Unit 6 Target 1: Meiosis

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Unit 6 Target 1: Meiosis - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    During metaphase I of meiosis, which of the following occurs?

    • A.

      Centromeres of replicated chromosomes line up along the cells equator.

    • B.

      Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles of the cell.

    • C.

      Paired homologous chromosomes line up along the cells equator.

    • D.

      Homologous chromosomes separate and move toward opposite poles.

    Correct Answer
    C. Paired homologous chromosomes line up along the cells equator.
    Explanation
    During metaphase I of meiosis, paired homologous chromosomes line up along the cell's equator. This is known as the metaphase plate. This alignment is crucial for the proper separation of homologous chromosomes during anaphase I. Each pair of homologous chromosomes consists of one chromosome from the mother and one from the father, and they align in a random orientation, contributing to genetic diversity in the resulting gametes. The centromeres of replicated chromosomes do not line up along the equator until metaphase II, and sister chromatids do not separate until anaphase II.

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  • 2. 

    Nondisjuction can occur during which of the following phases?

    • A.

      Metaphase I only

    • B.

      Anaphase I only

    • C.

      Metaphase I and II only

    • D.

      Anaphase I and II only

    Correct Answer
    D. Anaphase I and II only
    Explanation
    Nondisjunction is the failure of chromosomes to separate properly during cell division. It can lead to abnormal chromosome numbers in the resulting cells. Anaphase I and II are the phases of meiosis where chromosome separation occurs. In Anaphase I, homologous chromosomes fail to separate, while in Anaphase II, sister chromatids fail to separate. Therefore, nondisjunction can occur in both Anaphase I and II, leading to the formation of cells with abnormal chromosome numbers.

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  • 3. 

    A trisomy of chromosome 21 causes what condition?

    • A.

      Albinism

    • B.

      Dwarfism

    • C.

      Down syndrome

    • D.

      Color blindness

    Correct Answer
    C. Down syndrome
    Explanation
    A trisomy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. This additional genetic material leads to developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, and characteristic physical features such as a flat facial profile, upward slanting eyes, and a single deep crease across the palm. Albinism, dwarfism, and color blindness are caused by different genetic abnormalities and are not related to trisomy of chromosome 21.

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  • 4. 

    Which one of the following is the cell process that allows parents to contribute genes to their offspring?

    • A.

      Mitosis

    • B.

      Meiosis

    • C.

      Protein synthesis

    • D.

      Diffusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Meiosis
    Explanation
    Meiosis is the correct answer because it is the cell process specifically designed for sexual reproduction, allowing parents to contribute their genes to their offspring. During meiosis, the DNA in the parent cells is divided into half, resulting in the formation of gametes (sperm and eggs) with a unique combination of genes. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring and is essential for evolution and adaptation. Mitosis is a cell process involved in growth and repair, while protein synthesis and diffusion are not directly related to the transfer of genes from parents to offspring.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is NOT true about how meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes?

    • A.

      There are 2 divisions.

    • B.

      Homologous chromosomes pair up during Prophase I.

    • C.

      Anaphase I separates homologous chromosomes & Anaphase II separates sister chromatids.

    • D.

      Interphase (DNA replication) occurs twice.

    Correct Answer
    D. Interphase (DNA replication) occurs twice.
    Explanation
    During meiosis, there are indeed 2 divisions, and homologous chromosomes do pair up during Prophase I. Additionally, Anaphase I separates homologous chromosomes, while Anaphase II separates sister chromatids. However, interphase (DNA replication) only occurs once before the start of meiosis, not twice. This is because DNA replication occurs during the S phase of interphase in the cell cycle, and meiosis involves two rounds of division without an additional round of DNA replication.

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  • 6. 

    Meiosis results in the formation of

    • A.

      Haploid body cells.

    • B.

      Haploid sex cells.

    • C.

      Diploid body cells.

    • D.

      Diploid sex cells.

    Correct Answer
    B. Haploid sex cells.
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in sexually reproducing organisms. It involves two rounds of division, resulting in the formation of four daughter cells. These daughter cells are genetically different from the parent cell and are haploid, meaning they contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. These haploid cells are known as sex cells or gametes, such as sperm and eggs, which are involved in sexual reproduction. Therefore, the correct answer is haploid sex cells.

