Human Anatomy And Physiology Ch. 1

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Human Anatomy And Physiology Ch. 1 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What two languages form the basis for the language of anatomy and physiology?

    Explanation
    The language of anatomy and physiology is based on Greek and Latin. These two languages have been traditionally used in the medical field to name and describe various anatomical structures and physiological processes. Many medical terms and scientific terms are derived from Greek and Latin roots, making it essential for healthcare professionals to have a basic understanding of these languages in order to communicate effectively in the field of anatomy and physiology.

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  • 2. 

    The branch of science that studies the structure (morphology0 of body parts is... 

    Explanation
    Anatomy is the branch of science that studies the structure (morphology) of body parts. It involves the examination and dissection of the body to understand the relationships between different organs, tissues, and systems. By studying anatomy, scientists and medical professionals gain a comprehensive understanding of how the body is organized and functions. This knowledge is crucial for diagnosing and treating diseases, as well as for advancements in medical research and surgical procedures.

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  • 3. 

    The branch of science that studies what body parts do and how they do it is... 

    Explanation
    Physiology is the branch of science that studies what body parts do and how they do it. It focuses on understanding the functions and mechanisms of different organs and systems in the body. This includes studying processes such as digestion, respiration, circulation, and the functioning of various organs like the heart, lungs, and kidneys. By studying physiology, scientists can gain insights into how the body works and develop treatments and interventions to maintain or restore normal bodily functions.

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  • 4. 

    The function of a part is (always/sometimes/never) related to its stuccture.

    • A.

      Always.

    • B.

      Sometimes.

    • C.

      Never.

    Correct Answer
    A. Always.
    Explanation
    The function of a part is always related to its structure. This means that the purpose or role of a specific part is directly connected to its physical characteristics or arrangement. In other words, the way a part is structured determines how it functions. Whether it is a biological organism, a mechanical component, or any other system, the structure of a part is essential in enabling it to perform its intended function effectively.

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  • 5. 

    Atoms, Molecules, Macromolecules.

    • A.

      Simplest living units.

    • B.

      Allow life to continue despite changing environments and reproduce to continue the species.

    • C.

      Chemical structures required for life.

    • D.

      Groups of cells that have a common function.

    Correct Answer
    C. Chemical structures required for life.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Chemical structures required for life." Atoms, molecules, and macromolecules are the building blocks of these chemical structures. They are necessary for various biological processes and functions, such as metabolism, DNA replication, and protein synthesis. These structures provide the foundation for life to exist and function, allowing organisms to adapt to changing environments and reproduce to ensure the survival of the species.

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  • 6. 

    Cells

    • A.

      Groups of cells that have a common function.

    • B.

      Chemical structures required for life.

    • C.

      Allow life to continue despite changing environments and reproduce to continue the species.

    • D.

      Simplest living unit.

    Correct Answer
    D. Simplest living unit.
    Explanation
    The answer "Simplest living unit" is the correct one because cells are considered to be the basic building blocks of life. They are the smallest structural and functional units of an organism that can carry out all the necessary functions for life, such as metabolism, reproduction, and responding to stimuli. Cells are able to maintain homeostasis, adapt to changing environments, and reproduce, which are essential characteristics of living organisms. Therefore, cells can be regarded as the simplest living units.

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  • 7. 

    Tissues.

    • A.

      Chemical structures required for life.

    • B.

      Groups of cells that have a common function.

    • C.

      Simplest living unit.

    • D.

      Allow life to continue despite changing environments and reproduce to continue the species.

    Correct Answer
    B. Groups of cells that have a common function.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Groups of cells that have a common function." This answer is supported by the fact that tissues are defined as groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function in the body. Tissues are specialized and organized structures that allow for the efficient functioning of different organs and systems in the body.

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  • 8. 

    Organisms.

    • A.

      Simplest living unit.

    • B.

      Allow life to continue despite changing environments and reproduce to continue the species.

    • C.

      Groups of cells that have a common function.

    • D.

      Chemical structures required for life.

    Correct Answer
    B. Allow life to continue despite changing environments and reproduce to continue the species.
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because it accurately describes one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms. Organisms are able to adapt to changing environments in order to survive and reproduce, ensuring the continuation of their species. This ability to respond to environmental changes is essential for the long-term survival and success of any living organism.

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  • 9. 

    List the 5 levels of organization of the body in order of increasing complexity, beginning with the cell. 

    Correct Answer
    Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.
    Explanation
    The five levels of organization of the body in order of increasing complexity are cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism. At the cellular level, the basic unit of life is the cell. Cells with similar structure and function come together to form tissues. Different types of tissues work together to create organs, which perform specific functions in the body. Organs that work together make up an organ system, which carries out a particular set of functions. Finally, all the organ systems work together to form an organism, a complete living being.

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  • 10. 

