Fertilization, Meiosis, Gametes, And Cytokinesis

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Fertilization, Meiosis, Gametes, And Cytokinesis - Quiz

Mccabe lecture 8/12/08


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Oogonia develop into primary oocytes

    • A.

      At puberty

    • B.

      At birth

    • C.

      By the third month post-conception

    • D.

      At the end of the second trimester

    • E.

      When menstruation first starts

    Correct Answer
    C. By the third month post-conception
    Explanation
    Oogonia are the precursor cells of eggs in females. They undergo a process called oogenesis to develop into primary oocytes. This development occurs during fetal development, specifically by the third month after conception. At this stage, the oogonia have already undergone several rounds of cell division and have started the process of meiosis, which will eventually lead to the formation of mature eggs. Therefore, the correct answer is "by the third month post-conception."

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  • 2. 

    Oogenesis is synchronized

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Oogenesis is not synchronized. It is a process in which female gametes, called ova or eggs, are produced in the ovaries. Unlike spermatogenesis, which occurs continuously throughout a male's life, oogenesis in females begins before birth and is a slow and gradual process. Each month, during the menstrual cycle, a small number of oocytes are selected to mature and be released, while the rest undergo programmed cell death. This process is not synchronized and occurs at different times for different oocytes. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 3. 

    As each follicle matures _________ is completed and the oocyte divides so that the one cell becomes the secondary oocyte

    • A.

      Meiosis I

    • B.

      Meiosis II

    • C.

      Fertilization

    • D.

      Development

    Correct Answer
    A. Meiosis I
    Explanation
    As each follicle matures, meiosis I is completed and the oocyte divides so that the one cell becomes the secondary oocyte. Meiosis I is the first division of meiosis, which involves the separation of homologous chromosomes. This division results in two daughter cells, one of which is the secondary oocyte. Meiosis II is the second division of meiosis, which involves the separation of sister chromatids. Fertilization is the process of fusion of sperm and egg, while development refers to the growth and differentiation of an organism.

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  • 4. 

    An ovum is stuck at ____________ until fertilization.

    Correct Answer
    meiosis II
    Explanation
    During meiosis II, the ovum is arrested in metaphase II until fertilization occurs. This is because meiosis II is the second stage of meiosis, where the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate and are ready to be separated into two daughter cells. However, in the case of the ovum, it remains arrested in this stage until it is fertilized by a sperm. Once fertilization occurs, meiosis II is completed and the ovum can proceed with development.

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  • 5. 

    To generate sperm __________ successive mitotic divisions are required

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      One million

    • C.

      Several hundred

    • D.

      64

    • E.

      10000

    Correct Answer
    C. Several hundred
    Explanation
    In order to generate sperm, several hundred successive mitotic divisions are required. Mitotic divisions are a type of cell division where one cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This process allows for the production of a large number of sperm cells from a single germ cell. Each division results in a doubling of the number of cells, so several hundred divisions are needed to generate a significant number of sperm cells.

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  • 6. 

    Meiosis I

    • A.

      Is reduction division

    • B.

      Involves crossing over during the pachytene stage of prophase I

    • C.

      Is just like mitosis

    • D.

      Can result in both parental chromosomes being present if non disjunction occurs

    • E.

      A, B, and D only

    Correct Answer
    E. A, B, and D only
    Explanation
    Meiosis I is a reduction division because it reduces the chromosome number by half, resulting in haploid cells. It involves crossing over during the pachytene stage of prophase I, which is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. Unlike mitosis, which produces two identical daughter cells, meiosis I produces cells with different combinations of genetic material due to crossing over. Non-disjunction can occur during meiosis I, leading to the presence of both parental chromosomes in a single cell. Therefore, the correct answer is A, B, and D only.

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  • 7. 

    Oocytes remain in _____________ until puberty

    Correct Answer
    prophase I
    Explanation
    During the development of a female fetus, oocytes (immature eggs) begin their growth and enter prophase I of meiosis. However, they do not complete this process until puberty. Prophase I is the first stage of meiosis, where DNA replication occurs and homologous chromosomes pair up. This process is paused until hormonal signals at puberty trigger the completion of meiosis, resulting in the release of mature eggs for potential fertilization.

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  • 8. 

    Cytokinesis is

    • A.

      Changes occurring outside of the nucleus during cell division

    • B.

      Part of mitosis

    • C.

      Part of meiosis

    • D.

      Changes occurring outside of the cell during division

    • E.

      Change in DNA during cell division

    Correct Answer
    A. Changes occurring outside of the nucleus during cell division
    Explanation
    Cytokinesis refers to the changes occurring outside of the nucleus during cell division. It is the process by which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided into two daughter cells after the completion of nuclear division (either mitosis or meiosis). During cytokinesis, the cell membrane pinches inwards, forming a cleavage furrow in animal cells or a cell plate in plant cells, ultimately leading to the separation of the cytoplasm and the formation of two distinct cells. Therefore, cytokinesis is not part of mitosis or meiosis, but rather the final stage of cell division.

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  • 9. 

    In spermatogenesis, one spermatocyte forms _____ spermatids.

    Correct Answer
    4
    four
    Explanation
    During spermatogenesis, one spermatocyte undergoes a process of cell division called meiosis, which results in the formation of four haploid spermatids. These spermatids will then undergo further maturation and differentiation to eventually become sperm cells. Therefore, the correct answer is 4 or four.

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