Cultures Of A Bacterial Species Quiz Questions

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Cultures Of A Bacterial Species Quiz Questions - Quiz

Exam 2 for final exam study.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Eukaryotic flagella differ from prokaryotic flagella because only eukaryotic flagella

    • A.

      Are used for cell motility

    • B.

      Facilitate chemotaxis

    • C.

      Facilitate phototaxis

    • D.

      Are long whip-like structures

    • E.

      Contain microtubules

    Correct Answer
    E. Contain microtubules
    Explanation
    Eukaryotic flagella differ from prokaryotic flagella because they contain microtubules. This is in contrast to prokaryotic flagella, which do not have microtubules. The presence of microtubules in eukaryotic flagella provides structural support and allows for movement. Microtubules are made up of protein subunits called tubulin, which form a cylindrical structure. These microtubules help in the coordinated beating motion of eukaryotic flagella, enabling cell motility. Therefore, the presence of microtubules is a distinguishing characteristic of eukaryotic flagella.

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  • 2. 

    The cell's series of tunnel-like membranes functioning in transport and storage are the

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Lysosomes

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Chloroplasts

    • E.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Mitochondria
    E. Endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are the correct answers because both organelles have tunnel-like membranes that are involved in transport and storage within the cell. Mitochondria are responsible for producing energy through cellular respiration and have inner membranes that form folds called cristae. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of membranes that extends throughout the cell and is involved in protein synthesis, lipid metabolism, and calcium storage. The ER has a rough appearance due to ribosomes attached to its surface, called rough ER, and a smooth region that lacks ribosomes, called smooth ER.

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  • 3. 

    Which organelle contains cristae where enzymes and electron carriers for aerobic respiration are found?

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Lysosomes

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Chloroplasts

    • E.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    Mitochondria contain cristae, which are folded inner membranes where enzymes and electron carriers necessary for aerobic respiration are found. Aerobic respiration is the process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into energy in the form of ATP. The presence of these enzymes and electron carriers in the cristae allows for efficient ATP production, making mitochondria the powerhouse of the cell.

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  • 4. 

    The size of a eukaryotic cell ribsome is

    • A.

      30S

    • B.

      40S

    • C.

      50S

    • D.

      70S

    • E.

      80S

    Correct Answer
    E. 80S
    Explanation
    The size of a eukaryotic cell ribosome is 80S. In eukaryotic cells, ribosomes are composed of a small subunit (40S) and a large subunit (60S), which together form the 80S ribosome. This is different from prokaryotic cells, which have smaller ribosomes consisting of a 30S and a 50S subunit. The 80S ribosomes in eukaryotes are responsible for protein synthesis within the cell.

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  • 5. 

    When buds remain attached, they form a chain of yeast cells called

    • A.

      Pseudohyphae

    • B.

      Septa

    • C.

      Molds

    • D.

      Dimorphic

    • E.

      Mycelium

    Correct Answer
    A. Pseudohyphae
    Explanation
    Pseudohyphae are chains of yeast cells that remain attached to each other. This is in contrast to true hyphae, which are the branching filaments that make up the mycelium of molds. Septa are the cross-walls that divide the hyphae of some fungi. Dimorphic refers to fungi that can exist in two different forms (usually yeast and mold). Therefore, the correct answer is pseudohyphae.

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  • 6. 

    Fungi that grows as yeast at one temperature but will grow as mold at another temperature are called

    • A.

      Dimorphic

    • B.

      Saprobes

    • C.

      Pseudophyphae

    • D.

      Spores

    • E.

      Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycota)

    Correct Answer
    A. Dimorphic
    Explanation
    Dimorphic fungi are those that can grow as yeast at one temperature but will grow as mold at another temperature. This means that these fungi have the ability to switch between two different forms depending on the environmental conditions. They can exist as single-celled yeasts at higher temperatures and as multicellular molds at lower temperatures. This adaptability allows them to survive and thrive in different environments.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following spores are produced within a sac?

    • A.

      Chlamydospores

    • B.

      Sporangiospores

    • C.

      Blastospores

    • D.

      Arthrospores

    • E.

      Zygospores

    Correct Answer
    B. Sporangiospores
    Explanation
    Sporangiospores are the correct answer because they are produced within a sac-like structure called a sporangium. The sporangium is a specialized structure found in certain fungi and plants that contains the spores. This sac protects the spores and helps with their dispersal. Chlamydospores, blastospores, arthrospores, and zygospores are all types of spores, but they are not produced within a sac.

