Renal Physiology Practice Questions Quiz

Reviewed by Farah Naz
Farah Naz, MBBS, Medicine |
Medical Expert
Review Board Member
Farah holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) from Dow University of Health Sciences. She gained valuable experience through internships in Radiology, Cardiology, and Neurosurgery, and has contributed to two research publications in medical journals. Passionate about healthcare education, Farah excels in crafting medical content, including articles, literature reviews, and e-learning courses. Leveraging her expertise, she meticulously reviews medical science quizzes, ensuring accuracy and educational value for aspiring healthcare professionals.
, MBBS, Medicine
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Renal Physiology Practice Questions Quiz - Quiz

The kidney, ureters, and urethra make up the renal system. This quiz contains renal physiology questions for practice. The renal system ensures that our body excretes waste products while keeping the essential ions and metabolic products. The quiz covers various aspects of the renal system, ranging from easy and medium to hard levels in multiple-choice questions. Attempt this quiz and see how much you know about Kidney physiology. All the best!


Renal Physiology Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    If hydrostatic pressure in a capillary was 15 mmHg, tissue fluid reabsorption is likely taking place in this vessel. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the context of capillaries, hydrostatic pressure refers to the pressure exerted by the blood within the capillary against the walls of the vessel. If the hydrostatic pressure in a capillary is 15 mmHg, it typically indicates that the pressure inside the capillary is higher than the pressure in the surrounding tissues. This situation would likely promote tissue fluid reabsorption, as fluids tend to move from areas of higher pressure (inside the capillary) to areas of lower pressure (tissues). Tissue fluid reabsorption is an essential process in maintaining fluid balance in the body. So, in this case, it is likely that tissue fluid reabsorption is taking place in the capillary.

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  • 2. 

    If plasma protein were to increase outside a capillary, decreased filtration of fluid from the vessel is likely to occur.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    If plasma protein were to increase outside a capillary, it would actually increase the filtration of fluid from the vessel, not decrease it. This is because an increase in plasma protein concentration outside the capillary would create an osmotic pressure gradient, drawing fluid out of the vessel and into the surrounding tissues. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 3. 

    In the glomerulus, blood hydrostatic pressure opposes filtration. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In the glomerulus, blood hydrostatic pressure actually promotes filtration rather than opposing it. This pressure is responsible for pushing blood through the glomerular capillaries and into the Bowman's capsule, where filtration occurs. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 4. 

    A fall in pressure in the afferent arteriole would cause an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR).            

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A fall in pressure in the afferent arteriole would actually cause a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The afferent arteriole supplies blood to the glomerulus, and a decrease in pressure would result in a decrease in blood flow to the glomerulus. This would subsequently decrease the GFR, as less blood would be filtered by the glomerulus.

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  • 5. 

    In a healthy adult, the glomerular filtration rate is approximately 120ml/min. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a measure of how well the kidneys are functioning. In a healthy adult, the GFR is approximately 120ml/min. This means that the kidneys are able to filter about 120 milliliters of fluid per minute. A GFR below this level may indicate kidney dysfunction or disease. Therefore, the statement "In a healthy adult, the glomerular filtration rate is approximately 120 ml/min" is true.

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  • 6. 

    In health, the kidneys can produce 1 ml/min of urine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the kidneys are responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. On average, a healthy kidney can produce about 1 ml of urine per minute. This urine is then transported to the bladder and eventually expelled from the body.

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  • 7. 

    Water reabsorption occurs in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Water reabsorption actually occurs in the descending limb of the loop of Henle, not the ascending limb. The descending limb is permeable to water, allowing it to passively diffuse out of the tubule and into the surrounding interstitial fluid. This reabsorption of water helps to concentrate the urine and conserve water in the body. In contrast, the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to water, but actively transports ions such as sodium and chloride out of the tubule.

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  • 8. 

    GFR can be measured by a substance that is filtered and not subsequently reabsorbed or secreted.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate) is a measure of the rate at which the kidneys filter blood. To accurately measure GFR, a substance that is filtered by the glomerulus but not reabsorbed or secreted by the renal tubules is required. This substance is known as an ideal filtration marker, and examples include inulin or creatinine. By measuring the concentration of this substance in the urine or blood, the GFR can be calculated, providing valuable information about kidney function.

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  • 9. 

