What Do You Know About Pediatric Fluid And Electrolyte Therapy? Trivia Quiz

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What Do You Know About Pediatric Fluid And Electrolyte Therapy? Trivia Quiz - Quiz

What Do You Know About Pediatric Fluid And Electrolyte Therapy? When it comes to children maintaining a normal body water volume and electrolyte composition and if this falls lower than the acceptable levels a child may have to undergo electrolyte therapy in order to maintain a healthy growth and reduce chances of sickness. Take the quiz and review your understanding on pediatric fluids.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     _____________ the ability or tendency to maintain internal stability  in spite of external changes.

    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the ability or tendency of an organism to maintain internal stability despite external changes. It is a vital process that allows the body to regulate various physiological variables, such as temperature, blood pressure, and pH levels, within a narrow range. This balance is essential for the proper functioning of cells, tissues, and organs. Homeostasis is achieved through feedback mechanisms that sense changes in the internal environment and initiate appropriate responses to restore equilibrium. It ensures that the body can adapt and respond to external stimuli while keeping its internal conditions relatively constant.

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  • 2. 

    Electrolytes are charged ions that

    • A.

      Conduct electricity

    • B.

      A normal concentration in body fluids

    • C.

      Causes constipation 

    • D.

      None of the above 

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Conduct electricity
    B. A normal concentration in body fluids
    Explanation
    Electrolytes are charged ions that conduct electricity and are present in a normal concentration in body fluids. They are essential for various bodily functions, including maintaining proper nerve and muscle function, balancing pH levels, and regulating fluid balance. When dissolved in water, electrolytes dissociate into positive and negative ions, allowing the flow of electric current. This electrical conductivity is crucial for transmitting nerve impulses, contracting muscles, and facilitating cellular communication. Maintaining a normal concentration of electrolytes in body fluids is vital for overall health and proper bodily functions.

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  • 3. 

    A child has a 2-day history of vomiting and diarrhea. He has hypoactive bowel sounds and an irregular pulse. Electrolyte values are sodium, 139 mEq/L; potassium, 3.3 mEq/L; and calcium, 9.5 mg/dL. This child is likely to have which of the following electrolyte imbalances?

    • A.

      Hyponatremia

    • B.

      Hypocalcemia

    • C.

      Hyperkalemia

    • D.

      Hypokalemia

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypokalemia
    Explanation
    A serum potassium level of less than 3.5 mEq/L is considered hypokalemia.

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  • 4. 

    Which statement best describes why infants are at greater risk for dehydration than older children?

    • A.

       Infants have an increased ability to concentrate urine.

    • B.

      Infants have a greater volume of intracellular fluid.

    • C.

      Infants have a smaller body surface area.

    • D.

      Infants have an increased extracellular fluid volume.

    Correct Answer
    D. Infants have an increased extracellular fluid volume.
    Explanation
    Feedback Because the kidneys are immature in early infancy, there is a decreased ability to concentrate the urine. Infants have a larger proportion of fluid in the extracellular space. Infants have proportionately greater body surface area in relation to body mass, which creates the potential for greater fluid loss through the skin and gastrointestinal tract. Answer* The larger ratio of extracellular fluid to intracellular fluid predisposes the infant to dehydration.

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  • 5. 

    Which assessment is most relevant to the care of an infant with dehydration?

    • A.

      Temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.

    • B.

      Respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and lung sounds.

    • C.

      Heart rate, sensorium, and skin color.

    • D.

      Diet tolerance, bowel function, and abdominal girth.

    Correct Answer
    C. Heart rate, sensorium, and skin color.
    Explanation
    Changes in heart rate, sensorium, and skin color are early indicators of
    impending shock in the child.

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  • 6. 

    What is the most important factor in determining the rate of fluid replacement in the dehydrated child?

    • A.

       The child's weight

    • B.

       The type of dehydration

    • C.

      Urine output

    • D.

      Serum potassium level

    Correct Answer
    B.  The type of dehydration
    Explanation
    Feedback
    The child's weight determines the amount of fluid needed, not the rate of fluid
    replacement. One milliliter of body fluid is equal to 1 g of body weight; therefore
    a loss of 1 kg (2.2 lb) is equal to 1 L of fluid.

    answer* Isonamtremic and hyponatremic dehydration resuscitation involves fluid
    replacement over 24 hours. Hypernatremic dehydration involves a slower
    replacement rate to prevent a sudden decrease in the sodium level.

    Urine output is not a consideration for determining the rate of administration of
    replacement fluids.

    Potassium level is not as significant in determining the rate of fluid replacement
    as the type of dehydration.