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  • 8. 

    What do zygospores, ascospores, and basidiospores have in common?

    • A.

      They are enclosed in a sac.

    • B.

      They are types of condia.

    • C.

      They are sexual spores.

    • D.

      They are found only in molds.

    • E.

      All of the choices are correct.

    Correct Answer
    C. They are sexual spores.
    Explanation
    Zygospores, ascospores, and basidiospores are all types of sexual spores. This means that they are involved in the sexual reproduction of certain organisms. While they may have different structures and functions, they all serve the purpose of sexual reproduction.

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  • 9. 

    All of the following are found in some or all protozoan except 

    • A.

      Motility

    • B.

      Ectoplasm and endoplasm

    • C.

      Heterotrophic nutrition

    • D.

      Formation of a cyst stage

    • E.

      Cell wall

    Correct Answer
    E. Cell wall
    Explanation
    Protozoa are single-celled organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. They are characterized by their ability to move, which is known as motility. Protozoa also exhibit heterotrophic nutrition, meaning they obtain their nutrients from other organisms. Another common feature of protozoa is the formation of a cyst stage, which allows them to survive unfavorable conditions. However, protozoa do not have a cell wall, which is a distinguishing feature of many other microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. Therefore, the correct answer is "cell wall."

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  • 10. 

    The motile, feeding stage of protozoa is called the

    • A.

      Trophozoite

    • B.

      Cyst

    • C.

      Sporozoite

    • D.

      Oocyst

    • E.

      Food vacoule

    Correct Answer
    A. Trophozoite
    Explanation
    The correct answer is trophozoite because the trophozoite is the active, feeding stage of protozoa. It is the stage where the protozoa is able to move and obtain nutrients from its environment. The other options, such as cyst, sporozoite, and oocyst, refer to different stages in the life cycle of protozoa but do not specifically represent the feeding stage. The term "food vacuole" refers to a structure within the protozoa's cell where food is digested, but it does not represent the entire feeding stage.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following does not pertain to helminths?

    • A.

      In kingdom Protista

    • B.

      Parasitic worms

    • C.

      Eggs and sperm for reproduction

    • D.

      Often alternate hosts in complex life cycles

    • E.

      Have various organ systems

    Correct Answer
    A. In kingdom Protista
    Explanation
    The statement "in kingdom Protista" does not pertain to helminths because helminths are not classified in the kingdom Protista. Helminths are actually classified in the kingdom Animalia.

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  • 12. 

    In order to reproduce sexually, diploid cells must produce ________ gametes through ________.

    • A.

      Diploid, mitosis

    • B.

      Diploid, meiosis

    • C.

      Haploid, mitosis

    • D.

      Haploid, meiosis

    • E.

      Triploid, mitosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Haploid, meiosis
    Explanation
    In order to reproduce sexually, diploid cells must produce haploid gametes through meiosis. Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the cell by half, resulting in the formation of haploid gametes. Haploid gametes are necessary for sexual reproduction as they combine with another haploid gamete during fertilization to restore the diploid number of chromosomes in the offspring.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following are present in viruses

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Cytoskeleton

    • C.

      Pigments

    • D.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    Viruses are acellular particles that lack cellular organelles like mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. They also do not possess a cytoskeleton or pigments. Therefore, none of the options listed are present in viruses.

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  • 14. 

    The core of every virus particle always contains

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      Capsomers

    • C.

      Enzymes

    • D.

      DNA and RNA

    • E.

      Either DNA and RNA

    Correct Answer
    E. Either DNA and RNA
    Explanation
    The core of every virus particle can contain either DNA or RNA, or sometimes both. This is because viruses can have either DNA or RNA as their genetic material. Some viruses have DNA as their genetic material, while others have RNA. Additionally, there are some viruses that have both DNA and RNA in their core. The presence of either DNA or RNA in the virus particle's core is essential for the virus to replicate and infect host cells.

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  • 15. 

    Classification of viruses into families invloves determing all the following characteristics except

    • A.

      Type of nucleic acid

    • B.

      Type of capsid

    • C.

      Presense of an envelope

    • D.

      Biochemical reactions

    • E.

      Nucleic acid stran number

    Correct Answer
    D. Biochemical reactions
    Explanation
    Classification of viruses into families involves determining various characteristics such as the type of nucleic acid, the type of capsid, the presence of an envelope, and the number of nucleic acid strands. Biochemical reactions, however, are not considered as a determining factor for classifying viruses into families.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following represents a virus fasmily name

    • A.

