Lecture Quiz 4 Nervous SySTEM

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Nervous System Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The two types of cells of the nervous system are?

    • A.

      Axons and Dendrites

    • B.

      Neurons and Neuroglia

    • C.

      Motor neurons and Sensory neurons

    • D.

      Schwann cells and microglia

    Correct Answer
    B. Neurons and Neuroglia
    Explanation
    Neurons are the main functional cells of the nervous system responsible for transmitting electrical signals. Neuroglia, also known as glial cells, provide support and protection to neurons. They help maintain the structure of the nervous system, regulate the environment around neurons, and assist in repairing damaged neurons. Together, neurons and neuroglia work in coordination to ensure proper functioning of the nervous system.

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  • 2. 

    The functional connection between two neurons is a?

    • A.

      Dendrite

    • B.

      Gap junction

    • C.

      Synapse

    • D.

      Neurotansmitter

    Correct Answer
    C. Synapse
    Explanation
    A synapse is the correct answer because it is the functional connection between two neurons. It is a junction where electrical or chemical signals are transmitted from one neuron to another. This allows for communication and the transfer of information between neurons in the nervous system. Dendrites are extensions of a neuron that receive signals from other neurons, but they are not the functional connection itself. Gap junctions are channels that allow direct electrical communication between neurons, but they are not specific to the functional connection between neurons. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across synapses, but they are not the functional connection itself.

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  • 3. 

    The Nervous System

    • A.

      Detects changes in the internal and enternal environment

    • B.

      Controls the movements of muscles

    • C.

      Integrates information from several sources and uses it to determine an appropriate response

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The nervous system is responsible for detecting changes in both the internal and external environment. It also controls the movements of muscles. Additionally, the nervous system integrates information from various sources and uses it to determine an appropriate response. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 4. 

    Neurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands are

    • A.

      Sensory neurons

    • B.

      Interneurons

    • C.

      Motor neurons

    • D.

      Unipolar neurons

    Correct Answer
    C. Motor neurons
    Explanation
    Motor neurons are responsible for conducting impulses from the central nervous system (CNS) to muscles or glands. These neurons transmit signals that control muscle contractions, allowing for voluntary movements and the secretion of hormones from glands. Sensory neurons, on the other hand, transmit signals from sensory organs to the CNS, while interneurons facilitate communication between sensory and motor neurons within the CNS. Unipolar neurons have a single process that extends from the cell body and are typically involved in sensory functions, not motor functions.

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  • 5. 

    Sensory receptors

    • A.

      Monitor light

    • B.

      Monitor sound

    • C.

      Detects changes in and outside the body

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Sensory receptors are specialized cells that detect and respond to stimuli from the environment or within the body. They are responsible for monitoring various sensory inputs such as light and sound. Additionally, sensory receptors also detect changes in the internal and external environment of the body. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above" because sensory receptors perform all these functions.

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  • 6. 

    Three general functions of the nervous system are

    • A.

      Sensory, motor, and predictive

    • B.

      Integrative, motor, and sensory

    • C.

      Predictive, manipulative, and integrative

    • D.

      Reflexive, sensory, and predictive

    Correct Answer
    B. Integrative, motor, and sensory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is integrative, motor, and sensory. The nervous system has the function of integrating information from various sources, such as sensory organs, and processing it to produce appropriate responses. Motor function involves the transmission of signals from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands, resulting in movement or secretion. Sensory function involves the reception and transmission of information from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord, allowing for the perception of stimuli.

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  • 7. 

    Masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear

    • A.

      White

    • B.

      Gray

    • C.

      Brown

    • D.

      Transparent

    Correct Answer
    A. White
    Explanation
    Myelinated nerve fibers are composed of axons that are surrounded by a myelin sheath, which is made up of a fatty substance called myelin. This myelin sheath gives the fibers a white appearance. Therefore, the correct answer is white.

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  • 8. 

    A neuron may have

    • A.

      One axon and many dendrites

    • B.

      One dendrite and many axons

    • C.

      No dendrites

    • D.

