Block 6 Renal Physiology BRS W Expl Prt 1

17 Questions | Total Attempts: 1094

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Block 6 Renal Physiology BRS W Expl Prt 1 - Quiz

The Block 6 Renal Physiology Brs W Expl Prt 1 below is the first in the revision quizzes that is designed to ensure you understood all the aspects on the renal system that we covered these last few weeks. Give it a try and keep an eye out for part two of the same.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Secretion of 1{ ± by the distal tubule will be decreased by
    • A. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • B. 

      A high-K± diet

    • C. 

      Hyperaldosteronism

    • D. 

      Spironolactone administration

    • E. 

      Thiazide diuretic administration

  • 2. 
    Subjects A and B are 70-kg men. Subject A drinks 2 L of distilled water, and subject B drinks 2 L of isotonic NaCl. As a result of these ingestions, subject B will have a
    • A. 

      Greater change in intracellular fluid (1CF) volume

    • B. 

      Higher positive free-water clearance (CH2O)

    • C. 

      Greater change in plasma osmolarity

    • D. 

      Higher urine osmolarity

    • E. 

      Higher urine flow rate

  • 3. 
    A woman with a history of severe diarrhea has the following arterial blood values: pH = 7.25 PCO2 = 24 mm Hg [HCO3-] = 10 mEq/L Venous blood samples show decreased blood [K+] and a normal anion gap.   The correct diagnosis for this patient is
    • A. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • B. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • C. 

      Respiratory acidosis

    • D. 

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • E. 

      Normal acid-base status

  • 4. 
    A woman with a history of severe diarrhea has the following arterial blood values: pH = 7.25 PCO2 = 24 mm Hg [HCO3-] = 10 mEq/L Venous blood samples show decreased blood [K+] and a normal anion gap.   Which of the following statements about this patient is correct?
    • A. 

      She is hypoventilating.

    • B. 

      The decreased arterial [HCO 3-] is a result of buffering of excess H + by HCO3-.

    • C. 

      The decreased blood [K+] is a result of exchangeof intracellular H ± for extracellular K±.

    • D. 

      The decreased blood [K+] is a result of increased circulating levels of aldosterone.

    • E. 

      The decreased blood [K+] is a result of decreased circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

  • 5. 
    Use the values below to answer the following question. Glomerular capillary = 47 mm Hg hydrostatic pressure Bowman's space = 10 mm Hg hydrostatic pressure Bowman's space = 0 mm Hg oncotic pressure   At what value of glomerular capillary oncotic pressure would glomerular filtration stop?
    • A. 

      57 mm Hg

    • B. 

      47 mm Hg

    • C. 

      37 mm Hg

    • D. 

      10 mm Hg

    • E. 

      0 mm Hg

  • 6. 
    The reabsorption of filtered HCO3-
    • A. 

      Results in reabsorption of less than 50% of the filtered load when the plasma concentration of HCO3- is 24 mEq/L

    • B. 

      Acidifies tubular fluid to a pH of 4.4

    • C. 

      Is directly linked to excretion of H + as NH4+

    • D. 

      Is inhibited by decreases in arterial PcO2

    • E. 

      Can proceed normally in the presence of a renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

  • 7. 
    The following information was obtained in a human subject: Plasma Urine [Inulin] = 1 mg/ml [Inulin] = 150 mg/ml [X] = 2 mg/ml [X] = 100 mg/ml Urine flow rate =1 ml/min   Assuming that X is freely filtered, which of the following statements is most correct?
    • A. 

      There is net secretion of X.

    • B. 

      There is net reabsorption of X.

    • C. 

      There is both reabsorption and secretion of X.

    • D. 

      The clearance of X could be used to measure the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

    • E. 

      The clearance of X is greater than the clearance of inulin.

  • 8. 
    To maintain normal H + balance, total daily excretion of  H+ should equal the daily
    • A. 

      Fixed acid production plus fixed acid ingestion

    • B. 

      HCO3 - excretion

    • C. 

      HCO3- filtered load

    • D. 

      Titratable acid excretion

    • E. 

      Filtered load of H±

  • 9. 
    One gram of mannitol was injected into a woman. After equilibration, a plasma sample had a mannitol concentration of 0.08 g/L. During the equilibration period, 20% of the injected mannitol was excreted in the urine. The subject's
    • A. 

      Extracellular fluid (ECF) volume is 1 L

    • B. 

      Intracellular fluid (ICF) volume is 1 L

    • C. 

      ECF volume is 10 L

    • D. 

      ICF volume is 10 L

    • E. 

      Interstitial volume is 12.5 L

  • 10. 
    At plasma concentrations of glucose higher than occur at transport maximum (Tm), the
    • A. 

      Clearance of glucose is zero

    • B. 

      Excretion rate of glucose equals the filtration rate of glucose

    • C. 

      Reabsorption rate of glucose equals the filtration rate of glucose

    • D. 

      Excretion rate of glucose increases with increasing plasma glucose concentrations

    • E. 

      Renal vein glucose concentration equals the renal artery glucose concentration will occur in a person who

  • 11. 
    A negative free-water clearance (-CH20)
    • A. 

      Drinks 2 L of distilled water in 30 minutes

    • B. 

      Begins excreting large volumes of urine with an osmolarity of 100 mOsm/L after a severe head injury

    • C. 

      Is receiving lithium treatment for depression, and has polyuria that is unresponsive to the administration of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • D. 

      Has an oat cell carcinoma of the lung, and excretes urine with an osmolarity of 1000 mOsm/L

  • 12. 
    A buffer pair (HA/A-) has a pK of 5.4. At a blood pH of 7.4, the concentration of HA  is
    • A. 

      1/100 that of A-

    • B. 

      1/10 that of A-

    • C. 

      Equal to that of A-

    • D. 

      10 times that of A-

    • E. 

      100 times that of A

  • 13. 
    Which of the following would produce an  increase in the reabsorption of isosmotic fluid in the proximal tubule?
    • A. 

      Increased filtration fraction

    • B. 

      Extracellular fluid (ECF) volume expansion

    • C. 

      Decreased peritubular capillary protein concentration

    • D. 

      Increased peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressure

    • E. 

      Oxygen deprivation

  • 14. 
    Which of the following substances or combinations of substances could be used to measure interstitial fluid volume?
    • A. 

      Mannitol

    • B. 

      D20 alone

    • C. 

      Evans blue

    • D. 

      Inulin and D20

    • E. 

      Inulin and radioactive albumin

  • 15. 
    At plasma para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) concentrations below the transport maximum (Tm), PAH
    • A. 

      Reabsorption is not saturated

    • B. 

      Clearance equals inulin clearance

    • C. 

      Secretion rate equals PAH excretion rate

    • D. 

      Concentration in the renal vein is close to zero

    • E. 

      Concentration in the renal vein equals PAH concentration in the renal artery

  • 16. 
    Compared with a person who ingests 2 L of distilled water, a person with water deprivation  will have a
    • A. 

      Higher free-water clearance (CH20)

    • B. 

      Lower plasma osmolarity

    • C. 

      Lower circulating level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • D. 

      Higher tubular fluid/plasma (TF/P) osmolarity in the proximal tubule

    • E. 

      Higher rate of H20 reabsorption in the collecting ducts

  • 17. 
    Which of the following would cause an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) & renal plasma flow (RPF)?
    • A. 

      Hyperproteinemia

    • B. 

      A ureteral stone

    • C. 

      Dilation of the afferent arteriole

    • D. 

      Dilation of the efferent arteriole

    • E. 

      Constriction of the efferent arteriole

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