    List those characteristics that are common to all living organisms. (10 total; ABC order) 

    Correct Answer
    Absorption, assimilation, circulation, digestion, excretion, growth, movement, reproduction, respiration, responsiveness.
    Explanation
    All living organisms share certain characteristics that distinguish them from non-living things. These include absorption, which is the process of taking in nutrients or substances from the environment; assimilation, which involves incorporating these nutrients into the organism's cells and tissues; circulation, which is the movement of fluids within the organism's body to transport nutrients and waste products; digestion, which is the breakdown of food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed; excretion, which is the elimination of waste products; growth, which is the increase in size or number of cells; movement, which is the ability to change position or move parts of the body; reproduction, which is the ability to produce offspring; respiration, which is the process of obtaining energy from food through the exchange of gases; and responsiveness, which is the ability to respond to stimuli or changes in the environment.

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  • 11. 

    The physical and chemical changes or reactions that occur in the body are called... 

    Correct Answer
    Metabolism
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to the collection of physical and chemical changes or reactions that take place in the body. These processes include the conversion of food into energy, the breakdown of nutrients, and the elimination of waste products. Metabolism is essential for maintaining the body's functions, such as growth, repair, and energy production. It is a complex and continuous process that occurs in every cell of the body, allowing organisms to survive and thrive.

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  • 12. 

    A force necessary to maintain human life is... 

    Correct Answer
    Pressure
    Explanation
    Pressure is the force exerted on an object per unit area. In the context of maintaining human life, pressure is necessary for various bodily functions. For example, blood pressure is crucial for the circulation of blood throughout the body, ensuring the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to cells. Additionally, pressure plays a role in breathing, as the diaphragm contracts and creates pressure changes in the lungs, allowing for the exchange of gases. Overall, pressure is essential for the proper functioning and survival of the human body.

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  • 13. 

    Generally, maintenance of homeostasis is achieved by _______ feedback. 

    Correct Answer
    Negative
    Explanation
    The correct answer is negative feedback. Homeostasis is the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment. Negative feedback is a regulatory mechanism that helps maintain homeostasis by counteracting any changes from the set point. It works by detecting deviations from the desired level and initiating responses to bring the body back to its optimal state. This feedback loop ensures that the body's internal conditions remain within a narrow range, preventing any drastic changes that could be harmful.

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  • 14. 

    Which one of these are not vital signs?

    • A.

      Respiratory rate.

    • B.

      Heart rate.

    • C.

      Reflex activity.

    • D.

      Temperature.

    Correct Answer
    C. Reflex activity.
    Explanation
    Reflex activity is not considered a vital sign because it does not directly measure the functioning of the body's major systems. Vital signs are measurements that provide information about a person's overall health and are typically used to assess basic bodily functions. Respiratory rate, heart rate, and temperature are all vital signs as they reflect the functioning of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and thermoregulatory systems respectively.

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  • 15. 

    The most abundant chemical substance in the human body is... 

    Correct Answer
    Water
    Explanation
    Water is the most abundant chemical substance in the human body because it makes up about 60% of our total body weight. It is essential for many bodily functions, including regulating body temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen, lubricating joints, and removing waste products. Water is found in every cell, tissue, and organ in the body, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health and well-being. Without water, our bodies would not be able to function properly, making it the most abundant and vital substance in the human body.

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  • 16. 

    Body temperature is maintained around a set point of _______.

    Correct Answer
    37*C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 37°C because it is the average normal body temperature for most humans. The body has a set point, which is the temperature that it strives to maintain, and 37°C is the typical set point for body temperature regulation. This temperature is necessary for optimal functioning of bodily processes and enzymatic reactions. Deviations from this set point can indicate illness or other abnormalities in the body.

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  • 17. 

    Oxygen is used to release... 

    Correct Answer
    Energy
    Explanation
    Oxygen is used in the process of cellular respiration to release energy from glucose molecules. During this process, glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the energy currency of cells. Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, allowing the production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, oxygen is essential for the efficient release of energy from glucose molecules.

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  • 18. 

    Atmospheric pressure plays a part in...

    Correct Answer
    Breathing.
    Explanation
    Atmospheric pressure plays a crucial role in the process of breathing. When we inhale, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, expanding the chest cavity and reducing the pressure inside the lungs. As a result, the higher atmospheric pressure outside forces air to rush into the lungs, filling them with oxygen. Conversely, during exhalation, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, causing the chest cavity to shrink and increasing the pressure inside the lungs. This higher pressure pushes the air out of the lungs and into the atmosphere. Thus, atmospheric pressure is essential for the exchange of gases during the breathing process.

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  • 19. 

    Homeostasis means...

    • A.

      Preventing any change in the organism.

    • B.

      Integrating the functions of the various organ systems.

    • C.

      Maintenance of a stable internal environment.

    Correct Answer
    C. Maintenance of a stable internal environment.
    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. It involves regulating various physiological processes such as body temperature, pH levels, and nutrient levels within a narrow range. This stability is crucial for the proper functioning of cells, tissues, and organs. By maintaining a stable internal environment, homeostasis ensures that the organism's body functions optimally and can adapt to changes in the external environment.

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  • 20. 

    The set point for the body's temperature is controlled by the... 

    • A.

      Skin.

    • B.

      Circulatory system.

    • C.

      Hypothalamus.

    • D.

      Lungs.