      No axons

    Correct Answer
    A. One axon and many dendrites
    Explanation
    A neuron may have one axon and many dendrites. The axon is responsible for transmitting electrical signals away from the neuron's cell body, while the dendrites receive signals from other neurons and transmit them towards the cell body. This arrangement allows for the integration and processing of incoming signals from multiple sources, enabling the neuron to send appropriate signals to other neurons or effector cells.

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  • 9. 

    Every neuron has

    • A.

      Many axons

    • B.

      A cell body

    • C.

      Myelin

    • D.

      A neurilemma

    Correct Answer
    B. A cell body
    Explanation
    Every neuron has a cell body, which is the main part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and other organelles. The cell body is responsible for the basic metabolic functions of the neuron and integrates incoming signals from the dendrites. It also generates electrical impulses that are transmitted to other neurons through the axons. While neurons can have multiple axons, myelin, and a neurilemma, these are not present in every neuron and are not essential components of every neuron.

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  • 10. 

    Myelin

    • A.

      Is released from a neuron and travels to another neuron

    • B.

      Consists of layers of lipids and proteins that wrap around an axon

    • C.

      Is produced in response to bacterial infection

    • D.

      Is a form of chromatophilic substance that fills Schwann cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Consists of layers of lipids and proteins that wrap around an axon
    Explanation
    Myelin is a substance that wraps around an axon and consists of layers of lipids and proteins. This wrapping forms a protective covering around the axon, which helps to insulate and speed up the transmission of electrical signals along the neuron. It acts as an insulator, preventing the loss of electrical signals and allowing them to travel more efficiently along the axon. Therefore, the correct answer is that myelin consists of layers of lipids and proteins that wrap around an axon.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is (are) a type of neuroglia?

    • A.

      Astrocyte

    • B.

      Oligodendrocyte

    • C.

      Schwann cell

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above" because all three options mentioned - astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, and Schwann cell - are types of neuroglia. Neuroglia, also known as glial cells, are non-neuronal cells in the nervous system that provide support and protection to neurons. Astrocytes are star-shaped cells that provide structural support, regulate the chemical environment around neurons, and help form the blood-brain barrier. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are responsible for producing myelin, a fatty substance that insulates and speeds up the conduction of electrical signals along axons.

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  • 12. 

    Which cells produce myelin in the brain and spinal cord?

    • A.

      Schwann Cells

    • B.

      Astocytes

    • C.

      Microglia

    • D.

      Oligodendrocytes

    Correct Answer
    D. Oligodendrocytes
    Explanation
    Oligodendrocytes are responsible for producing myelin in the brain and spinal cord. These cells are a type of glial cell that wrap around nerve fibers, forming a protective layer of myelin. Myelin acts as an insulating sheath, allowing for faster and more efficient transmission of electrical signals along the nerve fibers. Schwann cells, on the other hand, produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system, while astrocytes and microglia have different functions in supporting and protecting neurons.

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  • 13. 

    A reason that the axons differ in the CNS and PNS differ in their ability to regenerate after injury is that

    • A.

      Axons of the CNS lack myelin

    • B.

      Axons of the CNS lack neurilemmae

    • C.

      Peripheral nerves lack Schwann cells

    • D.

      Peripheral nerves lack endoneurium

    Correct Answer
    B. Axons of the CNS lack neurilemmae
    Explanation
    Axons of the CNS lack neurilemmae, which is a crucial factor in their ability to regenerate after injury. The neurilemma is a layer of Schwann cells that surrounds peripheral nerve fibers and aids in the regeneration process. In the CNS, however, there is a lack of Schwann cells and neurilemmae, making it more difficult for axons to regenerate. This is why axonal regeneration in the CNS is limited compared to the PNS.

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  • 14. 

    Most of the neurons in the brain and spinal cord are

    • A.

      Bipolar

    • B.

      Unipolar

    • C.

      Multipolar

    • D.