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  • 7. 

    What assessment should the nurse make before initiating an intravenous (IV) infusion of dextrose 5% in 0.9% normal saline solution with 10 mEq of potassium chloride for a child hospitalized with dehydration?

    • A.

      Fluid intake

    • B.

      Number of stools

    • C.

      Urine output

    • D.

      Capillary refill

    Correct Answer
    C. Urine output
    Explanation
    Potassium chloride should never be added to an IV solution in the presence of
    oliguria or anuria (urine output less than 0.5 mL/kg/hr).

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  • 8. 

    Which assessment findings indicate to the nurse that a child has excess fluid volume?

    • A.

      Weight gain

    • B.

      Decreased blood pressure

    • C.

      Moist breath sounds

    • D.

      Poor skin turgor

    • E.

      Rapid bounding pulse

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Weight gain
    C. Moist breath sounds
    E. Rapid bounding pulse
    Explanation
    Correct: A child with fluid volume excess will have a weight gain, moist breath sounds due to the excess fluid in the pulmonary system, and a rapid bounding pulse. Other signs seen with fluid volume excess are increased blood pressure, edema, and fatigue. Incorrect: Decreased blood pressure and poor skin turgor are signs of fluid volume deficit.

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  • 9. 

    What are fluids that have electrolytes 

    • A.

      Blood

    • B.

      Serum

    • C.

      Albumin

    • D.

      Urine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Blood
    B. Serum
    C. Albumin
    D. Urine
    Explanation
    The fluids that have electrolytes include blood, serum, albumin, and urine. Electrolytes are substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water, and they are essential for various bodily functions. Blood and serum contain electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride, which help maintain proper fluid balance and nerve function. Albumin, a protein found in blood, also carries electrolytes. Urine contains electrolytes that are filtered from the blood by the kidneys, including sodium, potassium, and chloride. These electrolytes play a crucial role in maintaining hydration, pH balance, and overall bodily function.

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  • 10. 

    ___________ is in normal fluid and electrolytes .

    Correct Answer(s)
    water
    Explanation
    Water is present in normal fluid and electrolytes. This is because water is an essential component of body fluids and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance and electrolyte concentrations. It helps transport nutrients and waste products, regulates body temperature, and facilitates various biochemical reactions. Therefore, the presence of water is necessary for maintaining normal fluid and electrolyte levels in the body.

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  • 11. 

    (ICF) Intracellular fluid primary cations.

    • A.

      Potassium 

    • B.

      Magnesium

    • C.

      Phosphate

    • D.

      Sulfate 

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Potassium 
    B. Magnesium
    Explanation
    PRIMARY CATIONS: POTASSIUM, MAGNESIUM
    • MAJOR ANIONS: PHOSPHATE, SULFATE

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  • 12. 

    TWO PRIMARY COMPONENTS: PLASMA, INTERSTITIAL FLUID

    • A.

      ECF

    • B.

      ICF

    Correct Answer
    A. ECF
    Explanation
    EXTRACELLULAR FLUID

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  • 13. 

     _____________ charged ions capable of conducting electricity, in various concentrations and combinations.

    Correct Answer
    electrolytes
    Explanation
    Electrolytes are charged ions that have the ability to conduct electricity. They can be found in various concentrations and combinations.

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  • 14. 

    Approximately how much of the average healthy adult’s weight is water?

    • A.

      75%

    • B.

      60%

    • C.

      30%

    • D.

      80%

    Correct Answer
    B. 60%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 60%. This is because water makes up a significant portion of the human body. It is essential for various bodily functions such as digestion, circulation, and temperature regulation. On average, water constitutes about 60% of the weight in a healthy adult.

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  • 15. 

    INTRACELLULAR FLUID (ICF) CONTAINS SOLUTES SUCH AS

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Electrolytes 

    • C.

      Glucose 

    • D.

      Sodium 

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Oxygen
    B. Electrolytes 
    C. Glucose 
    Explanation
    Sodium is extracellular

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  • 16. 

    PRINCIPAL ELECTROLYTES: SODIUM, CALCIUM, BICARBONATE

    • A.

      ICF

    • B.

      ECF

    Correct Answer
    B. ECF
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ECF, which stands for extracellular fluid. Extracellular fluid refers to the fluid outside the cells in the body, including the interstitial fluid and the plasma. Sodium, calcium, and bicarbonate are all principal electrolytes found in the extracellular fluid.

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  • 17. 

    HOW DOES FLUID MOVE IN THE BODY?

    • A.

      OSMOSIS 

    • B.

      DIFFUSION

    • C.

      FILTRATION

    • D.

