Locke - Hobbes Quiz

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| By Oddfisher
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Locke - Hobbes Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    According to Hobbes, the state of nature is a state of

    • A.

      War

    • B.

      Hardship

    • C.

      Inconvenience

    • D.

      Discomfort

    Correct Answer
    A. War
    Explanation
    According to Hobbes, the state of nature is a state of war. Hobbes believed that in the absence of a strong central authority, human beings would constantly be in conflict with one another, driven by their individual desires and the pursuit of self-interest. In this state, life would be characterized by violence, fear, and insecurity, as individuals would constantly be at risk of harm from others. Hobbes argued that the only way to escape this state of war was through the establishment of a social contract and the creation of a sovereign power to maintain order and enforce laws.

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  • 2. 

    According to Hobbes, the right to rule in the state of nature is held by

    • A.

      The naturally strong.

    • B.

      The sovereign.

    • C.

      No one.

    • D.

      Everyone.

    Correct Answer
    C. No one.
    Explanation
    Hobbes believed that in the state of nature, where there is no government or authority, there is a constant state of war and chaos. In this state, everyone has the right to do whatever they want in order to survive. However, this leads to a life that is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." Therefore, Hobbes argues that the right to rule in the state of nature is held by no one, as there is no legitimate authority or power to enforce laws and maintain order.

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  • 3. 

    According to Hobbes, the social contract is between

    • A.

      The people with one another.

    • B.

      Each individual with the sovereign.

    • C.

      All of the people together with the sovereign.

    Correct Answer
    A. The people with one another.
    Explanation
    According to Hobbes, the social contract is between the people with one another. This means that individuals in society enter into a mutual agreement to establish a governing authority and abide by its rules. Hobbes believed that people willingly give up some of their freedom and rights in exchange for protection and security provided by the sovereign. However, the contract is primarily between individuals themselves, as they collectively decide to form a society and create a government to maintain order and prevent a state of nature where life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.

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  • 4. 

    According to Hobbes, the following right is inalienable:

    • A.

      The right to self-defense.

    • B.

      The right to property.

    • C.

      The right to free speech.

    • D.

      The right to practice religion freely.

    Correct Answer
    A. The right to self-defense.
    Explanation
    According to Hobbes, the right to self-defense is inalienable. This means that individuals have a natural right to protect themselves from harm or threat. Hobbes believed that this right is essential for self-preservation and is inherent to human nature. He argued that individuals have a fundamental right to defend their lives and bodies against any potential harm or aggression, as it is necessary for their survival and well-being.

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  • 5. 

    Hobbes believes that the right to rule is based on

    • A.

      Superior strength.

    • B.

      Superior wisdom.

    • C.

      Divine right.

    • D.

      Consent of the governed.

    Correct Answer
    D. Consent of the governed.
    Explanation
    Hobbes believes that the right to rule is based on the consent of the governed. This means that the authority of a ruler is legitimate only if it is granted by the people being governed. Hobbes argues that individuals willingly give up some of their rights and freedoms in exchange for protection and security provided by a ruler. Therefore, the ruler's power is derived from the consent and agreement of the people they govern.

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  • 6. 

    According to Hobbes, the first Law of Nature is

    • A.

      Seek wisdom

    • B.

      Seek God.

    • C.

      Seek peace.

    • D.

      Give up your right to all things for the sake of peace when others are willing to do so.

    Correct Answer
    C. Seek peace.
    Explanation
    According to Hobbes, the first Law of Nature is to seek peace. This means that individuals should strive to avoid conflict and establish a peaceful society. Hobbes believed that humans are naturally driven by self-interest and that without a social contract, life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Seeking peace is essential for the preservation of life and the avoidance of constant conflict. It is through the pursuit of peace that individuals can create a stable and harmonious society.

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  • 7. 

    According to Hobbes, the Second Law of Nature is

    • A.

      Seek wisdom.

    • B.

      Seek God.

    • C.

      Seek peace.

    • D.