      Nonpolar

    Correct Answer
    C. Multipolar
    Explanation
    Most of the neurons in the brain and spinal cord are multipolar. This means that they have multiple processes or extensions emanating from the cell body, including one axon and multiple dendrites. This allows for efficient communication and connectivity between neurons, as the axon can transmit signals to other neurons, while the dendrites receive signals from other neurons. The multipolar structure is well-suited for the complex and intricate network of connections within the brain and spinal cord.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following  cells is only found in the PNS?

    • A.

      Oligodendrocyte

    • B.

      Astrocyte

    • C.

      Microglial Cell

    • D.

      Schwann cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Schwann cell
    Explanation
    Schwann cells are only found in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). They play a crucial role in the PNS by providing support and insulation to nerve fibers. Schwann cells form the myelin sheath around axons in the PNS, which helps in the conduction of nerve impulses. Unlike oligodendrocytes, which are found in the central nervous system (CNS), Schwann cells are specific to the PNS. Astrocytes and microglial cells are also found in the CNS, making them incorrect options for this question.

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  • 16. 

    Dendrites on the unipolar neurons are parts of

    • A.

      Sensory neurons

    • B.

      Motor neurons

    • C.

      Interneurons

    • D.

      Efferent Neurons

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensory neurons
    Explanation
    Dendrites are the branch-like structures that receive signals from other neurons and transmit them to the cell body. Sensory neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the sensory organs to the central nervous system. Therefore, dendrites on the unipolar neurons are parts of sensory neurons as they receive signals from sensory organs and transmit them to the cell body for further processing.

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  • 17. 

    Clusters of neuron cell bodies in the PNS are called

    • A.

      Neuromas

    • B.

      Axons

    • C.

      Ganglia

    • D.

      Nuclei

    Correct Answer
    C. Ganglia
    Explanation
    Clusters of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are called ganglia. Ganglia are collections of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system (CNS), typically along the path of a nerve. They play a crucial role in processing and relaying sensory information from the periphery to the CNS. Axons, on the other hand, are the long, slender projections of a neuron that transmit electrical signals away from the cell body. Nuclei are clusters of neuron cell bodies located within the CNS. Neuromas are abnormal growths or tumors consisting of nerve tissue.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following neuroglia are not part of the CNS?

    • A.

      Ependymal cells

    • B.

      Astrocytes

    • C.

      Satellite cells

    • D.

      Microglia

    Correct Answer
    C. Satellite cells
    Explanation
    Satellite cells are not part of the central nervous system (CNS). They are found in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and are associated with the cell bodies of neurons in ganglia. These cells provide support and nourishment to the neurons in the PNS, helping to maintain their proper functioning. In contrast, ependymal cells, astrocytes, and microglia are all types of neuroglia that are found within the CNS, where they perform various important functions such as providing structural support, regulating the chemical environment, and defending against pathogens.

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  • 19. 

    Synaptic knobs are at the ends of

    • A.

      Axons

    • B.

      Dendrites

    • C.

      Cell bodies

    • D.

      Neuroglia

    Correct Answer
    A. Axons
    Explanation
    Synaptic knobs are located at the ends of axons. Axons are long, slender extensions of a neuron that transmit electrical impulses away from the cell body to other neurons or target cells. The synaptic knob, also known as the terminal button, is the bulbous structure at the end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters. When an electrical impulse reaches the synaptic knob, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse, allowing for communication between neurons.

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  • 20. 

    Presynaptic neurons release neurotransmitters by

    • A.

      Endocytosis

    • B.

      Exocytosis

    • C.

      Diffusion

    • D.

      Active ransport

    Correct Answer
    B. Exocytosis
    Explanation
    Exocytosis is the process by which presynaptic neurons release neurotransmitters. During exocytosis, neurotransmitter-filled vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, allowing the neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic cleft. This process requires energy and is regulated by calcium ions. Once released, the neurotransmitters can bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, transmitting the signal across the synapse. Therefore, exocytosis is the correct answer as it accurately describes the mechanism by which neurotransmitters are released from presynaptic neurons.

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  • 21. 

    When an action potential passes over the surface of a synaptic knob, the contents of the vesicles are released in response to the response to the presence of

    • A.

