Cell Biology Chapter 11

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Cell Biology Chapter 11 - Quiz

Welcome to the 11th chapter of our ongoing studies on the scientific topic of biology, where today we’ll be taking an even further look at the cell. What can you tell us about genetic information, DNA, RNA, Amino Acids, Polymerase and much more? Find out in this quiz!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What was thought in the beginning to carry genetic information?

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Amino Acids

    • D.

      Lipids

    • E.

      Blood Cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Proteins
    Explanation
    In the beginning, proteins were thought to carry genetic information. This belief was based on the fact that proteins are present in large quantities within cells and they exhibit diverse functions. However, further research and experiments led to the discovery that DNA, not proteins, carries the genetic information. DNA was found to be the molecule responsible for transmitting genetic instructions and determining the traits of living organisms. This discovery revolutionized the field of genetics and our understanding of inheritance.

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  • 2. 

    Griffith's experiment determined that when a Rough strain and a Smooth strain were put together that the R transformed into the S.  What was his experiment called?

    Correct Answer
    Bacteria Transformations
    Transformation Principle
    Explanation
    Griffith's experiment, known as Bacterial Transformations or Transformation Principle, demonstrated that genetic material can be transferred between bacterial strains. In his experiment, he observed that when a Rough strain (non-virulent) and a Smooth strain (virulent) of bacteria were mixed together, the Rough strain transformed into the Smooth strain, acquiring the ability to cause disease. This discovery played a crucial role in understanding the transfer of genetic information and laid the foundation for further research in genetics and molecular biology.

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  • 3. 

    Who determined that DNA is the genetic material?

    • A.

      Avery

    • B.

      MacLeod

    • C.

      McCarty

    • D.

      McCarthy

    • E.

      A, B, and C

    Correct Answer
    E. A, B, and C
    Explanation
    Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty are all scientists who conducted the famous Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment in 1944. This experiment demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material responsible for transmitting hereditary information. Through a series of experiments, they showed that DNA could transform harmless bacteria into pathogenic bacteria, proving that DNA carries the genetic instructions. Therefore, the correct answer is A, B, and C, as all three scientists contributed to the discovery that DNA is the genetic material.

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  • 4. 

    Helicase does what?

    Correct Answer
    unzips
    unzip
    Explanation
    Helicase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication. It unwinds and separates the double-stranded DNA molecule by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs. This process is often referred to as "unzipping" or "unzipping the DNA." Therefore, the correct answer is "unzips" or "unzip."

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  • 5. 

    Primase does what?

    Correct Answer
    Primer
    Explanation
    Primase is an enzyme that synthesizes short RNA primers during DNA replication. These primers provide a starting point for DNA polymerase to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. Therefore, the correct answer is "Primer," as primase is responsible for creating the primer molecules needed for DNA replication.

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  • 6. 

    Ligase does what?

    Correct Answer
    glue fragments
    bind fragments
    glue
    Explanation
    Ligase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair. It is responsible for joining or "gluing" DNA fragments together by catalyzing the formation of phosphodiester bonds between adjacent nucleotides. This process is essential for the completion of DNA replication, as well as for repairing damaged DNA strands. Therefore, the correct answer is "glue fragments" and "bind fragments," as ligase functions to connect separate DNA fragments into a continuous strand.

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  • 7. 

    Topoisomerase does what?

    Correct Answer
    stops tension
    relieves tension
    tension
    Explanation
    Topoisomerase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication and transcription by managing the tension that arises when the DNA double helix is unwound. It is responsible for both stopping and relieving tension in the DNA molecule. By stopping tension, topoisomerase prevents the DNA strands from becoming overly twisted or tangled. On the other hand, it also relieves tension by unwinding the DNA and allowing it to relax. In summary, topoisomerase regulates the level of tension in the DNA molecule to ensure proper replication and transcription processes.

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  • 8. 

    What does a binding protein do?

    Correct Answer
    stops binding
    prevent binding
    prevent from going back together
    stops strands from going back together
    stop binding
    Explanation
    Binding proteins play a crucial role in preventing the binding or reassociation of molecules or strands that have been separated. They act as inhibitors, stopping the molecules or strands from coming together again. This prevents the formation of unwanted interactions and ensures that the molecules or strands remain separate and functional.

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  • 9. 

    What does Polymerase do?

    Correct Answer
    synthesizes DNA
    synthesizes
    synthesize
    Explanation
    Polymerase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication. It is responsible for synthesizing new strands of DNA by adding complementary nucleotides to the existing template strand. This process is essential for the accurate replication of genetic information during cell division. Therefore, the correct answer is "synthesizes DNA." The other options, "synthesizes" and "synthesize," are not specific to DNA and do not accurately describe the function of polymerase.

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  • 10. 

    In Transcription: what starts everything?  Or what has a promoter recognize site for sigma factor?

    • A.

      Initiation

    • B.

      Elongation

    • C.

      Synthesis RNA

    • D.