    In the presence of ADH, urine osmolality increases.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the presence of ADH (antidiuretic hormone), urine osmolality increases. ADH is released by the pituitary gland and it acts on the kidneys to increase water reabsorption, thereby concentrating the urine and increasing its osmolality. This helps in conserving water in the body and preventing dehydration. Therefore, the statement "In the presence of ADH, urine osmolality increases" is true.

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  • 10. 

    Antidiuretic hormone exerts its effect via a cAMP second messenger system.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, does indeed exert its effect via a cAMP second messenger system. When ADH is released by the pituitary gland, it binds to specific receptors on the cells of the kidney tubules. This binding activates a signaling pathway that ultimately leads to the insertion of water channels called aquaporins into the cell membranes of the tubules. This allows for increased reabsorption of water from the urine back into the bloodstream, reducing urine output and helping to maintain water balance in the body. The cAMP second messenger system plays a crucial role in this process.

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  • 11. 

    The osmolality of the kidney medulla is the same as that of the cortex.   

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The osmolality of the kidney medulla is different from that of the cortex. This is because the kidney medulla plays a crucial role in concentrating urine, while the cortex is responsible for filtering blood and reabsorbing water and solutes. The medulla contains a higher concentration of solutes, such as urea and sodium, compared to the cortex. This concentration gradient allows for the reabsorption of water from the collecting ducts in the medulla, leading to the formation of concentrated urine.

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  • 12. 

    Aquaporins are a family of water channels. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Aquaporins are indeed a family of water channels. These proteins are found in the cell membranes of various organisms and play a crucial role in facilitating the transport of water molecules across the membrane. They are responsible for maintaining the water balance and regulating water movement in cells and tissues. Aquaporins are highly selective and allow only water molecules to pass through while excluding other solutes. Their presence in different tissues and organs ensures efficient water transport, enabling proper functioning of the biological systems.

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  • 13. 

    Antidiuretic hormone is a peptide hormone.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Antidiuretic hormone is indeed a peptide hormone. Peptide hormones are made up of chains of amino acids and are produced by various glands in the body. Antidiuretic hormone, also known as vasopressin, is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland. Its primary function is to regulate the body's water balance by reducing the amount of water excreted in urine. Therefore, the statement that antidiuretic hormone is a peptide hormone is correct.

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  • 14. 

    Normal urine has an osmolality between 60 and 1,200 mOSm/Kg/H2O.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Normal urine has an osmolality between 60 and 1,200 mOSm/Kg/H2O. This means that the concentration of solutes in urine falls within this range. Osmolality is a measure of the number of solute particles in a solution, and it helps to determine the concentration of urine. A normal range of osmolality indicates that the kidneys are functioning properly and are able to regulate the concentration of solutes in urine. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 15. 

    ADH acts on the medullary collecting ducts of the kidney to increase water permeability.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    ADH (antidiuretic hormone), also known as vasopressin, is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland. One of its main functions is to regulate the water balance in the body. When ADH acts on the medullary collecting ducts of the kidney, it increases the permeability of these ducts to water. This allows more water to be reabsorbed from the urine back into the bloodstream, reducing the amount of urine produced and helping to conserve water in the body. Therefore, the statement that ADH acts on the medullary collecting ducts of the kidney to increase water permeability is true.

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  • 16. 

    Reabsorption is a method for removing substances from the blood, into the nephron.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Reabsorption is actually the process of moving substances from the nephron back into the blood. It occurs in the renal tubules and helps to reclaim valuable substances such as water, glucose, and ions that were initially filtered out of the blood in the glomerulus. Therefore, the correct answer is False, as reabsorption is not a method for removing substances from the blood into the nephron, but rather the opposite.

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  • 17. 

    An increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney causes the afferent arteriole to constrict. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney causes the afferent arteriole to constrict. This is true because sympathetic nerves release norepinephrine, which binds to alpha-1 adrenergic receptors on the smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole. Activation of these receptors leads to vasoconstriction, reducing blood flow to the kidney. This response helps regulate blood pressure and maintain appropriate blood flow to other organs during times of stress or exercise.

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  • 18. 

    The glomerulus is a site for reabsorption in the kidney.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The glomerulus is not a site for reabsorption in the kidney. It is actually a site for filtration. The glomerulus is a network of tiny blood vessels in the kidney that filters waste products, excess water, and electrolytes from the blood into the renal tubules. Reabsorption, on the other hand, occurs in the renal tubules where useful substances like glucose, amino acids, and ions are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.

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  • 19. 