      Calcium ions

    • B.

      Sodium ions

    • C.

      Neurotransmitters

    • D.

      Neuropeptides

    Correct Answer
    A. Calcium ions
    Explanation
    When an action potential passes over the surface of a synaptic knob, the depolarization of the membrane allows calcium ions to enter the knob through voltage-gated calcium channels. The increase in calcium concentration inside the knob triggers the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, leading to the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, transmitting the signal to the next neuron or target cell.

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  • 22. 

    A stimulus great enough to change the membrane potential and propagate an action potential is said to have reached

    • A.

      Recruitment

    • B.

      Threshold

    • C.

      Summation

    • D.

      Tetanus

    Correct Answer
    B. Threshold
    Explanation
    When a stimulus is strong enough to cause a change in the membrane potential and trigger an action potential, it is said to have reached the threshold. The threshold is the minimum level of stimulation required for an action potential to be generated. Once the threshold is reached, the action potential is propagated along the neuron. This is an important concept in understanding how neurons transmit signals and communicate with each other.

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  • 23. 

    When a nerve fiber is polarized, the concentration of

    • A.

      Na+ and K+ are higher on the inside of the membrane

    • B.

      Na+ and K+ are higher on the outside of the membrane

    • C.

      Na+ is higher on the inside of the membrane and K+ is higher on the outside

    • D.

      Na+ is higher on the outside of the membrane and K+ is higher on the inside

    Correct Answer
    D. Na+ is higher on the outside of the membrane and K+ is higher on the inside
    Explanation
    In a polarized nerve fiber, the concentration of Na+ ions is higher on the outside of the membrane, while the concentration of K+ ions is higher on the inside of the membrane. This concentration gradient is maintained by the sodium-potassium pump, which actively transports Na+ ions out of the cell and K+ ions into the cell. This concentration difference across the membrane creates an electrical potential, known as the resting membrane potential, which is essential for the transmission of nerve impulses.

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  • 24. 

    The most rapid conduction of an impulse along an axon occurs on a fiber that is

    • A.

      Thick and myelinated

    • B.

      Thick and unmyelinated

    • C.

      Thin an myelinated

    • D.

      Thin and unmyelinated

    Correct Answer
    A. Thick and myelinated
    Explanation
    Thick and myelinated fibers allow for the most rapid conduction of an impulse along an axon because the thickness of the fiber allows for a larger surface area for ion exchange, which speeds up the conduction of the impulse. Additionally, the myelin sheath acts as an insulator, preventing the dissipation of the electrical signal and allowing it to travel faster along the axon. Therefore, a combination of thickness and myelination is ideal for rapid impulse conduction.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following ions cross neuron cell membranes most readily?

    • A.

      Potassium

    • B.

      Sodium

    • C.

      Calcium

    • D.

      Magnesium

    Correct Answer
    A. Potassium
    Explanation
    Potassium ions cross neuron cell membranes most readily because they are positively charged and there is a higher concentration of potassium inside the cell compared to outside. This concentration gradient and the presence of potassium channels in the cell membrane allow potassium ions to move freely across the membrane through passive diffusion. Sodium, calcium, and magnesium ions also play important roles in neuronal function, but they do not cross the cell membrane as easily as potassium ions.

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  • 26. 

    If a resting potential becomes more negative, the membrane is

    • A.

      Depolarized

    • B.

      Hyperpolarized

    • C.

      Repolarized

    • D.

      Summated

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperpolarized
    Explanation
    If a resting potential becomes more negative, it means that the membrane potential is decreasing below its normal resting level. Hyperpolarization occurs when the membrane potential becomes more negative than the resting potential. Therefore, the correct answer is hyperpolarized.

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  • 27. 

    What is the correct sequence of events along an axon that follows a membrane reaching threshold potential? 1. The membrane depolarizes 2. Sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward 3. The membrabe repolarizes 4. Potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward

    • A.

      3, 2, 4, 1

    • B.

      2, 1, 4, 3

    • C.

      1, 2, 4, 3

    • D.