      Give up your right to all things for the sake of peace for the sake of peace when others are willing to to the same.

    Correct Answer
    D. Give up your right to all things for the sake of peace for the sake of peace when others are willing to to the same.
    Explanation
    According to Hobbes, the Second Law of Nature is to give up your right to all things for the sake of peace when others are willing to do the same. This means that individuals should be willing to relinquish their own rights and desires in order to maintain peace and avoid conflict. Hobbes believed that this was necessary in order to establish a social contract and create a stable society. By sacrificing their own interests for the greater good, individuals can ensure a peaceful and harmonious existence.

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  • 8. 

    For Hobbes, liberty is

    • A.

      Freedom from physical constraints.

    • B.

      The right right to express yourself.

    • C.

      Freedom of conscience.

    Correct Answer
    A. Freedom from physical constraints.
    Explanation
    Hobbes believed that liberty is freedom from physical constraints. This means that individuals should be free from any external force or physical restraints that limit their actions or choices. Hobbes emphasized the importance of a strong central authority to maintain order and prevent individuals from infringing upon each other's liberty through physical force. He argued that without such constraints, society would descend into a state of chaos and violence. Therefore, according to Hobbes, liberty is primarily about being free from physical coercion and having the ability to act without fear of physical harm.

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  • 9. 

    Hobbes believed  that the Sovereign was in charge of religion. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hobbes believed that the Sovereign was in charge of religion. This means that according to Hobbes, the ultimate authority and power over religious matters rested with the ruler or governing body. This belief aligns with Hobbes' overall political philosophy, which emphasized the need for a strong central authority to maintain order and stability in society. By placing control over religion in the hands of the Sovereign, Hobbes sought to ensure that religious practices and beliefs would not disrupt or undermine the social order.

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  • 10. 

    Hobbes believed that the Sovereign ruled by Divine Right.

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False.

    Correct Answer
    B. False.
    Explanation
    Hobbes did not believe that the Sovereign ruled by Divine Right. Instead, he believed that the Sovereign's authority was derived from a social contract between the ruler and the people. According to Hobbes, individuals willingly give up their rights to the Sovereign in exchange for protection and the maintenance of social order. This concept of the social contract is a central element in Hobbes' political philosophy, and it is different from the idea of Divine Right, which suggests that the ruler's authority is granted by God.

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  • 11. 

    Locke believed that the right to make laws was what characterized

    • A.

      Paternal power.

    • B.

      Divine power.

    • C.

      Political power.

    Correct Answer
    C. Political power.
    Explanation
    Locke believed that the right to make laws was what characterized political power. He argued that political power should be derived from the consent of the governed and that the purpose of government is to protect the natural rights of individuals. Therefore, the ability to create and enforce laws is a fundamental aspect of political power according to Locke's philosophy.

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  • 12. 

    Locke believed that human beings in the state of nature were

    • A.

      Free and equal.

    • B.

      Immoral.

    • C.

      Non-social.

    • D.

      Irrational.

    Correct Answer
    A. Free and equal.
    Explanation
    Locke believed that human beings in the state of nature were free and equal. This means that they were not restricted by any external authority or government and had equal rights and opportunities. Locke argued that in this state, individuals had the freedom to pursue their own interests and make their own decisions without interference. He believed that this natural freedom and equality formed the basis for the establishment of a just and legitimate government.

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  • 13. 

    For Locke. the state of nature is a state of liberty not

    • A.

      License.

    • B.

      Licentiousness.

    • C.

      Libertinism.

    • D.

      Libertarianism.

    Correct Answer
    A. License.
    Explanation
    Locke believed that the state of nature is a state of liberty, which means that individuals have the freedom to act as they please as long as they do not harm others or infringe upon their rights. The term "license" refers to this idea of freedom without excessive restrictions or regulations. It aligns with Locke's concept of liberty in the state of nature, as it implies the absence of oppressive control or limitations on individual actions.

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  • 14. 

    According to Locke, the basis for the right to private property is 

    • A.