      Herpes simplex virus

    • B.

      Herpesvirdae

    • C.

      Picornavirus

    • D.

      Enterovirus

    • E.

      Hapatitis B virus

    Correct Answer
    B. Herpesvirdae
    Explanation
    Herpesvirdae is the correct answer as it represents a virus family name. The other options listed are specific virus names within different families. Herpes simplex virus is a member of the Herpesviridae family, Picornavirus belongs to the Picornaviridae family, Enterovirus is a genus within the Picornaviridae family, and Hepatitis B virus is a member of the Hepadnaviridae family.

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  • 17. 

    Virus capsids are made from subunits called

    • A.

      Envelopes

    • B.

      Spikes

    • C.

      Capsomers

    • D.

      Prophages

    • E.

      Peplomers

    Correct Answer
    C. Capsomers
    Explanation
    Virus capsids are the protein coats that enclose the genetic material of a virus. These capsids are made up of subunits called capsomers. Capsomers are the building blocks of the capsid structure and are responsible for the overall shape and stability of the virus. They come together to form the outer shell of the virus, protecting its genetic material and allowing it to infect host cells. Envelopes, spikes, prophages, and peplomers are not subunits of virus capsids and do not play a role in their formation.

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  • 18. 

    Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus

    • A.

      Spike

    • B.

      Capsomere

    • C.

      Envelope

    • D.

      Capsid

    • E.

      Core

    Correct Answer
    D. Capsid
    Explanation
    The term "capsid" refers to the protein coat that surrounds the genetic material of a virus. It is responsible for protecting the genetic material and maintaining the shape of the virus. The shape of a virus can be described as helical or icosahedral, depending on the arrangement of the capsid proteins. Therefore, the correct answer is "capsid" because it is the term used to describe the shape of a virus.

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  • 19. 

    All of the following pertain to virus envelopes except they

    • A.

      Are gained as a virus leaves the host cell membrane

    • B.

      Are gained as a virus leaves the nuclear envelope

    • C.

      Contain special virus proteins

    • D.

      Help the virus particle attach to host cells

    • E.

      Are located between the capsid and the nucleic acid

    Correct Answer
    E. Are located between the capsid and the nucleic acid
    Explanation
    Virus envelopes are not located between the capsid and the nucleic acid. The envelope is a layer that surrounds the capsid of some viruses, and it is derived from the host cell membrane or nuclear envelope. It contains special virus proteins that help the virus particle attach to host cells.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is not associated with every virus

    • A.

      Envelope

    • B.

      Capsomeres

    • C.

      Capsid

    • D.

      Nucleic acid

    • E.

      Genome

    Correct Answer
    A. Envelope
    Explanation
    Every virus is not associated with an envelope. The envelope is a lipid bilayer that surrounds some viruses, but not all viruses have this structure. Capsomeres, capsid, nucleic acid, and genome are all components that are associated with every virus. Capsomeres are protein subunits that make up the capsid, which is the protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid. The nucleic acid is the genetic material of the virus, and the genome refers to the complete set of genetic information of the virus.

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  • 21. 

    These structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to host cell receptors

    • A.

      Sheath

    • B.

      Tail fibers

    • C.

      Nucleic acid

    • D.

      Capsid head

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Tail fibers
    Explanation
    Tail fibers are structures used by bacteriophages to attach to host cell receptors. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they use tail fibers to recognize and bind to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. This attachment is crucial for the phage to inject its nucleic acid (genetic material) into the host cell and initiate the infection process. The tail fibers play a key role in the initial recognition and attachment step, allowing the phage to specifically target and infect its host.

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  • 22. 

    Which is incorrect about prophages

    • A.

      Present when the virus is in lysogeny

    • B.

      Formed when viral DNA enters the bacterial chromosome

    • C.

      Replicated with host DNA and passed on to progeny

    • D.

      Cause lysis of host cells

    • E.

      Occur when temperture phages enter host cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Cause lysis of host cells
    Explanation
    Prophages are viral DNA that have integrated into the bacterial chromosome and are present when the virus is in lysogeny. They replicate along with the host DNA and are passed on to progeny during cell division. However, unlike lytic phages, prophages do not cause immediate lysis of host cells. Instead, they remain dormant and can be activated to enter the lytic cycle under certain conditions. Therefore, the statement that prophages cause lysis of host cells is incorrect.