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  • 7. 

    If an organism's diploid number is 12, its haploid number is

    • A.

      12.

    • B.

      24.

    • C.

      3.

    • D.

      6.

    Correct Answer
    D. 6.
    Explanation
    The diploid number of an organism represents the total number of chromosomes in its cells, which is typically double the haploid number. Since the diploid number is given as 12, the haploid number can be calculated by dividing the diploid number by 2, resulting in 6. Therefore, the correct answer is 6.

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  • 8. 

    Gametes have what number of chromosomes relative to the parent cell?

    • A.

      Two times.

    • B.

      One-quarter

    • C.

      The same

    • D.

      One half

    Correct Answer
    D. One half
    Explanation
    Gametes have half the number of chromosomes compared to the parent cell. This is because during the process of meiosis, the parent cell undergoes two rounds of cell division, resulting in the formation of four gametes, each with half the number of chromosomes. This reduction in chromosome number is important for sexual reproduction as it ensures that when gametes combine during fertilization, the resulting zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes for the species.

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  • 9. 

    Which one of the following is TRUE about the production of gametes?

    • A.

      Spermatogenesis results in 1 viable sperm cell and 3 polar bodies.

    • B.

      Male animals undergo oogenesis before birth.

    • C.

      Oogenesis results in 1 viable egg cell and 3 polar bodies.

    • D.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    C. Oogenesis results in 1 viable egg cell and 3 polar bodies.
    Explanation
    Spermatogenesis is the process of producing sperm cells in males, and it results in the production of four viable sperm cells. On the other hand, oogenesis is the process of producing egg cells in females, and it results in the production of one viable egg cell and three polar bodies. Therefore, the statement "Oogenesis results in 1 viable egg cell and 3 polar bodies" is true, while the other statements are not.

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  • 10. 

    Meiosis results in the formation of 

    • A.

      Two geneticall different cells.

    • B.

      Two genetically identical cells.

    • C.

      Four genetically different cells.

    • D.

      Four genetically identical cells.

    Correct Answer
    C. Four genetically different cells.
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in sexually reproducing organisms. It involves two rounds of division, resulting in the formation of four haploid cells. These cells are genetically different from each other and from the parent cell. This genetic diversity is achieved through processes like crossing over and independent assortment, which shuffle and recombine genetic material. Therefore, the correct answer is four genetically different cells.

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  • 11. 

    Gametes are produced by the process of 

    • A.

      Mitosis.

    • B.

      Replication.

    • C.

      Meiosis.

    • D.

      Crossing-over

    Correct Answer
    C. Meiosis.
    Explanation
    Gametes are the specialized reproductive cells that are involved in sexual reproduction. The process responsible for producing gametes is meiosis. Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, resulting in the formation of haploid cells. This is important for sexual reproduction because when two gametes fuse during fertilization, the resulting zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes. Mitosis, on the other hand, is the process of cell division that produces identical copies of cells for growth and repair. Replication refers to the process of DNA duplication. Crossing-over is a genetic phenomenon that occurs during meiosis, leading to the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes.

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  • 12. 

    Gametes have

    • A.

      Homologous chromosomes.

    • B.

      Two sets of chromosomes.

    • C.

      One allele for each gene.

    • D.

      Two the number of chromosomes.

    Correct Answer
    C. One allele for each gene.
    Explanation
    Gametes are reproductive cells that contain half the number of chromosomes as compared to other cells in the body. Each gene in the gametes has only one allele, which is a variant form of a gene. This is because during the formation of gametes through a process called meiosis, the homologous chromosomes separate and only one of each pair is passed on to the gamete. Therefore, gametes have one allele for each gene, ensuring genetic diversity when they combine during fertilization.

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  • 13. 

    Why does crossing over occur during Meiosis but NOT during Mitosis?

    • A.

      Chromatids are not involved in mitosis.

    • B.

      Homologous chromosomes do not pair up during mitosis.