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothalamus.
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is responsible for controlling the body's temperature. It acts as a thermostat, receiving signals from temperature receptors in the skin and internal organs, and then initiating appropriate responses to maintain a stable body temperature. This includes regulating processes such as sweating, shivering, and dilation or constriction of blood vessels. The skin, circulatory system, and lungs are involved in temperature regulation to some extent, but the hypothalamus is the main control center for maintaining the body's set point temperature.

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  • 21. 

    Blood sugar __ maintained by a negative feedback mechanism. 

    • A.

      Is.

    • B.

      Is not.

    Correct Answer
    A. Is.
    Explanation
    Blood sugar is maintained by a negative feedback mechanism. This means that when blood sugar levels rise, the body releases insulin to lower the levels back to normal. Conversely, when blood sugar levels drop, the body releases glucagon to raise the levels back to normal. This feedback loop helps to regulate blood sugar levels and keep them within a healthy range.

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  • 22. 

    Positive feedback mechanisms usually lead to illness. 

    • A.

      False.

    • B.

      True.

    Correct Answer
    B. True.
    Explanation
    Positive feedback mechanisms usually lead to illness. This statement is true. Positive feedback mechanisms amplify or reinforce a process or response in the body. In the context of illness, positive feedback mechanisms can lead to a cascade of events that exacerbate the condition. For example, in the case of fever, positive feedback mechanisms cause the body temperature to increase, which triggers further physiological responses that raise the temperature even more. This can result in illness if the body is unable to regulate the temperature effectively. Therefore, positive feedback mechanisms can contribute to the development or worsening of illness.

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  • 23. 

    The portion of the body that contains the head, neck, and trunk is called the ___ portion.

    Correct Answer
    Axial
    Explanation
    The term "axial" refers to the portion of the body that includes the head, neck, and trunk. This portion is considered the central axis of the body and contains important structures such as the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs. It is distinct from the appendicular portion, which includes the limbs and their attachments.

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  • 24. 

    The arms and legs are called the ____ portion. 

    Correct Answer
    Appendicular.
    Explanation
    The term "appendicular" refers to the arms and legs, which are attached or "appended" to the axial skeleton. This portion of the body includes the bones and structures that make up the limbs, such as the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula. It is important to distinguish the appendicular portion from the axial portion, which includes the skull, spine, and ribcage.

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  • 25. 

    The two major cavities of the axial portion of the body are the ____ cavity and the _____ cavity. 

    Correct Answer
    Dorsal and ventral
    Ventral and dorsal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Dorsal and ventral, Ventral and dorsal". The two major cavities of the axial portion of the body are the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity. The dorsal cavity is located along the posterior side of the body and contains the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal. The ventral cavity is located along the anterior side of the body and is divided into two main cavities, the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity. The thoracic cavity contains the heart, lungs, and other organs, while the abdominopelvic cavity contains the digestive organs, reproductive organs, and other structures.

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  • 26. 

    The heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland are located in the ____ of the thoracic cavity. 

    Correct Answer
    Mediastinum.
    Explanation
    The heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland are all located in the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity. The mediastinum is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity, located between the two lungs. It contains various organs and structures, including the heart, which is located in the middle of the mediastinum. The esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland are also located in this region, making the mediastinum the correct answer.

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  • 27. 

    The heart is covered by the ____ membranes. 

    Correct Answer
    Serous
    Explanation
    The heart is covered by the serous membranes. Serous membranes are thin, double-layered membranes that line the body cavities and cover the organs within those cavities. They consist of two layers: the parietal layer, which lines the cavity, and the visceral layer, which covers the organ. The serous membranes produce a lubricating fluid called serous fluid, which reduces friction between the organs and the cavity walls. The heart is surrounded by the pericardial cavity, which is lined by the serous pericardium.

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  • 28. 

    The visceral and parietal pleural membranes secrete a serous fluid into a potential spce called the... 

    Correct Answer
    Pericardial cavity
    Explanation
    The visceral and parietal pleural membranes secrete a serous fluid into a potential space called the pericardial cavity. This cavity is located between the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium, which surround and protect the heart. The serous fluid acts as a lubricant, reducing friction between the layers of the pericardium during heart contractions. It also helps to maintain the integrity and function of the heart by providing cushioning and shock absorption.

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  • 29. 

    Definition: 1. append- 2. cardi- 3. cerebr- 4. cran- 5. dors- 6. homeo- 7. -logy 8. meta- 9. nas- 10. orb- 11. pariet- 12. pelv- 13. peri- 14. pleur- 15. -stasis 16. super- 17. -tomy

    Correct Answer
    1. to hang something 2. heart 3. brain 4. helmet 5. back 6. same 7. the study of 8. change 9. nose 10. circle 11. wall 12. basin 13. around 14. ribs 15.standing stand still 16. above 17. cutting
    Explanation
    The given answer matches the definitions correctly. Each term in the answer corresponds to its respective definition in the given list. For example, "append" means "to hang something," which matches with the first term in the answer. Similarly, "cardi" means "heart," which matches with the second term in the answer. The rest of the terms in the answer also align with their corresponding definitions in the list.

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