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  • 23. 

    The correct sequence of events in viral mulitiplication is

    • A.

      Penetration, replication, maturation, absorbtion, assembly, release

    • B.

      Replication, penetration, maturation, assembly, absorption, release

    • C.

      Absorption, penetration, replication, maturation, assembly, release

    • D.

      Assembly, maturation, replication, release, penetration, absorbtion

    • E.

      Absorbtion, release, maturation, replication, assembly, penetration

    Correct Answer
    C. Absorption, penetration, replication, maturation, assembly, release
    Explanation
    The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is absorption, penetration, replication, maturation, assembly, and release. This sequence starts with the virus attaching itself to the host cell, followed by the entry of the virus into the host cell. Once inside, the virus replicates its genetic material and produces new viral components. These components then mature and assemble to form new viruses. Finally, the newly formed viruses are released from the host cell to infect other cells.

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  • 24. 

    In general, most DNA viruses mulitply in the host cell's _______, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cells ___________.

    • A.

      Nucleas, cytoplam

    • B.

      Cytoplasm, cell membrane

    • C.

      Cell membrane, cytoplasm

    • D.

      Cytopsm, nucleus

    • E.

      Nucleus, endoplsmic reticulu

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleas, cytoplam
    Explanation
    Most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell's nucleus, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell's cytoplasm.

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  • 25. 

    The virus-induced, specific damage to the host cell that can be seen in a light microscope is called

    • A.

      Lysogeny

    • B.

      Budding

    • C.

      Plaques

    • D.

      Cytoplathic effects

    • E.

      Pocks

    Correct Answer
    D. Cytoplathic effects
    Explanation
    Cytopathic effects refer to the observable damage caused to a host cell by a virus, which can be seen under a light microscope. These effects can include changes in cell morphology, cell death, formation of inclusion bodies, and alterations in cellular functions. This term is commonly used in virology to describe the visible effects of viral infection on host cells.

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  • 26. 

    Visible-clear, well defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called

    • A.

      Lysogeny

    • B.

      Budding

    • C.

      Plaques

    • D.

      Ecytopathic effects

    • E.

      Pocks

    Correct Answer
    C. Plaques
    Explanation
    Visible-clear, well defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called "plaques". Plaques are areas where the virus has caused cell death and the cells can no longer replicate. These patches can be observed under a microscope and are used to measure the concentration of virus particles in a culture.

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  • 27. 

    Viruses that cause infection resulting in alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms are called

    • A.

      Latent

    • B.

      Oncogenic

    • C.

      Prions

    • D.

      Viroids

    • E.

      Delta agents

    Correct Answer
    A. Latent
    Explanation
    Latent viruses cause infection in a way that involves alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms. During the inactive phase, the virus remains dormant in the host's cells, not causing any noticeable symptoms. However, it can reactivate and become active again, leading to the recurrence of symptoms. This pattern of activity and inactivity is characteristic of latent viruses, distinguishing them from other types of viruses such as oncogenic viruses, prions, viroids, and delta agents.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is a type of cytopathic effect

    • A.

      Inclusions in the nucleus

    • B.

      Multinucleated giant cells

    • C.

      Inclusions in the cytoplasm

    • D.

      Cells round up

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options mentioned in the question are types of cytopathic effects. Inclusions in the nucleus refer to the presence of abnormal structures within the nucleus of a cell. Multinucleated giant cells are formed when multiple cells fuse together, resulting in a larger cell with multiple nuclei. Inclusions in the cytoplasm indicate the presence of abnormal structures within the cytoplasm of a cell. Lastly, cells rounding up is another type of cytopathic effect where cells lose their normal shape and become rounded. Therefore, all of the options mentioned in the question are types of cytopathic effects.

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  • 29. 

    Uncoating of viral nucleic acid

    • A.

      Does not occur in bacteriophage multiplication

    • B.

      Involves enzymatic destruction of the capsid

    • C.

      Occurs during penetration in the multipication cycle

    • D.

      Occurs before replication

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above." Uncoating of viral nucleic acid does not occur in bacteriophage multiplication, as bacteriophages inject their nucleic acid directly into the host cell. It involves enzymatic destruction of the capsid, as the viral capsid needs to be broken down for the release of the viral nucleic acid. Uncoating occurs during penetration in the multiplication cycle, as the viral nucleic acid needs to be released from the capsid in order to enter the host cell. It also occurs before replication, as the viral nucleic acid needs to be uncoated before it can be replicated within the host cell.