    • C.

      A cell undergoing mitosis does not have homologous chromosomes.

    • D.

      There is no prophase during mitosis.

    Correct Answer
    B. Homologous chromosomes do not pair up during mitosis.
    Explanation
    Crossing over occurs during meiosis but not during mitosis because homologous chromosomes do not pair up during mitosis. In meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair up during prophase I and undergo crossing over, which is the exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids. This results in genetic recombination and increased genetic diversity. However, in mitosis, homologous chromosomes do not pair up. Instead, the sister chromatids separate and are distributed equally to the daughter cells. Therefore, crossing over does not occur during mitosis.

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  • 14. 

    A female gamete produced during meiosis is called _______.

    • A.

      Sperm

    • B.

      Spermatogonium

    • C.

      Oogonium

    • D.

      Ovum

    Correct Answer
    D. Ovum
    Explanation
    During meiosis, the process of cell division that produces gametes, a female gamete is called an ovum. The term "ovum" refers to the mature egg cell that is released from the ovary during ovulation. This female gamete carries half of the genetic material required for reproduction and is capable of being fertilized by a male gamete, such as a sperm, to form a zygote. The other options listed, such as sperm, spermatogonium, and oogonium, are not correct as they refer to male gametes or precursor cells involved in the production of gametes.

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  • 15. 

    How many chromosomes are found in human gametes?

    • A.

      12

    • B.

      23

    • C.

      92

    • D.

      46

    Correct Answer
    B. 23
    Explanation
    Human gametes, which are sperm and egg cells, contain half the number of chromosomes compared to other cells in the body. This is because during the process of meiosis, the chromosomes in the gametes undergo a reduction division, resulting in the formation of cells with only one set of chromosomes. In humans, the diploid number of chromosomes is 46, so the correct answer is 23 chromosomes in human gametes.

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  • 16. 

    During cytokinesis in the female, what divides unequally?

    • A.

      The sperm cell

    • B.

      The ovary

    • C.

      The cytoplasm

    • D.

      The DNA

    Correct Answer
    C. The cytoplasm
    Explanation
    During cytokinesis in the female, the cytoplasm divides unequally. Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division, where the cytoplasm is divided into two separate daughter cells. In the female, this process occurs during the formation of the egg or ovum. The unequal division of cytoplasm ensures that one daughter cell receives most of the cytoplasmic components necessary for the development of the egg, while the other daughter cell, called the polar body, receives a minimal amount of cytoplasm and eventually disintegrates. This mechanism ensures that the majority of resources are allocated to the developing egg for successful fertilization and embryonic development.

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  • 17. 

    What is shown in the diagram?

    • A.

      Anaphase I

    • B.

      Gametes

    • C.

      Crossing-over

    • D.

      Replication

    Correct Answer
    C. Crossing-over
    Explanation
    The diagram is showing crossing-over. Crossing-over is a process that occurs during meiosis where genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes. This process leads to genetic variation and the production of gametes with unique combinations of alleles.

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  • 18. 

    When does the process in the diagram happen?

    • A.

      Metaphase II

    • B.

      Prophase II

    • C.

      Prophase I

    • D.

      Metaphase I

    Correct Answer
    C. Prophase I
    Explanation
    Prophase I is the stage in meiosis where chromosomes condense and pair up, forming structures called tetrads. This process occurs during the first meiotic division and is essential for genetic recombination. During prophase I, crossing over between homologous chromosomes can also occur, further increasing genetic diversity. Therefore, the process depicted in the diagram is most likely happening during Prophase I.

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  • 19. 

    Refer to the illustration, The process shown is 

    • A.

      Mitosis.

    • B.

      Chromosomal mutation.

    • C.

      Meiosis.

    • D.

      Dominance.

    Correct Answer
    C. Meiosis.
    Explanation
    The process shown in the illustration is meiosis. Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in sexually reproducing organisms to produce gametes (sperm and eggs). It involves two rounds of division, resulting in the formation of four haploid cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is crucial for maintaining the correct number of chromosomes in the offspring and for genetic diversity.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 29, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Jdowdyrobinson
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