Human Biology Lecture 20

41 Questions | Total Attempts: 37

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Human Biology Quizzes & Trivia

This is over movement and bones.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The Physiology of Contraction:When nervous impulses reach the end of the nerve cell stimulating the release of Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.1) Ca++ is released into the rest of the cell.2) Troponin is attached to tropomyosin.3) Ca++ attaches to troponin.4) Troponin changes shape when Ca++ attaches to it.5) Troponin moves Tropomyosin away from the sites on actin to which myosin will attach.6) After myosin attaches to actin, it changes shape pulling actin toward the center of the sarcomere, shortening it.
  • 2. 
    Sliding Filament Theory of Contraction:During muscle contraction the thin actin filaments slide past the thick myosin filament.1) Myosin head attaches to actin. (high energy configuration)2) Power stroke: Myosin head pivots (changes to low energy configuration) pulling the actin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere.3) The myosin cross bridge detaches.4) Cocking of the myosin head occurs when ATP is added to myosin and is changed to ADP + P to release energy from ATP and to add that energy to myosin (now in high energy configuration again)
  • 3. 
    To end a contraction:1) Ca++ is removed from the troponin and moved to tehe sarcoplasmic reticulum again.2) Troponin changes back to original shape.3) Tropomyosin then moves back and blocks the myosin binding site on actin.
  • 4. 
    These are tough connective tissues which attaches the muscle to the bone. Also known as the connection between muscle and bone.
    • A. 

      Tendons

    • B. 

      Ligaments

  • 5. 
    These connect bones to bones, usually at joints. It keeps the bones in proper positions.
    • A. 

      Tendons

    • B. 

      Ligaments

  • 6. 
    The _______ of a muscle is the end of the muscle which is connected to a stationary bone of a joint by a ligament.
    • A. 

      Origin

    • B. 

      Insertion

  • 7. 
    The _________ of a muscle is the end of the muscle which is connected to the movable bone of a joint by a ligament.
    • A. 

      Origin

    • B. 

      Insertion

  • 8. 
    When the muscle contracts, the bone to which the _________ is attached will move.
    • A. 

      Origin

    • B. 

      Insertion

  • 9. 
    In adults, a layer of ___________ is at the ends of bones at a joint. This helps to protect the bone ends from shock and provides a region for bones to slide by each other.
  • 10. 
    Biceps muscle will move the forearm up and triceps muscle will move the forearm down.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    Bones itself are made of __________ salts. These salts are deposited by cells and these type of cells are found near the end of the bones during their growth.
  • 12. 
    In the compact bone region of a bone, there are many living cells. They are arranged in circles like a solar system. These are called ___________ _______ __________.
  • 13. 
    __________ _______ is found at the ends of bones. It is less dense and not made of "solar systems".
  • 14. 
    The spongy bone contains red marrow, in which _______ cells reproduce and form the cellular components of the blood and immune system.
  • 15. 
    Ability of muscles to receive and respond to stimuli.
    • A. 

      Excitability

    • B. 

      Contractility

    • C. 

      Extensibility

    • D. 

      Elasticity

  • 16. 
    ___________ is a change in the internal or external environment. It must be strong enough to create an action potential - nerve impulse.
  • 17. 
    Ability to shorten and thicken.
    • A. 

      Excitability

    • B. 

      Contractility

    • C. 

      Extensibility

    • D. 

      Elasticity

  • 18. 
    Ability to be stretched or extended.
    • A. 

      Excitablity

    • B. 

      Contractility

    • C. 

      Extensibility

    • D. 

      Elasticity

  • 19. 
    Abiltiy to return to original shape after contraction or extension.
    • A. 

      Excitablility

    • B. 

      Contractility

    • C. 

      Extensibility

    • D. 

      Elasticity

  • 20. 
    85% of all body heat is generated by muscles.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    This type of muscle is striated and has band-like structures which are perpendicular to long axes of cells.
    • A. 

      Skeletal

    • B. 

      Cardiac

    • C. 

      Smooth

  • 22. 
    This type of muscle has voluntary muscles enabling conscious control.
    • A. 

      Skeletal

    • B. 

      Cardiac

    • C. 

      Smooth

  • 23. 
    This type of muscle is attached to bones and has cylindrical cells and striated fibers with several nuclei.
    • A. 

      Skeletal

    • B. 

      Cardiac

    • C. 

      Smooth

  • 24. 
    This type of muscle is found in the heart. It is involuntary and is NOT called a striated muscle, even though it is striated.
    • A. 

      Skeletal

    • B. 

      Cardiac

    • C. 

      Smooth

  • 25. 
    This type of muscle contains bands called intercalated discs, the ends of cells.
    • A. 

      Skeletal

    • B. 

      Cardiac

    • C. 

      Smooth

  • 26. 
    This type of muscle is spindle shaped, non-striated, and has one central nucleus.
    • A. 

      Skeletal

    • B. 

      Cardiac

    • C. 

      Smooth

  • 27. 
    This type of muscle is involved in processes of maintaining internal environments. It is also involuntary.
    • A. 

      Skeletal

    • B. 

      Cardiac

    • C. 

      Smooth

  • 28. 
    This type of muscle is located in walls of hollow internal structures, such as blood vessels, stomach, and intestines.
    • A. 

      Skeletal

    • B. 

      Cardiac

    • C. 

      Smooth

  • 29. 
    A muscle is a collection of ________ ______.
  • 30. 
    Muscle cells are also called _______ _______ or __________.
  • 31. 
    This is the cell membrane of a muscle cell.
  • 32. 
    This is the cytoplasm of a muscle cell.
  • 33. 
    Within sarcoplasm are smaller fibers called ___________.
  • 34. 
    Myofibrils are composed of thick and thin ______________.
  • 35. 
    The myofilaments are arranged in compartments called _____________.- Probably should know for exam.
  • 36. 
    ______________ ______________ is the endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells.
  • 37. 
    Ca++ is stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    What are the two types of myofilaments in each sarcomere?
  • 39. 
    _________ is attached to the ends of the sarcomere.
  • 40. 
    _________ lies between two layers of actin, ready to attach to actin when the binding sites are open.
  • 41. 
    The idea of contraction is for Myosin to pull the Actin fibers towards the center of the sarcomere causing it to shorten. Thus the muscle cell will be shorter and the entire muscle will shorten.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False