      Mutual consent.

    • B.

      Force.

    • C.

      Labor.

    Correct Answer
    C. Labor.
    Explanation
    According to Locke, the basis for the right to private property is labor. Locke believed that individuals have the right to acquire and possess property through their own labor and effort. He argued that when individuals mix their labor with natural resources, they create something of value and therefore have a legitimate claim to that property. This concept of labor as the basis for private property rights aligns with Locke's belief in individualism and the idea that individuals have the right to enjoy the fruits of their own labor.

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  • 15. 

    According to Locke, the state of nature the right to acquire property is limited by 

    • A.

      The requirement not to waste.

    • B.

      One's physical strength.

    • C.

      The consent of the community.

    • D.

      Nothing at all.

    Correct Answer
    A. The requirement not to waste.
    Explanation
    Locke believed that in the state of nature, individuals have the right to acquire property, but this right is limited by the requirement not to waste. This means that individuals can acquire property as long as they do not leave it unused or allow it to spoil. This limitation ensures that resources are used efficiently and not wasted, promoting the overall well-being of the community.

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  • 16. 

    According to Locke,the right to be secure in one's property, life, and liberty comes from

    • A.

      The legislature.

    • B.

      The consent of the governed.

    • C.

      Unanimous consent.

    • D.

      Nature.

    Correct Answer
    D. Nature.
    Explanation
    Locke believed that the right to be secure in one's property, life, and liberty comes from nature. He argued that individuals have natural rights that are not granted by any government or authority, but are inherent to their existence as human beings. These rights are derived from the fact that individuals are born free and equal, and no one has the right to infringe upon their property, life, or liberty without just cause. Therefore, according to Locke, these rights are not granted by the legislature or the consent of the governed, but are inherent in human nature itself.

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  • 17. 

    According to Locke, the heart of the government is 

    • A.

      The executive.

    • B.

      The legislature.

    • C.

      The federative power.

    • D.

      The sovereign.

    Correct Answer
    B. The legislature.
    Explanation
    According to Locke, the heart of the government is the legislature. This means that the legislative branch, which is responsible for making laws, is considered the most important part of the government. Locke believed that the legislature should represent the will of the people and have the power to create and enforce laws that protect individual rights and promote the common good.

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  • 18. 

    According to Locke, if the legislature threatens the citizens' right to life, liberty, or property

    • A.

      Citizens remain bound by their covenant and may not change their government.

    • B.

      They may appeal to heaven for relief.

    • C.

      The legislature is dissolved and the citizens may replace it.

    Correct Answer
    C. The legislature is dissolved and the citizens may replace it.
    Explanation
    Locke believed that if the legislature poses a threat to the citizens' fundamental rights of life, liberty, or property, the legislature loses its legitimacy and is dissolved. In this situation, citizens have the right to replace the government with a new one that will protect their rights. This reflects Locke's belief in the social contract theory, where the government's primary purpose is to safeguard the natural rights of individuals.

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  • 19. 

    Locke believed that justice and injustice do not exist in the state of nature. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False.

    Correct Answer
    B. False.
    Explanation
    Locke believed that justice and injustice do exist in the state of nature. He argued that individuals in the state of nature have a natural law that governs their behavior, and this law includes principles of justice. According to Locke, people have a duty to respect the rights of others and not harm them, which is the foundation of justice. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 20. 

    Locke believes that people have moral obligations to one another in the state of nature.

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False.

    Correct Answer
    A. True.
    Explanation
    Locke's belief that people have moral obligations to one another in the state of nature is based on his social contract theory. According to Locke, individuals in the state of nature have natural rights, including the right to life, liberty, and property. However, in order to secure these rights and live in a peaceful society, people must enter into a social contract where they agree to abide by certain moral obligations towards one another. These obligations include respecting each other's rights, refraining from harming others, and seeking justice. Therefore, the statement that Locke believes people have moral obligations to one another in the state of nature is true.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 22, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Oddfisher
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