      ACTIVE TRANSPORT

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. OSMOSIS 
    B. DIFFUSION
    C. FILTRATION
    D. ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    Explanation
    Fluid moves in the body through various processes, including osmosis, diffusion, filtration, and active transport. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration through a semipermeable membrane. Diffusion is the movement of solute particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Filtration is the movement of fluid and solutes through a membrane due to pressure differences. Active transport is the movement of solutes against their concentration gradient, requiring energy. These processes work together to maintain fluid balance and transport essential substances throughout the body.

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  • 18. 

    Fluid intake and fluid loss are normally balanced. An imbalance can result in __________

    Correct Answer(s)
    illness
    Explanation
    An imbalance in fluid intake and fluid loss can result in illness. This is because our bodies require a certain amount of fluid to function properly, and when this balance is disrupted, it can lead to various health issues. Inadequate fluid intake can cause dehydration, which can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, and dry skin. On the other hand, excessive fluid loss, such as through excessive sweating or diarrhea, can also cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can result in illness. Therefore, maintaining a proper balance of fluid intake and loss is crucial for overall health.

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  • 19. 

    REGULATES FLUID INTAKE

    • A.

       Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Frontal lobe 

    • C.

      Hippocampus 

    • D.

      Cerebellum 

    Correct Answer
    A.  Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating fluid intake in the body. It helps maintain the body's homeostasis by controlling thirst and hunger. The hypothalamus receives signals from the body's internal systems and releases hormones that influence fluid balance. This includes regulating the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland, which controls water reabsorption in the kidneys. Therefore, the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's fluid balance and ensuring proper hydration.

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  • 20. 

    During periods of moderate activity at a moderate temperature the average person needs?

    • A.

      2500 mL per day

    • B.

      1500 mL per day 

    • C.

       3000 mL per day 

    • D.

      500 mL per day 

    Correct Answer
    A. 2500 mL per day
    Explanation
    During periods of moderate activity at a moderate temperature, the average person needs 2500 mL per day. This is because moderate activity and temperature can cause increased sweating and fluid loss, which needs to be replenished to maintain proper hydration. 2500 mL per day is a reasonable amount to ensure that the body stays hydrated and functions optimally.

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  • 21. 

    The primary regulator of fluid intake

    • A.

       thirst mechanism

    • B.

      Urination

    • C.

      Peristalsis 

    • D.

      Fever

    Correct Answer
    A.  thirst mechanism
    Explanation
    peristalsis

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  • 22. 

    Fluid loss through urination?

    • A.

      1400–1500ml/daily

    • B.

      300–400ml/daily

    • C.

      2500ml/daily

    • D.

      100–200ml/daily 

    Correct Answer
    A. 1400–1500ml/daily
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1400-1500ml/daily. This is because the average adult typically urinates around 1,400 to 1,500 milliliters of fluid per day. Urination is one of the primary ways the body eliminates waste and excess fluids.

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  • 23. 

    Sweat is the major avenue for fluid loss in the body.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Urine formed by the kidneys and excreted from the urinary bladder is the major avenue of fluid output. ........... And if your in nursing school the major avenue is tears :'C lol jk

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  • 24. 

    Fluid loss happens through 

    • A.

      Urine

    • B.

      Insensible loss 

    • C.

      Through the skin

    • D.

       intestines in feces.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Urine
    B. Insensible loss 
    C. Through the skin
    D.  intestines in feces.
    Explanation
    The four routes of fluid output are:

    1. Urine

    2. Insensible loss through the skin as perspiration and through the lungs as water vapor in the expired air

    3. Noticeable loss through the skin

    4. Loss through the intestines in feces.

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  • 25. 

    Most electrolytes enter the body through ________ _________ and are excreted by urination 

    Correct Answer(s)
    dietary intake
    Explanation
    Electrolytes are substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water and are essential for various bodily functions. They are obtained through dietary intake, meaning they are consumed through food and beverages. Once inside the body, electrolytes are utilized for various physiological processes and any excess amounts are excreted through urination. Therefore, the correct answer is "dietary intake" as it accurately describes how electrolytes enter the body and are later eliminated.

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  • 26. 

    MOST ABUNDANT CATION IN ECF

    • A.

      Na+

    • B.

      Cl-

    • C.

      K+

    • D.

      Mg2+

    Correct Answer
    A. Na+
    Explanation
    Na+ is the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) because it plays a crucial role in maintaining the osmotic balance and fluid distribution in the body. It is responsible for regulating blood pressure, nerve function, and muscle contractions. Additionally, Na+ is involved in the absorption of nutrients and the elimination of waste products. Therefore, Na+ is the primary cation found in the ECF, making it the correct answer.

