Functional Anatomy Upper Extremity

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Pierredanielle
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Questions: 60 | Attempts: 547

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Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia

This will test functional anatomy and bio-mechanics in preparation for the physical therapy board exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The osteology of the shoulder region consists of three basic parts.  What are they

    • A.

      Ulna, radius, scapula

    • B.

      Scapula, humerus, clavicle

    • C.

      Thorax, acromion, clavicle

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Scapula, humerus, clavicle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is scapula, humerus, clavicle. These three bones make up the shoulder region. The scapula, or shoulder blade, is a flat bone that connects the upper arm bone, or humerus, to the collarbone, or clavicle. Together, these bones provide stability and mobility to the shoulder joint, allowing for a wide range of movements. The ulna and radius are bones of the forearm, not the shoulder region. The thorax, acromion, and none of the above options are not part of the basic parts of the shoulder region.

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  • 2. 

    The proximal end of the humerus is approximately ______________ a spheroid.

    • A.

      1/3rd

    • B.

      1/2

    • C.

      1/4

    • D.

      1/5

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. 1/2
    Explanation
    The proximal end of the humerus is approximately half the shape of a spheroid.

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  • 3. 

    Head of the humerus is retroverted how many degrees?

    • A.

      10-20

    • B.

      20-30

    • C.

      30-40

    • D.

      40-50

    • E.

      50-60

    Correct Answer
    B. 20-30
    Explanation
    The head of the humerus is retroverted at an angle of 20-30 degrees. Retroversion refers to the backward or posterior tilt of the head of the humerus in relation to the shaft of the bone. This retroversion is important for proper alignment and function of the shoulder joint, allowing for a wider range of motion and stability during movements such as abduction and external rotation.

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  • 4. 

    The longitudinal axis of the head of the humerus is how many degrees from the axis of the neck?

    • A.

      120

    • B.

      125

    • C.

      130

    • D.

      135

    • E.

      140

    Correct Answer
    D. 135
    Explanation
    The longitudinal axis of the head of the humerus is 135 degrees from the axis of the neck.

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  • 5. 

    The scapula sits over which ribs

    • A.

      1-6

    • B.

      2-5

    • C.

      3-7

    • D.

      2-7

    Correct Answer
    D. 2-7
    Explanation
    The scapula sits over ribs 2-7.

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  • 6. 

    The lateral angle of the the scapula bears the glenoid fossa which faces

    • A.

      Anteriorly, laterally, superiorly

    • B.

      Posteiroly, medially, inferoirly

    • C.

      Posteriorly, laterlaly, inferiorly

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Anteriorly, laterally, superiorly
    Explanation
    The glenoid fossa is a shallow depression on the lateral angle of the scapula. It is the site where the head of the humerus articulates, forming the shoulder joint. The glenoid fossa faces anteriorly, which means it is positioned towards the front of the body. Additionally, it faces laterally and superiorly, meaning it is oriented towards the side and upper part of the body. This allows for a wide range of movement in the shoulder joint.

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  • 7. 

    The orientation of the glenoid fossa places true abduction at how many degrees anterior to the frontal plane

    • A.

      20

    • B.

      30

    • C.

      40

    • D.

      50

    • E.

      A or c

    Correct Answer
    B. 30
    Explanation
    The orientation of the glenoid fossa places true abduction at 30 degrees anterior to the frontal plane. This means that when the arm is raised to the side, it will be angled 30 degrees forward from the frontal plane of the body. This position allows for optimal movement and stability of the shoulder joint during abduction.

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  • 8. 

    The clavicle extends laterally and links what to what?

    • A.

      Manubrium to acromion

    • B.

      Sternum to clavicle

    • C.

      Xiphoid process to manubrium

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Manubrium to acromion
    Explanation
    The clavicle, also known as the collarbone, extends laterally and links the manubrium (the upper part of the sternum) to the acromion (a bony process of the scapula). This connection provides stability and allows for movement of the shoulder joint.

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  • 9. 

    The capusle of the shoulder attaches where

    • A.

      Medially to the anatomical neck, lateral to the glenoid

    • B.

      Medial to the glenoid labrum, glenoid margin, and coracoid process

    • C.

      Laterally to the glenoid labrum, and lateral to the glenoid process

    • D.