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  • 30. 

    Infectios protien particles are called

    • A.

      Viroids

    • B.

      Phages

    • C.

      Prions

    • D.

      Oncogenic virusees

    • E.

      Spikes

    Correct Answer
    C. Prions
    Explanation
    Prions are infectious protein particles that lack genetic material. They are responsible for causing various neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and mad cow disease. Unlike viruses, bacteria, or other infectious agents, prions do not contain DNA or RNA. Instead, they consist solely of misfolded proteins that can induce other normal proteins to adopt the abnormal conformation, leading to the accumulation of protein aggregates in the brain. This ultimately results in the destruction of brain tissue and the onset of neurological symptoms.

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  • 31. 

    Infectios naked strands of RNA are called

    • A.

      Viroids

    • B.

      Phages

    • C.

      Prions

    • D.

      Oncogenic viruses

    • E.

      Spikes

    Correct Answer
    A. Viroids
    Explanation
    Viroids are infectious naked strands of RNA that lack a protein coat. They are smaller than viruses and can cause plant diseases. Unlike viruses, they do not encode any proteins and solely rely on the host cell machinery for replication. Viroids are unique in their ability to self-replicate, causing disruptions in the normal functioning of the host plant. They are not classified as viruses because they do not possess a protein coat, which is a defining characteristic of viruses. Therefore, the correct answer for the given question is viroids.

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  • 32. 

    Viruses that consist of only a nucleocapsid are considered

    • A.

      Simple viruses

    • B.

      Complex viruses

    • C.

      Naked viruses

    • D.

      Viroids

    • E.

      Incomplete viruses

    Correct Answer
    C. Naked viruses
    Explanation
    Viruses that consist of only a nucleocapsid, without an envelope or any additional structures, are referred to as naked viruses. These viruses lack a lipid envelope and therefore have a more simplistic structure compared to complex viruses that possess additional components such as an envelope or other proteins. Viroids are small infectious RNA molecules that do not possess a protein coat, while incomplete viruses are viruses that are unable to complete their life cycle without the assistance of a helper virus.

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  • 33. 

    Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism

    • A.

      Element

    • B.

      Macronutrient

    • C.

      Water

    • D.

      Growth factor

    • E.

      Trace element

    Correct Answer
    B. Macronutrient
    Explanation
    Microorganisms require macronutrients in large quantities for use in cell structure and metabolism. Macronutrients are essential nutrients that provide energy and serve as building blocks for the growth and development of microorganisms. These nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, which are broken down and utilized by microorganisms to produce energy and synthesize cellular components. Without an adequate supply of macronutrients, microorganisms would be unable to carry out essential cellular processes and sustain their growth and survival.

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  • 34. 

    An organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided is called a/an

    • A.

      Element

    • B.

      Macronutrient

    • C.

      Water

    • D.

      Growth factor

    • E.

      Trace element

    Correct Answer
    D. Growth factor
    Explanation
    A growth factor is an organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided externally. It is essential for the growth and development of the organism. Unlike elements, macronutrients, water, and trace elements, which can often be obtained from the environment or synthesized by the organism, a growth factor is a specific organic compound that the organism is unable to produce on its own. Therefore, the correct answer is growth factor.

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  • 35. 

    An important mineral ion that is a component of chloroplasts and stabilizer of membranes and ribosmes is

    • A.

      Iron

    • B.

      Zinc

    • C.

      Calcium

    • D.

      Magnesium

    • E.

      Potassium

    Correct Answer
    D. Magnesium
    Explanation
    Magnesium is an important mineral ion that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes. It is a component of chloroplasts, which are responsible for photosynthesis in plants. Magnesium also acts as a stabilizer for cell membranes and ribosomes, which are involved in protein synthesis. Additionally, magnesium is required for the activation of many enzymes and is involved in DNA and RNA metabolism. Therefore, magnesium is an essential mineral for the proper functioning of cells and organisms.

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  • 36. 

    The term phototroph refers to an organism that

    • A.

      Uses CO2 for its carbon source

    • B.

      Must obtain organic compunds for its carbon needs

    • C.

      Gets energy from sunlight

    • D.

      Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds

    • E.