      4, 1, 3, 2

    Correct Answer
    B. 2, 1, 4, 3
    Explanation
    After the membrane reaches threshold potential, sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward, causing depolarization (2). This is followed by the opening of potassium channels and the diffusion of potassium ions outward, leading to repolarization (1, 4). Finally, the membrane repolarizes (3). Therefore, the correct sequence of events is 2, 1, 4, 3.

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  • 28. 

    A nerve cell membrane becomes depolarized as a result of

    • A.

      Calcium leaving the nerve cell

    • B.

      Some ion channels being opened while other are closed

    • C.

      The relative ease with which K+ diffuses into the nerve cell

    • D.

      Na+ being prevented from passing through the membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. Some ion channels being opened while other are closed
    Explanation
    When some ion channels are opened while others are closed, it leads to a change in the electrical charge across the nerve cell membrane, causing depolarization. This occurs because ion channels allow the flow of specific ions in and out of the cell. When some channels are opened, ions such as sodium (Na+) can enter the cell, while others may be closed, preventing the exit of ions such as potassium (K+). This imbalance of ions results in a shift in the electrical charge, leading to depolarization of the nerve cell membrane.

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  • 29. 

    Each neuron in the CNS may receive input from

    • A.

      Only one synaptic knob

    • B.

      One synaptic knob at each end

    • C.

      About 10 dendrites

    • D.

      Thousands of axons

    Correct Answer
    D. Thousands of axons
    Explanation
    Each neuron in the central nervous system (CNS) is capable of receiving input from thousands of axons. Axons are the long, slender projections of a neuron that transmit electrical signals to other neurons or to muscles or glands. This extensive connectivity allows for complex communication and integration of information within the CNS. The ability of a neuron to receive input from thousands of axons enables it to receive and process a vast amount of information from various sources, contributing to the overall functioning of the nervous system.

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  • 30. 

    The neurotransmitter that controls skeletal muscle contraction is

    • A.

      Beta endorphin

    • B.

      Nitric acid

    • C.

      Acetylcholine

    • D.

      GABA

    Correct Answer
    C. Acetylcholine
    Explanation
    Acetylcholine is the correct answer because it is the neurotransmitter responsible for transmitting signals from motor neurons to skeletal muscles, leading to muscle contraction. When released from the motor neurons, acetylcholine binds to receptors on the muscle fibers, triggering a series of events that result in muscle contraction. This neurotransmitter plays a crucial role in the control of voluntary movements and is essential for proper skeletal muscle function. Beta endorphin, nitric acid, and GABA are not involved in skeletal muscle contraction and do not serve as the primary neurotransmitter for this process.

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  • 31. 

    Viagra is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction by dilating the arteries in the penis.  The neurotransmitter that viagra affects is

    • A.

      Acetylcholine

    • B.

      Nitric Oxide

    • C.

      Serotonin

    • D.

      Histamine

    Correct Answer
    B. Nitric Oxide
    Explanation
    Viagra works by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down nitric oxide in the body. Nitric oxide is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in relaxing and dilating blood vessels, including those in the penis. By blocking the breakdown of nitric oxide, Viagra helps to increase the levels of this neurotransmitter, leading to improved blood flow to the penis and facilitating an erection. Therefore, the correct answer is Nitric Oxide.

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  • 32. 

    Neurotransmitters that are modified amino acids are

    • A.

      Dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and norepineephrine

    • B.

      Enkephalins, endorphins, and sunstance P

    • C.

      Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, and GABA

    • D.

      Potassium, sodium, and calcium ions

    Correct Answer
    A. Dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and norepineephrine
    Explanation
    The correct answer is dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters are modified amino acids because they are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. Dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine play important roles in the brain and body. Dopamine is involved in reward and motivation, serotonin regulates mood and sleep, and epinephrine and norepinephrine are involved in the body's stress response. Being modified amino acids, these neurotransmitters have specific chemical structures that allow them to transmit signals between nerve cells.

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  • 33. 