      A and c

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Medial to the glenoid labrum, glenoid margin, and coracoid process
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "medial to the glenoid labrum, glenoid margin, and coracoid process." This means that the capsule of the shoulder attaches on the inner side of the glenoid labrum, glenoid margin, and coracoid process.

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  • 10. 

    The capsule attaches lateral to the humeral anatomical neck and descents approximately 1 cm down the shaft of the humerus

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true. The capsule of the shoulder joint attaches laterally to the humeral anatomical neck and extends down the shaft of the humerus for about 1 cm. This attachment helps to stabilize the joint and maintain its integrity during movement.

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  • 11. 

    Which tendons support the capsule?

    • A.

      Supraspinatus, infrasinatus, teres major, teres minor

    • B.

      Supraspinauts, infrasupinatus, teres minor, supbscapularis, long of tricpes

    • C.

      Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, subscapularis, long head of triceps

    • D.

      Supraspintus, infraspinatus, teres minor, long head of biceps

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Supraspinauts, infrasupinatus, teres minor, supbscapularis, long of tricpes
  • 12. 

    The inferior capsule is least supported and most lax

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The inferior capsule refers to the connective tissue surrounding a joint. It is considered to be the least supported and most lax, meaning it has the least amount of stability and is the most flexible. This is because the inferior capsule is typically thinner and less reinforced compared to other parts of the joint capsule. Therefore, the statement that the inferior capsule is least supported and most lax is true.

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  • 13. 

    The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous rings that deepens the glenoid fossa.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous ring that surrounds the edge of the glenoid fossa, which is part of the shoulder joint. It functions to deepen the glenoid fossa, providing stability and support to the shoulder joint. Therefore, the statement "The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous ring that deepens the glenoid fossa" is true.

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  • 14. 

    The labrum attaches to the capsule where

    • A.

      Superiorly, inferiorly, and superiorly to the long head of the biceps

    • B.

      Superior, lateral, medial

    • C.

      Supeirorly, laterally, inferiorly to the anattomical neck

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      A or c

    Correct Answer
    A. Superiorly, inferiorly, and superiorly to the long head of the biceps
    Explanation
    The labrum attaches to the capsule superiorly, inferiorly, and superiorly to the long head of the biceps. This means that the labrum is connected to the capsule in three locations: above, below, and above the long head of the biceps tendon. This attachment helps to stabilize the shoulder joint and provide support to the biceps tendon during movement.

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  • 15. 

    The internal surface of the labrum is covered with

    • A.

      Articular cartilage which is thinner periopherally, and thicker centraly

    • B.

      Articular cartilage which is both thicker peripherally and centrally

    • C.

      Articular cartilage which is thicker peripherally, and thinner centrally

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Articular cartilage which is thicker peripherally, and thinner centrally
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "articular cartilage which is thicker peripherally, and thinner centrally." This means that the articular cartilage on the internal surface of the labrum is thicker towards the outer edges and thinner towards the center. This distribution of thickness may have functional implications for the labrum's role in joint stability and load distribution.

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  • 16. 

    The labrum aids in lubrication like meniscus of knee and serves to protect the bone

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The labrum is a ring of cartilage that lines the socket of the shoulder joint. It helps to deepen the socket and provide stability to the joint. Additionally, the labrum aids in lubrication by producing synovial fluid, similar to the meniscus in the knee. This fluid helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows for smooth movement of the joint. Therefore, the statement that the labrum aids in lubrication like the meniscus of the knee is true. Moreover, the labrum also serves to protect the bone by acting as a cushion between the bones, preventing them from rubbing against each other and causing damage.

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  • 17. 

    How many burase are found within the shoulder region?

    • A.

      One

    • B.

      Two

    • C.

      Multiple

    • D.

      Zero

    Correct Answer
    C. Multiple
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "multiple" because the question asks about the number of burase found within the shoulder region, and "multiple" means more than one. This suggests that there are more than one burase present in the shoulder region.

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  • 18. 

    Where is the primary bursa involed with pathology found?

    • A.

      Inferior capsule region between the teres major and minor

    • B.

      Subacromial bursa between the deltoid and the capusle

    • C.

      Under the acromion and coracoarcomial ligament and between the supraspinatus tendon.

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    E. B and C
    Explanation
    The primary bursa involved with pathology is found under the acromion and coracoacromial ligament and between the supraspinatus tendon. This is supported by the answer options B and C, which state that the subacromial bursa between the deltoid and the capsule and the bursa under the acromion and coracoacromial ligament are both involved with pathology.