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  • 27. 

    The kidney's primary job (select all that applies)

    • A.

      REGULATE AND FILTER WASTE, RETURN ELECTROLYTES TO BLOOD

    • B.

      REGULATE VOLUME, OSMOLALITY OF ICF

    • C.

      ADJUST REABSORPTION OF WATER FROM PLASMA FILTRATE

    • D.

      SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN ACID–BASE REGULATION

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. REGULATE AND FILTER WASTE, RETURN ELECTROLYTES TO BLOOD
    C. ADJUST REABSORPTION OF WATER FROM PLASMA FILTRATE
    D. SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN ACID–BASE REGULATION
    Explanation
    KIDNEYS PRIMARY REGULATORS
    • REGULATE AND FILTER WASTE, RETURN ELECTROLYTES TO BLOOD
    • REGULATE VOLUME, OSMOLALITY OF ECF
    • ADJUST REABSORPTION OF WATER FROM PLASMA FILTRATE
    • SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN ACID–BASE REGULATION

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  • 28. 

    The ___________________ hormone regulates water excresion from the kidney

    Correct Answer(s)
    antidiuretic
    Explanation
    The hormone "antidiuretic" is responsible for regulating water excretion from the kidney. This hormone helps in reducing the amount of water that is excreted in urine, thereby preventing excessive water loss from the body. It acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of water, leading to a decrease in urine volume. This hormone plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's water balance and preventing dehydration.

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  • 29. 

    ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR 

    • A.

      PROMOTES SODIUM WASTING

    • B.

      ACTS AS POTENT DIURETIC

    • C.

      INHIBITS THIRST

    • D.

      ADJUST REABSORPTION OF WATER FROM PLASMA FILTRATE

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. PROMOTES SODIUM WASTING
    B. ACTS AS POTENT DIURETIC
    C. INHIBITS THIRST
    Explanation
    Atrial natriuretic factor promotes sodium wasting by increasing the excretion of sodium in urine. It acts as a potent diuretic by increasing urine output and reducing fluid volume in the body. In addition, it inhibits thirst by reducing the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body. Overall, atrial natriuretic factor helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance by adjusting the reabsorption of water from the plasma filtrate.

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  • 30. 

    ________________ are important because: • MAINTAINING FLUID BALANCE • CONTRIBUTING TO ACID–BASE REGULATION • FACILITATING ENZYME REACTIONS • TRANSMITTING NEUROMUSCULAR REACTIONS

    Correct Answer(s)
    electrolytes
    Explanation
    Electrolytes are important because they help maintain fluid balance in the body, contribute to acid-base regulation, facilitate enzyme reactions, and transmit neuromuscular reactions.

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  • 31. 

    IMPORTANT FOR INTRACELLULAR METABOLISM. ESPECIALLY PRODUCTION, USE OF ATP

    • A.

      MAGNESIUM

    • B.

      POTASSIUM

    • C.

      Phosphate

    • D.

      CALCIUM

    Correct Answer
    A. MAGNESIUM
    Explanation
    Magnesium is important for intracellular metabolism, especially in the production and use of ATP. ATP is the main source of energy for cellular processes, and magnesium plays a crucial role in its synthesis and utilization. Magnesium is required for the activation of ATP, as well as for the function of many enzymes involved in ATP production. It also helps in maintaining the stability and structure of ATP molecules. Therefore, magnesium is essential for cellular energy metabolism and its deficiency can lead to impaired ATP production and energy imbalance.

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  • 32. 

    _____________ is found in both ECF and ICF

    Correct Answer
    bicarbonate
    Explanation
    Bicarbonate is found in both the extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) because it plays a crucial role in maintaining the acid-base balance in the body. It acts as a buffer, helping to regulate the pH levels in both the ECF and ICF. Bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) is produced in the kidneys and is transported through the bloodstream to maintain the balance between acids and bases. This allows bicarbonate to be present in both the ECF, which surrounds the cells, and the ICF, which is contained within the cells.

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  • 33. 

    What is the normal serum level for calcium?

    • A.

      9–11 MG/DL

    • B.

      1.5–2.5 MEQ/L

    • C.

      3.5–5.3 MEQ/L

    • D.

      2.4–4.5 mg/dL

    Correct Answer
    A. 9–11 MG/DL
    Explanation
    Moms always say drink your milk like they are the calcium police. 9-11 mg/dl

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  • 34. 

    When fluid status is compromised, immature kidneys unable to conserve or excrete water, solutes effectively causes 

    • A.

      Dehydration

    • B.

