, 2023
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