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  • 19. 

    What are the requirements of full elevation of the gleno-humeral joint?

    • A.

      Scapular stabilzation, inferior glide of humerus

    • B.

      Scapular depression, superior glide of humerus

    • C.

      External rotation of humerus, rotation of the clavicle at the sterno-clavicular joint

    • D.

      Scapular abduction and lateral rotation of the acromiclavicular joint, straigthening of thoracic kyphosis

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Scapular stabilzation, inferior glide of humerus
    C. External rotation of humerus, rotation of the clavicle at the sterno-clavicular joint
    D. Scapular abduction and lateral rotation of the acromiclavicular joint, straigthening of thoracic kyphosis
    Explanation
    The full elevation of the gleno-humeral joint requires a combination of movements and actions. Scapular stabilization is necessary to provide a stable base for the movement. The inferior glide of the humerus allows for the upward movement of the arm. External rotation of the humerus and rotation of the clavicle at the sterno-clavicular joint contribute to the proper alignment and range of motion. Scapular abduction and lateral rotation of the acromioclavicular joint help to further facilitate the elevation. Finally, straightening of thoracic kyphosis ensures proper alignment of the spine during the movement.

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  • 20. 

    The humeroulnar joint is the

    • A.

      Distal end of the humerus articulating with the proximal end of the ulna

    • B.

      Proximal of the humerus attaching to the glenoid

    • C.

      Distal end of the humerus articulating with the proximal end of the ulna

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      Trochlear articulating with the trochlear groove

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Distal end of the humerus articulating with the proximal end of the ulna
    E. Trochlear articulating with the trochlear groove
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "distal end of the humerus articulating with the proximal end of the ulna" and "trochlear articulating with the trochlear groove". The humeroulnar joint refers to the articulation between the distal end of the humerus bone and the proximal end of the ulna bone. This joint allows for flexion and extension of the forearm. Additionally, the trochlear articulates with the trochlear groove, which is part of the ulna bone, allowing for the hinge-like movement of the elbow joint.

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  • 21. 

    The trochlea at the trochlear notch face posteriorly at an angle of 45 degrees allowing space between the ulna and humerus during flexion.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The trochlea and trochlea notch face 45 degrees anteriorly, not posteriorly allowing space between the ulna and the humerus during flexion.

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  • 22. 

    The humeroradial joint is the distal end of the humerus which is the capitulum articulating with the concave oval facet of the proximal radius

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The humeroradial joint refers to the articulation between the distal end of the humerus, specifically the capitulum, and the proximal radius. This joint allows for flexion and extension of the forearm. The statement accurately describes the location and nature of the humeroradial joint, making the answer true.

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  • 23. 

    The proximal radio-ulnar joint consists of what?

    • A.

      Radial head which is ovoid and cone-shaped

    • B.

      Medial radius convex attaching with the radial notch of the ulna, which is concave

    • C.

      A and B

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A and B
    Explanation
    The proximal radio-ulnar joint consists of both the radial head, which is ovoid and cone-shaped, and the medial radius, which is convex and attaches with the radial notch of the ulna, which is concave. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B.

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  • 24. 

    The distal radial ulnar joint consists of what?

    • A.

      Convex ulna articulating with the concave radius

    • B.

      Concave ulna articulating with convex radius

    • C.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Convex ulna articulating with the concave radius
    Explanation
    The distal radial ulnar joint consists of the convex ulna articulating with the concave radius. This means that the end of the ulna bone is shaped like a convex surface, while the end of the radius bone is shaped like a concave surface. These surfaces fit together to form a joint that allows for rotation and movement of the forearm.

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  • 25. 

    The elbow capsule encloses the entire elbow joint complex.  It is thin both anteriorly and posteriorly.  It is continuous medially with ulnar collateral ligament and laterally with the radial collateral ligament.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the elbow capsule does indeed enclose the entire elbow joint complex. It is a thin structure both anteriorly and posteriorly. Furthermore, it is continuous medially with the ulnar collateral ligament and laterally with the radial collateral ligament.

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  • 26. 

    The elbow joint receives blood supply from which structures:

    • A.

      Brachial artery

    • B.

      Anterior ulnar recurrent artery

    • C.

      Posterior ulnar recurrent artery

    • D.