      Quickly develop fluid imbalances

    • C.

      Fluid overload

    • D.

      Edema 

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dehydration
    B. Quickly develop fluid imbalances
    Explanation
    Infants, children <2 years lose greater proportion of fluid per day-need adequate intake ▪ Respiratory, metabolic rates higher during early childhood, leading to more water loss ▪ When the fluid status is compromised, immature kidneys unable to conserve or excrete water, solutes effectively –Dehydration –Quickly develop fluid imbalances

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  • 35. 

    An infants body surface area (BSA) is proportionately greater, which increases __________ fluid loss

    Correct Answer(s)
    insensible
    Explanation
    Insensible water loss is defined as water loss via evaporation from the skin and respiration. Fluid and electrolyte balance is a primary concern and very challenging in the neonatal patient population.

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  • 36. 

    School-age children and adolescents most common causes of fluid imbalance

    • A.

      Gastroenteritis

    • B.

      Diarrhea

    • C.

      Constipation

    • D.

      Playing

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Gastroenteritis
    B. Diarrhea
    Explanation
    Gastroenteritis and diarrhea are common causes of fluid imbalance in school-age children and adolescents. Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection. It leads to symptoms like vomiting and diarrhea, which can result in fluid loss. Diarrhea itself can also cause fluid imbalance as it increases the frequency and volume of bowel movements, leading to dehydration if not properly managed. The other options, constipation and playing, are not directly related to fluid imbalance in this context.

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  • 37. 

    SOURCES OF FLUID LOSS IN CHILDREN

    • A.

      LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANTS KEPT UNDER RADIANT WARMERS

    • B.

      LOWER BODY SURFACE AREA (BSA

    • C.

      MORE PRONE TO VOMITING, DIARRHEA

    • D.

      DECREASED RESPIRATORY RATE

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANTS KEPT UNDER RADIANT WARMERS
    C. MORE PRONE TO VOMITING, DIARRHEA
    Explanation
    SOURCES OF FLUID LOSS
    • LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANTS KEPT UNDER RADIANT WARMERS
    • HIGHER BODY SURFACE AREA (BSA), INCREASED RESPIRATORY RATE → MORE INSENSIBLE FLUID LOSS
    THROUGH SKIN, LUNGS
    • INCREASED RISK FOR FEVER, WHICH INCREASES METABOLIC RATE
    • MORE PRONE TO VOMITING, DIARRHEA
    • MORE LIKELY TO EXPERIENCE IMBALANCE FROM EXERCISE
    • LARGER BSA → MORE HEAT GAIN IN HOT ENVIRONMENTS, MORE HEAT LOST IN COLD ENVIRONMENTS
    • ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY
    • ACCUMULATION OF ECF IN THIRD SPACE

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  • 38. 

    Mild dehydration is easy to detect in pediatric patients.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    MILD DEHYDRATION
    • HARD TO DETECT IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS
    • IRRITABILITY IN INFANTS
    • THIRST IN CHILDREN

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  • 39. 

    A patient is under a nurses care with a nursing diagnosis of fluid volume deficit. what are some interventions for this patient? 

    • A.

      Monitor electrolytes

    • B.

      Observe for signs of dehydration 

    • C.

      Monitor intake and out put 

    • D.

      Place patient on a liquid only diet 

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Monitor electrolytes
    B. Observe for signs of dehydration 
    C. Monitor intake and out put 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to monitor electrolytes, observe for signs of dehydration, and monitor intake and output. These interventions are appropriate for a patient with fluid volume deficit as they help in assessing the patient's fluid balance, identifying any electrolyte imbalances, and monitoring the adequacy of fluid intake and output. By monitoring electrolytes, the nurse can identify any abnormalities that may require intervention. Observing for signs of dehydration helps in identifying early symptoms and preventing further complications. Monitoring intake and output helps in assessing the patient's fluid status and ensuring adequate hydration. Placing the patient on a liquid-only diet may not be appropriate without further assessment and medical guidance.

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  • 40. 

    The consumption of too much this is connected with obesity and high blood pressure in children 

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Potassium 

    • C.

      Magnesium 

    • D.

      Fiber

    Correct Answer
    A. Sodium
    Explanation
    Consuming excessive amounts of sodium is linked to obesity and high blood pressure in children. Sodium is commonly found in processed and fast foods, which are often high in calories and contribute to weight gain. Additionally, a high sodium intake can lead to water retention and increased blood volume, putting extra strain on the blood vessels and leading to high blood pressure. Therefore, it is important to monitor and limit sodium intake in order to maintain a healthy weight and blood pressure in children.

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