Biology Final Exam Chapter 5 Practice Quiz

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Biology review. Final exam review chapter 5


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    If someone sitting at the other end of the restaurant smokes a cigarette, you may still breathe in some of that smoke.  the movement of smoke through the air of the restaurant is an example of what type of transports

    • A.

      Osmosis

    • B.

      Diffusion

    • C.

      Facilitated diffusion

    • D.

      Active transport

    Correct Answer
    B. Diffusion
    Explanation
    The movement of smoke through the air of the restaurant is an example of diffusion. Diffusion is the process by which particles move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. In this case, the smoke particles spread out from the person smoking to other areas of the restaurant where the concentration of smoke particles is lower.

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  • 2. 

    The total solute concentration in a red blood cell is about 2%. sucrose cannot pass through a red blood cell's plasma membrane, but water and urea can. osmosis will cause such a cell to shrink the most when the cell is immersed in which of the following?

    • A.

      A hypertonic sucrose solution

    • B.

      A hypotonic sucrose solution

    • C.

      A hypertonic urea solution

    • D.

      A hypotonic urea solution

    Correct Answer
    A. A hypertonic sucrose solution
    Explanation
    When a red blood cell is immersed in a hypertonic sucrose solution, the concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than inside the cell. This creates a concentration gradient, causing water to move out of the cell through osmosis. Since sucrose cannot pass through the cell's plasma membrane, the water loss causes the cell to shrink the most. In contrast, a hypotonic sucrose solution would have a lower concentration of solutes than inside the cell, causing water to move into the cell and potentially cause it to swell or burst. The presence of urea does not affect the movement of water as it can pass through the cell membrane. Therefore, the correct answer is a hypertonic sucrose solution.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following types of cellular transport require and expenditure of energy?

    • A.

      Facilitated diffusion

    • B.

      Active transport

    • C.

      Osmosis

    • D.

      A and b

    Correct Answer
    B. Active transport
    Explanation
    Active transport is the correct answer because it is a type of cellular transport that requires energy expenditure. Unlike passive transport processes such as facilitated diffusion and osmosis, active transport moves molecules or ions against their concentration gradient, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This movement requires the use of energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to pump the molecules or ions across the cell membrane. Therefore, active transport is an energy-consuming process.

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  • 4. 

    A _________ is a process that links the reception of cell signals to responses within the cell.

    Correct Answer
    signal transduction pathway
    Explanation
    A signal transduction pathway is a process that connects the reception of cell signals to the corresponding responses within the cell. It involves a series of molecular events and interactions that relay the signal from the cell surface to the nucleus, where it can trigger specific cellular responses. This pathway allows cells to communicate and respond to various external stimuli, such as hormones, growth factors, or environmental cues, by activating or inhibiting specific genes or proteins. Ultimately, the signal transduction pathway ensures that cells can appropriately respond to their surroundings and maintain homeostasis.

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  • 5. 

    You have to expend considerable energy to carry a heavy sofa up a flight of stairs. since energy cannot be destroyed, what happens to all the energy you spend?

  • 6. 

    The label on a candy bar says it has 150 calories. if you were able to convert all of that energy to hear, you could raise teh temperature of how much water by 15 degrees celcius.

  • 7. 

    ___________ is the capacity to perform work, while _________ is a measure of randomness.

    Correct Answer
    heat, entrophy
    Explanation
    Heat is the capacity to perform work, as it can be converted into other forms of energy and used to do mechanical work. On the other hand, entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder in a system. It quantifies the number of possible arrangements or states that a system can have. So, heat is related to the ability to do work, while entropy is related to the level of randomness or disorder in a system.

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  • 8. 

    Why does removing a phosphate group from the triphosphate tail in a molecule of ATP release energy?

  • 9. 

    Your digestive system is equipped with a deversity of enzymes that break the polymers in your food down to monmers that your cells can assimilate. a generic name for a digestive enzyme is hydrolase. what is the chemical basis for that name?

  • 10. 

    Explain how an inhibitor can disrupt the action of an enyzme even though it does not bind to the enyzmes active site.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
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    Smileyvic
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