      Radial recurrent artery

    • E.

      Middle collateral branch of the deep brachial artery

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Brachial artery
    B. Anterior ulnar recurrent artery
    C. Posterior ulnar recurrent artery
    D. Radial recurrent artery
    E. Middle collateral branch of the deep brachial artery
    Explanation
    The elbow joint receives blood supply from multiple structures including the brachial artery, anterior ulnar recurrent artery, posterior ulnar recurrent artery, radial recurrent artery, and the middle collateral branch of the deep brachial artery. These arteries provide oxygenated blood to the joint, ensuring its proper functioning and nourishment.

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  • 27. 

    The osteology of the wrist consists of the

    • A.

      Radius, ulna, humerus, carpals

    • B.

      Carpals, phalanges, metacarpals, radius, and ulna

    • C.

      A and b

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Carpals, phalanges, metacarpals, radius, and ulna
    Explanation
    The correct answer is carpals, phalanges, metacarpals, radius, and ulna. This answer includes all the bones that make up the osteology of the wrist. The carpals are the small bones in the wrist, the phalanges are the bones in the fingers, the metacarpals are the bones in the palm of the hand, and the radius and ulna are the bones in the forearm that connect to the wrist.

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  • 28. 

    The radius biconvex relative to the carpals

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The radius is biconcave relative to the carpals.

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  • 29. 

    The ulna is convex at its distal end relative to the triquetrum

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The ulna is one of the two bones in the forearm, and it is located on the inner side of the arm. The distal end of the ulna refers to the end closer to the wrist. The statement suggests that the ulna is convex at its distal end relative to the triquetrum, which is a small bone in the wrist. "Convex" means curved outward, so the statement implies that the ulna has a curved shape at its distal end compared to the triquetrum. This statement is true because the ulna does indeed have a convex shape at its distal end relative to the triquetrum.

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  • 30. 

    The proximal aspect of the proximal row of the carpal bones are

    • A.

      Bioncave

    • B.

      Biconvex

    Correct Answer
    B. Biconvex
    Explanation
    The term "proximal" refers to the part of a structure that is closest to the body or the point of attachment. In the case of the proximal row of carpal bones, the proximal aspect refers to the part of the row that is closest to the body. The term "biconvex" means having two convex surfaces. Therefore, the correct answer "biconvex" indicates that the proximal aspect of the proximal row of carpal bones has two convex surfaces.

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  • 31. 

    The distal apsect of the proximal row of the carpal bones are

    • A.

      Concave at the the lunate/capitate and triquetrum/hamate articulations.

    • B.

      Schapoid is convex anterior/posterior and concave medial/lateral relative tot he trapezium/trapezoid

    • C.

      Capitate is convex and articulates with the hamate, scaphoid, and trapezoid

    • D.

      A and c

    • E.

      A, b, c

    Correct Answer
    E. A, b, c
    Explanation
    The distal aspect of the proximal row of the carpal bones is concave at the lunate/capitate and triquetrum/hamate articulations. The scaphoid is convex anterior/posterior and concave medial/lateral relative to the trapezium/trapezoid. The capitate is convex and articulates with the hamate, scaphoid, and trapezoid. Therefore, the correct answer is a, b, c.

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  • 32. 

    The metacarpal heads are biconvex and bases are generally flat relative to the distal row of the carpals.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the metacarpal heads, which are the rounded ends of the metacarpal bones in the hand, are indeed biconvex, meaning they have a rounded shape on both sides. In contrast, the bases of the metacarpal bones, which connect to the carpals in the wrist, are generally flat in relation to the distal row of carpals. This anatomical feature allows for stability and proper alignment of the hand bones during movement.

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  • 33. 

    Phalanges proximal ends are mostly biconcave with a ridge running down the center dividing into two surfaces.  The distal end is pulley shaped being mostly biconvex with a groove running through the center

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the statement accurately describes the structure of the proximal and distal ends of the phalanges. The proximal ends are biconcave with a ridge in the center, while the distal ends are pulley-shaped and mostly biconvex with a groove in the center. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following are true?

    • A.

      The meniscofemoral ligament runs with the PCL and attaches below the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus

    • B.

      The meniscofemoral ligament has a common isertion into the lateral aspect of the medial condyle

    • C.

      The oblique popliteal ligament inserts into expansion from the tendon of the semi-membranosous and partially blends with the capsule

    • D.