    Most ion and solute absorption occur in the proximal tubule of the kidney.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Most ion and solute absorption occurs in the proximal tubule of the kidney. This is because the proximal tubule is responsible for reabsorbing the majority of filtered ions and solutes from the glomerular filtrate back into the bloodstream. It has a highly efficient epithelial lining with microvilli that increases surface area for absorption. This allows for the reabsorption of important substances such as glucose, amino acids, and ions like sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate. Overall, the proximal tubule plays a crucial role in maintaining electrolyte balance and regulating fluid volume in the body.

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  • 20. 

    The afferent arteriole carries blood to the glomerular capillaries. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The afferent arteriole carries blood to the glomerular capillaries. This is true because the afferent arteriole is a blood vessel that brings blood into the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries located in the kidney. The glomerular capillaries are responsible for the filtration of blood to form urine. Therefore, the statement is correct.

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  • 21. 

    The colloid osmotic pressure of the blood aids filtration in the kidney. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The colloid osmotic pressure of the blood refers to the pressure exerted by proteins in the blood plasma, such as albumin. This pressure plays a crucial role in the filtration process in the kidneys. It helps to maintain the balance of fluids by pulling water back into the blood vessels from the kidney tubules, preventing excessive fluid loss in urine. Therefore, the statement that the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood aids filtration in the kidney is true.

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  • 22. 

    Blood in the peritubular capillaries has a higher oncotic pressure than blood in the afferent arteriole. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Blood in the peritubular capillaries has a higher oncotic pressure than blood in the afferent arteriole. This is because the peritubular capillaries are located near the renal tubules and are responsible for reabsorbing water and solutes from the filtrate. The higher oncotic pressure in the peritubular capillaries helps to draw water and solutes back into the bloodstream, allowing for reabsorption to occur effectively. In contrast, the afferent arteriole supplies blood to the glomerulus for filtration, and therefore does not have the same reabsorptive function as the peritubular capillaries.

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  • 23. 

    Reabsorption of bicarbonate in the proximal tubule requires the secretion of hydrogen ions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The reabsorption of bicarbonate in the proximal tubule requires the secretion of hydrogen ions because bicarbonate ions need to be converted into carbon dioxide and water before they can be reabsorbed. This conversion occurs through the action of carbonic anhydrase, which requires the presence of hydrogen ions. Therefore, the secretion of hydrogen ions is necessary for the reabsorption of bicarbonate in the proximal tubule.

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  • 24. 

    Respiratory alkalosis results in an immediate shift in the bicarbonate buffering reaction to the right.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Respiratory alkalosis does not result in an immediate shift in the bicarbonate buffering reaction to the right. In respiratory alkalosis, there is an excessive loss of carbon dioxide from the body, leading to a decrease in carbonic acid levels. This causes a compensatory decrease in bicarbonate levels to maintain the acid-base balance. Therefore, the bicarbonate buffering reaction would shift to the left, not to the right.

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  • 25. 

    An increase in medullary blood flow will generally promote both diuresis and natriuresis. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An increase in medullary blood flow refers to an increase in the blood flow to the medulla, which is the inner part of the kidney. This increase in blood flow generally promotes both diuresis and natriuresis. Diuresis refers to the increased production of urine, while natriuresis refers to the increased excretion of sodium in the urine. Therefore, when medullary blood flow increases, it leads to increased urine production and increased excretion of sodium, which is consistent with the statement that an increase in medullary blood flow will generally promote both diuresis and natriuresis.

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  • 26. 

    Increased aldosterone secretion stimulates renal potassium retention.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Increased aldosterone secretion actually stimulates renal sodium retention, not potassium retention. Aldosterone acts on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium. This helps to maintain the balance of electrolytes in the body. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 27. 

    Under normal conditions, 99% of calcium filtered in the glomeruli is reabsorbed in the nephrons.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Under normal conditions, 99% of calcium filtered in the glomeruli is reabsorbed in the nephrons. This means that most of the calcium that is initially filtered out of the blood in the kidneys is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. This reabsorption process helps to maintain the body's calcium balance and prevent excessive loss of calcium in the urine.

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  • 28. 

    The phosphate buffer system is the major chemical buffering system in ECF.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the bicarbonate buffer system is actually the major chemical buffering system in the extracellular fluid (ECF), not the phosphate buffer system. The bicarbonate buffer system helps regulate the pH of the ECF by maintaining a balance between carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). The phosphate buffer system, on the other hand, is more important in intracellular fluid (ICF) and urine. Therefore, the statement that the phosphate buffer system is the major chemical buffering system in ECF is false.