    Drugs that increase the actions of  norepinephrine and/or serotonin by keeping them in synapses longer are most likely used to treat

    • A.

      Multiple sclerosis

    • B.

      Tay-Sachs disease

    • C.

      Clinical depression

    • D.

      Erectile Dysfunction

    Correct Answer
    C. Clinical depression
    Explanation
    Drugs that increase the actions of norepinephrine and/or serotonin by keeping them in synapses longer are most likely used to treat clinical depression. This is because norepinephrine and serotonin are neurotransmitters involved in regulating mood, and imbalances in these neurotransmitters have been linked to depression. By increasing their actions and prolonging their presence in synapses, these drugs can help alleviate symptoms of depression and improve mood.

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  • 34. 

    Migraine results from

    • A.

      Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from the cranial nerve V at the base of the brain, in response to a spreading wave of excitation followed by lack of response from the cortex

    • B.

      Not eating enough of chocolate, which causes a spreading effect in the cortex

    • C.

      A neurotransmitter deficiency

    • D.

      Release of an abnormal form of beta endorphin from the trigeminal nerves at the base of the brain, in response to cortical stimulation

    Correct Answer
    A. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from the cranial nerve V at the base of the brain, in response to a spreading wave of excitation followed by lack of response from the cortex
    Explanation
    Migraine results from the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from the cranial nerve V at the base of the brain, in response to a spreading wave of excitation followed by lack of response from the cortex. This explanation suggests that migraines are triggered by a specific physiological process involving the release of a peptide from a cranial nerve. The spreading wave of excitation followed by lack of response from the cortex indicates a disruption in normal brain activity, which is believed to be a contributing factor to migraine attacks.

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  • 35. 

    An immune response that affects the myelin coating on axons throughout the spinal cord and brain, triggering inflammation and leaving scars is

    • A.

      Muscular dystrophy

    • B.

      Multiple Sclerosis

    • C.

      Alzheimer Disease

    • D.

      Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Multiple Sclerosis
    Explanation
    Multiple Sclerosis is the correct answer because it is an autoimmune disease that affects the myelin coating on axons in the spinal cord and brain. This immune response triggers inflammation and leads to the formation of scars, which can disrupt the normal functioning of the nervous system. Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the muscles, not the myelin coating. Alzheimer's disease primarily affects the brain and is characterized by the build-up of plaques and tangles, not inflammation and scarring. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles and does not involve the myelin coating.

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  • 36. 

    Drugs that decrease membrane permeability to sodium

    • A.

      Are used as local anesthetics

    • B.

      Prevent nerve impulses from passing through the affected body part

    • C.

      Lessen pain

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above" because drugs that decrease membrane permeability to sodium are used as local anesthetics. These drugs prevent nerve impulses from passing through the affected body part, which in turn lessens pain. Therefore, all of the given options are correct.

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  • 37. 

    Opiate drugs derived from poppies relieve pain in humans because the human nervous system has

    • A.

      Neurotransmitters

    • B.

      Receptors for endogeneous opiates

    • C.

      Myelin

    • D.

      Soduim and potassium membrane channels

    Correct Answer
    B. Receptors for endogeneous opiates
    Explanation
    Opiate drugs derived from poppies relieve pain in humans because the human nervous system has receptors for endogenous opiates. These receptors are specifically designed to bind with opiate drugs, allowing them to block pain signals and provide pain relief. Endogenous opiates are naturally occurring substances in the body that also bind to these receptors, but the opiate drugs derived from poppies can have a stronger and more immediate effect on pain relief. Therefore, when these drugs are introduced into the body, they can effectively bind to the receptors and provide relief from pain.

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  • 38. 

    Marjorie takes an anti-anxiety so that she can sleep better and remain calm enough to study effectively.  She begins by taking 25 milligrams every evening, but within a month, this dose is no longer helping, so she takes two pills.  After another month, this dosage is no longer effective.  This is happening because

    • A.

      Her immune system is rejecting the drug

    • B.

      She has developed tolerance, which means that her liver can no longer metabolize the drug, so it remains active for too long

    • C.