      The oblique popliteal ligament forms the floor of the popliteal fossa and is in contact with the popliteral artery strengthening the postero-medial capsule

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The meniscofemoral ligament runs with the PCL and attaches below the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus
    B. The meniscofemoral ligament has a common isertion into the lateral aspect of the medial condyle
    C. The oblique popliteal ligament inserts into expansion from the tendon of the semi-membranosous and partially blends with the capsule
    D. The oblique popliteal ligament forms the floor of the popliteal fossa and is in contact with the popliteral artery strengthening the postero-medial capsule
    Explanation
    The meniscofemoral ligament runs with the PCL and attaches below the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus. This means that the ligament is located alongside the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and connects to the back part of the outer meniscus. The meniscofemoral ligament also has a common insertion into the lateral aspect of the medial condyle. This means that it attaches to the outer side of the inner femoral condyle. The oblique popliteal ligament inserts into expansion from the tendon of the semi-membranosus and partially blends with the capsule. This means that the ligament connects to the expansion of the tendon of the semi-membranosus muscle and partly merges with the joint capsule. Lastly, the oblique popliteal ligament forms the floor of the popliteal fossa and is in contact with the popliteral artery, strengthening the postero-medial capsule. This means that the ligament serves as the lower boundary of the hollow space behind the knee and is in contact with the popliteal artery, providing support to the back and inner side of the joint capsule.

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  • 35. 

    The arcuate popliteal ligament is

    • A.

      Y shaped

    • B.

      T shaped

    • C.

      Has a medial and lateral band

    • D.

      Has a stem attaching to the fibular head

    • E.

      Has a medial band attaching to the posteiro border of the intercondylar are of the tibia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Y shaped
    B. T shaped
    C. Has a medial and lateral band
    D. Has a stem attaching to the fibular head
    E. Has a medial band attaching to the posteiro border of the intercondylar are of the tibia
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the arcuate popliteal ligament is Y-shaped, T-shaped, has a medial and lateral band, has a stem attaching to the fibular head, and has a medial band attaching to the posterior border of the intercondylar area of the tibia. This ligament is located in the knee joint and helps to stabilize the joint by providing support and limiting excessive movement. The Y-shaped and T-shaped configuration of the ligament allows for its attachment to multiple structures, while the medial and lateral bands provide additional stability. The stem attaching to the fibular head and the attachment to the posterior border of the intercondylar area of the tibia further reinforce the ligament's role in knee joint stability.

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  • 36. 

    The acruate popliteal ligament has a lateral band that extends to the lateral epicondyle fo the femur strengtheing the posterorlateral capsule

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the popliteal ligament does indeed have a lateral band that extends to the lateral epicondyle of the femur. This extension helps to strengthen the posterior-lateral capsule.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following are true

    • A.

      The oblique ligament strengthen the lateral capsule

    • B.

      The oblique ligament strengthens the medial capsule

    • C.

      The arcuate or y ligament strengthens the lateral capsule

    • D.

      The arcuate or y ligament strengthen the medial capsule

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. The oblique ligament strengthens the medial capsule
    C. The arcuate or y ligament strengthens the lateral capsule
    Explanation
    The oblique ligament strengthens the medial capsule because it connects the medial meniscus to the medial condyle of the tibia, providing stability to the inner side of the knee joint. On the other hand, the arcuate or y ligament strengthens the lateral capsule by attaching the lateral meniscus to the head of the fibula, providing stability to the outer side of the knee joint. Therefore, the given answer is correct.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following are true?

    • A.

      The transverse ligament connects the lateral and medial meniscus anteriorly

    • B.

      The meniscopatellar ligament runs from the inferolateral edges of the patella to the lateral borders of each meniscus and pulls the menisci forward with extension

    • C.

      The alar fold runs from the lateral borders of the patella to the medial and lateral aspects of the femoral condyles keeping the patella in contact with the femur

    • D.

      The infrapatellar fold is formed by attachments of th epatella fat pad and tendons via a fibroadipose band lying in intercondylar notch. It acts a stop gap as it is compressed by patella tendon in full flexion

    • E.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are true
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above are true." This means that all of the statements provided in the question are correct. The transverse ligament does connect the lateral and medial meniscus anteriorly, the meniscopatellar ligament does run from the inferolateral edges of the patella to the lateral borders of each meniscus and pulls the menisci forward with extension, the alar fold does run from the lateral borders of the patella to the medial and lateral aspects of the femoral condyles keeping the patella in contact with the femur, and the infrapatellar fold is indeed formed by attachments of the patella fat pad and tendons via a fibroadipose band lying in the intercondylar notch, acting as a stop gap when compressed by the patella tendon in full flexion.