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  • 29. 

    In a healthy adult approx 18L of water is filtered per day by the glomerulus.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement that 18L of water is filtered per day by the glomerulus in a healthy adult is false. The glomerulus, a part of the kidney, filters approximately 180 liters of water per day, not 18 liters. This filtration process helps in removing waste products and excess water from the blood, which then forms urine.

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  • 30. 

    In the nephron, the glomerular filtrate enters the loop of Henle directly from Bowman’s Capsule.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The glomerular filtrate does not enter the loop of Henle directly from Bowman's Capsule. After entering Bowman's Capsule, the glomerular filtrate first passes through the proximal convoluted tubule before reaching the loop of Henle. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 31. 

    Reabsorption of glucose from the nephron is a sodium dependent process.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The reabsorption of glucose from the nephron is a sodium-dependent process because it relies on the activity of sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLTs) located in the proximal tubules of the nephron. These transporters use the energy from sodium ions moving down their concentration gradient to actively transport glucose molecules against their concentration gradient from the tubular fluid into the bloodstream. This process ensures that glucose is efficiently reabsorbed and not lost in the urine.

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  • 32. 

    Reabsorption of water occurs in the descending limb of the Loop of Henle.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Water reabsorption occurs in the descending limb of the Loop of Henle. This is because the descending limb is permeable to water, allowing it to passively move out of the tubule and into the surrounding interstitial fluid. This reabsorption of water helps to concentrate urine and conserve water in the body.

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  • 33. 

    An increase in plasma osmolality causes a decrease in ADH release.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    An increase in plasma osmolality triggers the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland. ADH acts on the kidneys to increase water reabsorption, reducing plasma osmolality and restoring balance. Therefore, the correct answer is False, as an increase in plasma osmolality actually causes an increase in ADH release.

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  • 34. 

    Rising levels of the hormone ADH would cause the production of a more concentrated urine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    ADH, or antidiuretic hormone, is responsible for regulating the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. When ADH levels rise, it signals the kidneys to reabsorb more water, leading to a decrease in urine volume and an increase in urine concentration. Therefore, rising levels of ADH would cause the production of a more concentrated urine.

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  • 35. 

    Aquaporin 1 is the major water transporter expressed on the apical membrane of collecting duct epithelial cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. Aquaporin 2, not Aquaporin 1, is the major water transporter expressed on the apical membrane of collecting duct epithelial cells. Aquaporin 1 is primarily expressed in the endothelial cells of capillaries and plays a role in water transport across cell membranes in various tissues.

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  • 36. 

    A free water clearance of -1.5ml/min would typically be measured in individuals who are dehydrated.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A free water clearance of -1.5ml/min indicates that the kidneys are unable to effectively excrete water, leading to a negative value. This suggests that the individual is retaining water and not producing enough urine, which is a common characteristic of dehydration. Therefore, it is likely that individuals who are dehydrated would have a free water clearance of -1.5ml/min.

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  • 37. 

    A high dietary salt intake will increase circulating levels of Angiotensin 2.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A high dietary salt intake will not increase circulating levels of Angiotensin 2. Angiotensin 2 is a hormone that is involved in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. While a high salt intake can increase blood pressure, it does not directly affect the levels of Angiotensin 2 in the bloodstream.

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  • 38. 

    Aldosterone stimulates the activity of the epithelial sodium channel in the collecting duct.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that plays a crucial role in regulating sodium and potassium levels in the body. One of its main functions is to stimulate the activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the collecting duct of the kidneys. This channel allows for the reabsorption of sodium ions from the urine back into the bloodstream, leading to increased sodium levels and water retention. Therefore, the statement that aldosterone stimulates the activity of the ENaC in the collecting duct is true.

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Farah Naz |MBBS, Medicine |
Medical Expert
Farah holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) from Dow University of Health Sciences. She gained valuable experience through internships in Radiology, Cardiology, and Neurosurgery, and has contributed to two research publications in medical journals. Passionate about healthcare education, Farah excels in crafting medical content, including articles, literature reviews, and e-learning courses. Leveraging her expertise, she meticulously reviews medical science quizzes, ensuring accuracy and educational value for aspiring healthcare professionals.

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  • Mar 11, 2024
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    Expert Reviewed by
    Farah Naz
  • Mar 08, 2015
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