      The number of receptors to which the drug binds on neurons has declined

    • D.

      The number of receptors to which the drug binds on neurons has increased

    Correct Answer
    C. The number of receptors to which the drug binds on neurons has declined
    Explanation
    Marjorie's increasing dosage of the anti-anxiety medication suggests that her body is developing tolerance to the drug. This means that her liver is no longer able to metabolize the drug effectively, causing it to remain active in her system for longer periods of time. As a result, the medication becomes less effective over time, leading her to require higher doses to achieve the same desired effect. The declining number of receptors to which the drug binds on neurons indicates that her body is adapting to the medication, reducing its effectiveness.

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  • 39. 

    The neurotransmitter most likely produced when a person uses a drug that creates a sense of well-being is

    • A.

      Glutamic acid

    • B.

      Dopamine

    • C.

      Enkephalin

    • D.

      Substance Q

    Correct Answer
    B. Dopamine
    Explanation
    When a person uses a drug that creates a sense of well-being, the neurotransmitter most likely produced is dopamine. Dopamine is associated with pleasure, reward, and motivation. It is released in response to rewarding stimuli, such as drugs, and contributes to the feeling of well-being and euphoria. Therefore, the increase in dopamine levels caused by the drug is responsible for the sense of well-being experienced by the person.

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  • 40. 

    A drug that functions as an agonist

    • A.

      Activates a receptor, helping a neurotransmitter bind or tiggering an action potential in some other way

    • B.

      Causes great pain if taken in too high a dose

    • C.

      Blocks a receptor so that the neurotransmitter cannot bind

    • D.

      Relieves pain

    Correct Answer
    A. Activates a receptor, helping a neurotransmitter bind or tiggering an action potential in some other way
    Explanation
    An agonist is a drug that activates a receptor by helping a neurotransmitter bind or triggering an action potential in some other way. This means that the drug enhances the effects of the neurotransmitter by promoting its binding to the receptor or by facilitating the generation of an action potential. Agonists do not cause pain if taken in high doses, block receptors, or relieve pain.

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  • 41. 

    The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of

    • A.

      Spinal and cranial nerves

    • B.

      The brain and spinal cord

    • C.

      The cerebrum and cerebellum

    • D.

      Nerves in the upper and lower limbs

    Correct Answer
    B. The brain and spinal cord
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the brain and spinal cord." The Central Nervous System (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord. These two vital organs are responsible for processing and coordinating information throughout the body. The brain controls functions such as thoughts, emotions, and voluntary movements, while the spinal cord serves as a pathway for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body. Together, they play a crucial role in regulating bodily functions and maintaining homeostasis.

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  • 42. 

    The epidural space contains

    • A.

      Loose connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose tissue

    • B.

      Dense connective tissue and cartilage

    • C.

      No tissue, that is why it is a space

    • D.

      Collagen, elastin, and keratin

    Correct Answer
    A. Loose connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose tissue
    Explanation
    The epidural space is the space between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges) and the vertebral column. It is filled with loose connective tissue, which provides support and cushioning for the spinal cord and nerves. The space also contains blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the surrounding tissues. Adipose tissue, or fat, is present in the epidural space to provide additional padding and insulation. This combination of loose connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose tissue makes the epidural space an important anatomical feature for pain management and medical procedures.

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  • 43. 

    The meninges consist of

    • A.

      The brain and spinal cord

    • B.

      The membranes that delineate all of the major brain parts

    • C.

      The pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater

    • D.

      Nerve tracts that run up and down the spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    C. The pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater. The meninges are the protective membranes that surround and cover the brain and spinal cord. The pia mater is the innermost layer, closely adhering to the brain and spinal cord. The arachnoid mater is the middle layer, creating a space called the subarachnoid space where cerebrospinal fluid circulates. The dura mater is the outermost and toughest layer, providing additional protection. Together, these three layers of the meninges help protect the central nervous system from injury and provide support and nutrients to the brain and spinal cord.

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  • 44. 

    Cerebrospinal fluid is

    • A.