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  • 39. 

    The medial meniscus is large and C-shaped. It is fairly stable.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the medial meniscus is indeed large and C-shaped. It is a cartilaginous structure located in the knee joint between the femur and tibia bones. Its C-shape provides stability and helps to distribute the weight and forces exerted on the knee joint during movement.

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  • 40. 

    The lateral meniscus is smaller than the medial meniscus and is more circular shaped.  Structures that attach to the lateral meniscus include the popliteus muscle, the lateral meniscopatellar ligament, and meniscofemoral ligament.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the lateral meniscus is indeed smaller than the medial meniscus and has a more circular shape. Additionally, the lateral meniscus is attached to various structures such as the popliteus muscle, the lateral meniscopatellar ligament, and the meniscofemoral ligament.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following are true

    • A.

      The lateral menisucs is separated from the LCL and lateral capsule by the popliteus muscle tendon

    • B.

      The function of the menisci is deepen the fossa of the tibia and increase congruency of the tibia and femur

    • C.

      the menisici provide stability to the tibiofemoral joint and provides shock absorption and lubrication to the knee

    • D.

      The menisci reduces friction during movement and improves weight distribution

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above". This means that all of the statements provided are true. The lateral meniscus is indeed separated from the LCL and lateral capsule by the popliteus muscle tendon. The function of the menisci includes deepening the fossa of the tibia and increasing the congruency of the tibia and femur. Additionally, the menisci provide stability to the tibiofemoral joint, as well as shock absorption and lubrication to the knee. They also reduce friction during movement and improve weight distribution.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following are true

    • A.

      The menisci do not follow the tibia with flexion/extension and femoral condyles with IR/ER

    • B.

      The medial meniscus moves 3mm while the lateral meniscus moves 8 mm

    • C.

      With isolated tibial rotation the menisci move opposite for example with tibial internal rotation the medial meniscus moves anterior, and the lateral meniscus moves posteriorly

    Correct Answer
    C. With isolated tibial rotation the menisci move opposite for example with tibial internal rotation the medial meniscus moves anterior, and the lateral meniscus moves posteriorly
    Explanation
    the menisci do follow the tibia with flexion/extension and femoral condlyes; the medial menisicus moves 6mm while the lateral meniscus moves 12 mm.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following are false

    • A.

      The meniscal motion is influenced by soft structures

    • B.

      The medial meniscus is pulled posteriorly during flexion by the semimembranosous muscle and the ACL

    • C.

      The medial meniscus is pulled anteriorly b y the medial meniscopatellar ligament and is held firm by attachment to the MCL and fibrous capsule

    • D.

      The lateral meniscus pulled posteriorly (flexion) by the popliteus muscle and anteriorly into extension by the lateral meniscopatellar ligament and meniscofemoral ligament.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "all of the above." This means that all of the statements mentioned in the question are false. According to the answer, the meniscal motion is not influenced by soft structures, the medial meniscus is not pulled posteriorly during flexion by the semimembranosus muscle and the ACL, the medial meniscus is not pulled anteriorly by the medial meniscopatellar ligament, and it is not held firm by attachment to the MCL and fibrous capsule. Additionally, the lateral meniscus is not pulled posteriorly by the popliteus muscle and anteriorly into extension by the lateral meniscopatellar ligament and meniscofemoral ligament.

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  • 44. 

    The blood supply of the knee comes from the descending branch from the lateral circumflex femoral branch of the deep formal artery.  the genicular branches of the popliteal artery and recurrent branches of the anterior tibial artery.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The blood supply of the knee is derived from multiple sources. One of the sources is the descending branch from the lateral circumflex femoral artery, which provides blood to the knee joint. Additionally, the genicular branches of the popliteal artery and recurrent branches of the anterior tibial artery also contribute to the blood supply of the knee. Therefore, the statement is true as it accurately describes the various sources of blood supply to the knee.

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  • 45. 

