Mary Budd Rowe
Time scheduled for an academic subject.
Time students are actively involved with subject matter.
Time students are moving about the classroom.
Time in which students show a high success rate.
Few and fair.
Teacher developed and student evaluated.
Established on a school-wide basis.
Student developed and reviewed weekly.
Keep teaching materials and supplies locked up, so that students call on you when they need assistance.
Establish predictable routines and rules to offer a sense of stability.
Create a “private” area in the room, where you can work and plan undisturbed by unruly students.
Draw attention to misbehaving students in order to set an example.
Inform students about shifts in classroom activities to facilitate transitions between lessons.
Keep students’ attention by addressing questions to the class, then naming the student to respond.
Encourage students to work cooperatively in groups.
Provide directions to students about how to complete an instructional task.
Very punctual and well organized.
Able to tap into popular trends among students.
Aware of all students’ behavior in the classroom at all times.
Kept informed of the progress of former students.
Question, react, respond
Involvement, question, respond, react
Structure, question, respond, react
Question, structure, respond, evaluate
All of the time.
Most of the time.
Some of the time.
Only in response to student questions.
Female of color.
Male of color.
Hierarchy of strategies for classroom management
Classification of teacher response to student answers
Original guidelines for mastery learning
System for determining the intellectual level of questions
Are mostly used in teaching students in lower grades.
Have been proven to be ineffective.
Rarely encourage learning.
Can be answered through memory and recall.
About equally divided between higher and lower order
A discussion of student opinions
A review of previously learned information
An introduction of new information
Student practice drills
One second or less
Three to five seconds
Ten to fifteen seconds
Too variable to be measured with much accuracy
Will not know the answer.
Will need assistance to come up with an answer.
Will be able to give a correct answer.
Were not paying attention.
Shorter student responses.
More student disruptions.
Fewer student questions.
Greater student participation
Greater use of higher order questions.
Lower expectations of students.
Less fluent teacher discussion.
Greater need for management rules and regulations.
General, complimenting the student’s personality as well as ability.
Given at the beginning and end of every class to establish a positive environment.
Responsive to past performance and student ability and effort.
Rationed so no one student receives too much of it.
Based on students’ direct involvement with the material through hands-on activities.
Practiced through direct interaction with students on an individual basis.
Teacher presentation of new material, followed by directed practice and feedback.
Student-centered and student-directed.
The groups meet several times a week.
Students are grouped by sex.
Students are grouped by ability level.
The groups share a goal and materials.
Accurate grading becomes easier and less time consuming in this approach.
Organizing students with similar backgrounds into these groups eases management concerns.
Students are more likely to use computer technology in a cooperative community.
Students have greater motivation to learn.
Learning is a social process—students learn through interaction with others.
Learning should be relevant to students’ lives—by solving real-world problems.
All students can learn—if given the right tools and the opportunity to work at their own pace.
Learning is doing—students learn through hands-on experiences.