      Does not need a carbon source

    Correct Answer
    C. Gets energy from sunlight
    Explanation
    A phototroph is an organism that obtains energy from sunlight. This means that it is capable of converting sunlight into usable energy through the process of photosynthesis. Unlike other organisms that rely on chemical compounds or organic compounds for energy, a phototroph can directly harness the energy from sunlight to fuel its metabolic processes.

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  • 37. 

    The term autotroph refers to an organism

    • A.

      Uses CO2 for its carbon source

    • B.

      Must obtain organic compunds for its carbon needs

    • C.

      Gets energy from sunlight

    • D.

      Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds

    • E.

      Does not need a carbon source

    Correct Answer
    B. Must obtain organic compunds for its carbon needs
    Explanation
    Autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own organic compounds for their carbon needs. They are self-sufficient and do not rely on external sources of carbon compounds. This ability is achieved through processes such as photosynthesis, where autotrophs use sunlight as an energy source to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds. Therefore, the statement "must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs" accurately describes autotrophs.

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  • 38. 

    Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called

    • A.

      Saprobes

    • B.

      Parasites

    • C.

      Autotrophs

    • D.

      Lithoautotrophs

    • E.

      Phototrophs

    Correct Answer
    A. Saprobes
    Explanation
    Saprobes are organisms that obtain nutrients by feeding on dead organisms. They play an important role in the decomposition process, breaking down organic matter and recycling nutrients back into the ecosystem. Unlike parasites, which rely on living hosts for their nutrition, saprobes feed on dead and decaying matter. Autotrophs, lithoautotrophs, and phototrophs are all types of organisms that produce their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, and they do not rely on dead organisms for nutrients. Therefore, the correct answer is saprobes.

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  • 39. 

    The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called

    • A.

      Facilitated diffusion

    • B.

      Diffusion

    • C.

      Active transport

    • D.

      Osmosis

    • E.

      Endocytosis

    Correct Answer
    E. Endocytosis
    Explanation
    Endocytosis is the process by which a cell uses energy to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it. This process is different from diffusion and osmosis, which do not require energy. Facilitated diffusion involves the use of transport proteins to move molecules across the membrane, but it does not involve the formation of a vacuole. Active transport also requires energy, but it typically involves the movement of molecules against their concentration gradient, whereas endocytosis involves the engulfment of substances.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following microorganisms would find hypotonic conditions most detrimental;

    • A.

      Bacteria

    • B.

      Protazoa

    • C.

      Fungi

    • D.

      Algae

    • E.

      Cyanobacteria

    Correct Answer
    B. Protazoa
    Explanation
    Protazoa would find hypotonic conditions most detrimental because they have a delicate balance of water and solutes in their cells. In a hypotonic environment, where the concentration of solutes outside the cell is lower than inside, water will rush into the cell causing it to swell and potentially burst. Bacteria, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria have cell walls or other structures that provide them with protection against osmotic pressure, making them more resistant to hypotonic conditions compared to protazoa.

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  • 41. 

    Cultures of  a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab benchtop, on the shelf of a 37 degrees incubator and on the shelf of a 50 degree incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37 degrees and 50 degress. slight growth out on the benchtop and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this speicies

    • A.

      Halophile

    • B.

      Mesophile

    • C.

      Anaerobe

    • D.

      Psychorophile

    • E.

      Capnophile

    Correct Answer
    D. Psychorophile
    Explanation
    The term "psychrophile" can be used for this species because it is able to grow and thrive in cold temperatures, such as those found in a refrigerator. The lack of growth at higher temperatures (37 degrees and 50 degrees) suggests that the species is not adapted to warmer environments, making it a psychrophile.

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  • 42. 

    Cultuers of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf and in an anaerobic jar. After incubation there was moderate growth of cutures in the anaerobic jar, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This is a/an

    • A.

      Aerobe

    • B.

      Anaerobe

    • C.

      Facultative anaerboe

    • D.

      Microaerophile

    • E.

      Capnophile

    Correct Answer
    C. Facultative anaerboe
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer, facultative anaerobe, is that this type of bacteria is capable of growing both in the presence and absence of oxygen. In this scenario, there was moderate growth of cultures in the anaerobic jar, indicating that the bacteria can survive and grow in the absence of oxygen. However, there was heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf, suggesting that the bacteria also thrived in the presence of oxygen. This ability to adapt and grow in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions is characteristic of facultative anaerobes.

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  • 43. 

    An organism with a terperature growth range of 45 - 60 degrees C would be called a/an

    • A.