    In terms of the knee, articular innervation is provided by the obturator, femoral, tibial, and common fibular nerves

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the knee joint is innervated by multiple nerves. The obturator nerve supplies the medial aspect of the knee joint, while the femoral nerve provides innervation to the anterior aspect. The tibial nerve innervates the posterior aspect, and the common fibular nerve innervates the lateral aspect. Therefore, all four nerves mentioned contribute to the articular innervation of the knee joint.

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  • 46. 

    How many bursae of the knee exist?

    • A.

      4

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      7

    • E.

      8

    Correct Answer
    E. 8
    Explanation
    There are eight bursae in the knee. Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that help reduce friction and cushion the joints. In the knee, these bursae are located in various areas such as the patella, the front of the knee, and the back of the knee. Each bursa serves a specific purpose in allowing smooth movement and reducing pressure on the knee joint.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following are bursae of the knee?

    • A.

      Prepatellar: between the skin and the anterior distal patella

    • B.

      Superficial infrapatellar: anterior to the ligamentum patella

    • C.

      Deep infrapatellar: between the posterior ligamentum patella and anterior tibial tuberosity

    • D.

      Suprapatellar: between the patella and tibia femoral joint

    • E.

      Popliteal: posterior to knee often connected to synovial cavity.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Prepatellar: between the skin and the anterior distal patella
    B. Superficial infrapatellar: anterior to the ligamentum patella
    C. Deep infrapatellar: between the posterior ligamentum patella and anterior tibial tuberosity
    D. Suprapatellar: between the patella and tibia femoral joint
    E. Popliteal: posterior to knee often connected to synovial cavity.
    Explanation
    The bursae of the knee are fluid-filled sacs that help reduce friction and cushion the movement of tendons and ligaments around the knee joint. The prepatellar bursa is located between the skin and the anterior distal patella, providing cushioning between the patella and the skin. The superficial infrapatellar bursa is located anterior to the ligamentum patella, providing cushioning between the ligament and the skin. The deep infrapatellar bursa is located between the posterior ligamentum patella and the anterior tibial tuberosity, providing cushioning between these structures. The suprapatellar bursa is located between the patella and the tibia femoral joint, providing cushioning between these structures. The popliteal bursa is located posterior to the knee and is often connected to the synovial cavity, providing cushioning in the back of the knee.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following are true?

    • A.

      The semimbranous bursae is between the muscle and femoral condyle

    • B.

      The gastrocnemius bursae has both a medial and lateral aspect. The medial bursa usually communicates with the semimembranosus brusa

    • C.

      The pes anserine bursa is between the pes anserine and MCL.

    • D.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are true
    Explanation
    The statement "all of the above are true" means that all three statements mentioned in the question are correct. According to the given options, the semimembranous bursae is indeed located between the muscle and femoral condyle. The gastrocnemius bursae does have both a medial and lateral aspect, and the medial bursa usually communicates with the semimembranosus bursa. Lastly, the pes anserine bursa is indeed located between the pes anserine and MCL. Therefore, the correct answer is that all of the statements mentioned in the question are true.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following are false regarding biomechanics of the knee joint proper?

    • A.

      Condyles of the knee roll and glide simultaneously

    • B.

      Initially movement of the knee is pure rolling and ends in pure gliding

    • C.

      The MEDIAL CONDYLE has pure rolling which occurs during the first 10 to 15 degrees of flexion

    • D.

      THE LATERAL CONDYLE HAS ROLLING THAT OCCURS UNTIL 120 degrees of flexion

    • E.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are true
    Explanation
    The statement "all of the above are true" means that all the statements mentioned in the question regarding the biomechanics of the knee joint proper are false. This implies that the condyles of the knee do not roll and glide simultaneously, the initial movement of the knee is not pure rolling and does not end in pure gliding, the medial condyle does not have pure rolling during the first 10 to 15 degrees of flexion, and the lateral condyle does not have rolling until 120 degrees of flexion.

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  • 50. 

    During flexion, the femoral condyles roll posteriorly, and the ACL becomes taut causing the condyles to glide anteriorly

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During flexion of the knee joint, the femoral condyles roll posteriorly, which means they move towards the back of the knee joint. At the same time, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) becomes taut or tight. This tension in the ACL causes the femoral condyles to glide anteriorly, meaning they move towards the front of the knee joint. This movement helps to stabilize the knee joint during flexion and prevents excessive forward movement of the tibia. Therefore, the statement is true.

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