      Clear and liquid

    • B.

      White and thick

    • C.

      Red

    • D.

      Yellow in the CNS and clear in the PNS

    Correct Answer
    A. Clear and liquid
    Explanation
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is clear and liquid. CSF is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a cushion, protecting the central nervous system from injury. It also helps to remove waste products and deliver nutrients to the brain. CSF is produced by specialized cells in the brain called choroid plexus and circulates through the ventricles and subarachnoid space. Its clear and liquid nature allows it to effectively perform its functions in the CNS.

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  • 45. 

    In a subdural hematoma resulting from a blow to the head, blood accumulates between the

    • A.

      Dura mater and the skull

    • B.

      Dura mater and arachnoid mater

    • C.

      Pia mater and brain

    • D.

      Arachnoid mater and brain

    Correct Answer
    B. Dura mater and arachnoid mater
    Explanation
    A subdural hematoma is a condition where blood accumulates between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater. The dura mater is the tough outermost layer of the meninges, while the arachnoid mater is the middle layer. When a blow to the head occurs, blood vessels can rupture, leading to bleeding between these two layers. This accumulation of blood can put pressure on the brain, causing symptoms such as headache, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Therefore, the correct answer is dura mater and arachnoid mater.

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  • 46. 

    An inflammation of the meninges called meningitis usually affects the

    • A.

      Dura mater only

    • B.

      Dura mater and arachnoid mater

    • C.

      Arachnoid mater and pia mater

    • D.

      Pia mater only

    Correct Answer
    C. Arachnoid mater and pia mater
    Explanation
    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, which are the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The meninges consist of three layers: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. In the case of meningitis, it typically affects both the arachnoid mater and pia mater. This is because the infection or inflammation spreads between these two layers, causing symptoms such as headache, fever, and neck stiffness. The dura mater, being the outermost layer, is less likely to be affected by the inflammation.

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  • 47. 

    The _______ is the thin meninx attached to the surface of the brain, containing many nerves and blood vessels.

    • A.

      Dura mater

    • B.

      Arachnoid mater

    • C.

      Pia mater

    • D.

      Subdural mater

    Correct Answer
    C. Pia mater
    Explanation
    The pia mater is the thin meninx attached to the surface of the brain, containing many nerves and blood vessels.

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  • 48. 

    The fourth ventricle is in the

    • A.

      Left cerebral hemisphere

    • B.

      Brainstem

    • C.

      Midline of the brain, beneath the corpus callosum

    • D.

      Right cerebral hemisphere

    Correct Answer
    B. Brainstem
    Explanation
    The correct answer is brainstem. The fourth ventricle is a fluid-filled cavity located in the brainstem, which is the region of the brain that connects the spinal cord to the rest of the brain. It is responsible for various vital functions such as controlling breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The brainstem also plays a crucial role in relaying sensory and motor information between the brain and the body. Therefore, the fourth ventricle is situated within the brainstem, making it the correct answer.

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  • 49. 

    Cerebrospinal fluid

    • A.

      Informs the autonomic centers in the brainstem and hypothalamus about the internal environment

    • B.

      Provides a pathway for waste to enter the blood

    • C.

      Protects the brain and spinal cord

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Cerebrospinal fluid serves multiple functions in the body. It informs the autonomic centers in the brainstem and hypothalamus about the internal environment, allowing for regulation of bodily functions. It also provides a pathway for waste to enter the blood, aiding in the removal of metabolic waste products. Additionally, cerebrospinal fluid acts as a protective cushion for the brain and spinal cord, helping to prevent injury and maintain their structural integrity. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above."

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  • 50. 

    The human body secretes about _____________ milliliters of cerebrospinal fluid daily

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      60

    • C.

      300

    • D.

      500

    Correct Answer
    D. 500
    Explanation
    The human body secretes about 500 milliliters of cerebrospinal fluid daily. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, colorless liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It provides cushioning and protection to these vital organs, as well as delivering nutrients and removing waste products. The production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid is essential for maintaining a healthy central nervous system.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 19, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Bwshipley
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