      Extremophile

    • B.

      Thermaphile

    • C.

      Psychrophile

    • D.

      Facultative psychrophile

    • E.

      Thermoduric

    Correct Answer
    B. Thermaphile
    Explanation
    An organism with a temperature growth range of 45 - 60 degrees Celsius would be called a thermophile. Thermophiles are organisms that thrive in high-temperature environments. They have adapted to withstand and even require high temperatures for their growth and survival.

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  • 44. 

    A microorganism that does not have catalse or superoxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide

    • B.

      Oxygen

    • C.

      High salt

    • D.

      Temperatures above 37 degrees C

    • E.

      High acidity

    Correct Answer
    B. Oxygen
    Explanation
    A microorganism that does not have catalase or superoxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with oxygen. Catalase and superoxide dismutase are enzymes that help in the breakdown of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during normal cellular metabolism. Oxygen is a highly reactive molecule and can generate ROS, which can be toxic to cells. Without catalase or superoxide dismutase, the microorganism would not be able to effectively neutralize the ROS, leading to oxidative damage and ultimately cell death.

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  • 45. 

    A microaerophile

    • A.

      Grows best in an anaerobic jar

    • B.

      Grows with or without oxygen

    • C.

      Needs normal atomsopheric levels of oxygen

    • D.

      Requires a small amount of oxygen but wont grow at nromal atmospheric levels

    • E.

      None of the choices are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Requires a small amount of oxygen but wont grow at nromal atmospheric levels
    Explanation
    A microaerophile is a type of microorganism that requires a small amount of oxygen to grow, but it cannot survive or grow at normal atmospheric levels of oxygen. This means that it needs a lower concentration of oxygen than what is typically found in the air.

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  • 46. 

    The E. coli that normally line in the human large intestines and produce vitamin K that the body uses would be best termed a _________relationship

    • A.

      Parasitic

    • B.

      Saprobic

    • C.

      Commensal

    • D.

      Mutualistic

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Mutualistic
    Explanation
    The E. coli that normally line in the human large intestines and produce vitamin K that the body uses would be best termed a mutualistic relationship. This is because both the E. coli and the human body benefit from this relationship. The E. coli bacteria receive a suitable environment and nutrients to thrive, while the human body benefits from the production of vitamin K, which is essential for blood clotting and bone health.

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  • 47. 

    All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called

    • A.

      Catabolism

    • B.

      Redox reactions

    • C.

      Phosphoylation

    • D.

      Metabolism

    • E.

      Cellular respiration

    Correct Answer
    D. Metabolism
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to all of the chemical reactions that occur within a cell. It encompasses both catabolism, which involves the breakdown of molecules to release energy, and anabolism, which involves the synthesis of molecules using energy. Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between molecules, while phosphorylation refers to the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule. Cellular respiration is a specific metabolic process that involves the breakdown of glucose to produce energy. Therefore, the correct answer is metabolism, as it encompasses all of these processes.

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  • 48. 

    Enzymes are

    • A.

      Broken down in reactions that require energy input

    • B.

      Proteins that function as catalyst

    • C.

      Electron carrier molecules

    • D.

      Not needed for catabloic reactions

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Proteins that function as catalyst
    Explanation
    Enzymes are proteins that function as catalysts. Catalysts are substances that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process. Enzymes achieve this by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. Therefore, enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes by facilitating chemical reactions and increasing the efficiency of cellular metabolism.

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  • 49. 

     An apoenzyme

    • A.

      Part of a simple enzyme

    • B.

      Also called a coenzyme

    • C.

      Contains the active site

    • D.

      Is often an inorganic metal iion

    • E.

      Is an RNA molecule

    Correct Answer
    C. Contains the active site
    Explanation
    An apoenzyme is a part of a simple enzyme that contains the active site. The active site is the region of the enzyme where the substrate binds and the chemical reaction takes place. It is responsible for catalyzing the reaction. Therefore, the correct answer is that an apoenzyme contains the active site.

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  • 50. 

    A holoenzyme is a combination of a protein and one or more subastances called

    • A.

      Substrates

    • B.

      Apoenzyme

    • C.

      Catalyst

    • D.

      Cofactor

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Cofactor
    Explanation
    A holoenzyme is a combination of a protein and one or more substances called cofactors. Cofactors are non-protein molecules that are necessary for the enzyme to function properly. They can be inorganic ions or organic molecules, and they help in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Therefore, the correct answer is cofactor.

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