      Termentation

    Correct Answer
    A. Initiation
    Explanation
    Initiation is the correct answer because it refers to the process in transcription where RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand at the promoter region. This binding is facilitated by the recognition site for the sigma factor, which helps in the initiation of transcription. Therefore, initiation is the step that starts everything in transcription and involves the recognition site for the sigma factor.

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  • 11. 

    DNA->RNA is ___________

    Correct Answer
    Transcription
    Explanation
    The process of DNA to RNA is called transcription. During transcription, the DNA sequence is used as a template to synthesize a complementary RNA molecule. This process occurs in the nucleus of the cell and is catalyzed by an enzyme called RNA polymerase. Transcription is an essential step in gene expression, as it allows the genetic information encoded in DNA to be transcribed into RNA, which can then be translated into proteins.

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  • 12. 

    RNA->Amino Acids

    Correct Answer
    Translation
    Explanation
    Translation is the process by which the genetic information encoded in RNA molecules is used to synthesize proteins. During translation, the sequence of nucleotides in the RNA is converted into a sequence of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. This process occurs in the ribosomes, where transfer RNA molecules bring the corresponding amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain based on the codons present in the RNA. Therefore, the given correct answer, "Translation," accurately describes the process of converting RNA into amino acids.

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  • 13. 

    What breaks the 5'cap?

    Correct Answer
    splicozome
    Explanation
    The splicozome is responsible for breaking the 5'cap.

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  • 14. 

    In translation what starts and stops a sequence?

    Correct Answer
    codone
    codones
    Explanation
    In translation, a sequence is started and stopped by codones. Codones are specific sequences of three nucleotides in mRNA that code for a specific amino acid or signal the end of protein synthesis. These codones act as the "start" and "stop" signals for the ribosome during translation, determining the beginning and end of a protein-coding sequence.

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  • 15. 

    Who's experiment involved this?

    • A.

      Hershey and Chase

    • B.

      Phage and Virin

    • C.

      Cobalt and Finch

    • D.

      Taylor and Peeke

    • E.

      Watson and Crick

    Correct Answer
    A. Hershey and Chase
    Explanation
    Hershey and Chase's experiment involved the use of bacteriophages (phages) to determine whether DNA or protein is the genetic material that is passed on during viral infection. They labeled the DNA of the phages with radioactive phosphorus and the protein coat with radioactive sulfur. By observing which radioactive material was found inside the infected bacteria, they concluded that DNA, not protein, is the genetic material.

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  • 16. 

    Who discovered the sugar-phosphate backbone with nitrogenous bases and hydrogen bonds?

    Correct Answer
    Watson and Crick
    Explanation
    Watson and Crick discovered the sugar-phosphate backbone with nitrogenous bases and hydrogen bonds. They are famous for their groundbreaking work in determining the structure of DNA, which they published in 1953. Their model, known as the double helix, described how the sugar-phosphate backbone holds the nitrogenous bases together through hydrogen bonds. This discovery revolutionized our understanding of genetics and laid the foundation for modern molecular biology.

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  • 17. 

    Polymerase goes from what to what?

    Correct Answer
    5' to 3'
    5 to 3
    Explanation
    Polymerase goes from the 5' end to the 3' end during DNA replication and transcription. This means that it adds nucleotides to the growing DNA or RNA strand in the 5' to 3' direction. The 5' to 3' refers to the orientation of the carbon atoms in the sugar-phosphate backbone of the nucleic acid molecule. The 5 to 3 answer is not clear and does not provide the necessary information about the directionality of polymerase.

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  • 18. 

    A & G have double rings and are called _________

    Correct Answer
    purines
    Explanation
    A and G have double rings in their chemical structure, which classifies them as purines. Purines are one of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA, along with pyrimidines. The presence of double rings in purines plays a crucial role in the stability and function of nucleic acids.

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  • 19. 

    C, T, and U are single rings and are called ______________

    Correct Answer
    Pyrimidines
    Explanation
    C, T, and U are single rings and are called pyrimidines. Pyrimidines are a type of nitrogenous base found in nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They consist of a single carbon-nitrogen ring structure. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are all examples of pyrimidines. These bases play a crucial role in the genetic code, as they pair with specific bases (guanine for cytosine, adenine for thymine or uracil) to form the rungs of the DNA or RNA double helix.

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  • 20. 

    The linkage in DNA and RNA strands is called ________

    Correct Answer
    phosphodiester bond
    Explanation
    The linkage in DNA and RNA strands is called a phosphodiester bond. This bond is formed between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the sugar molecule of the adjacent nucleotide in the DNA or RNA strand. It plays a crucial role in connecting the nucleotides together, forming the backbone of the DNA and RNA molecules. The phosphodiester bond provides stability and strength to the DNA and RNA strands, allowing them to carry and transmit genetic information accurately.

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  • 21. 

    In Humans for % of bases which of the following is correct? (Erwin Chargoff)

    • A.

      A-30.3 G-30.3 T-29.4 C-29.4

    • B.

      A-49 C-49 T-51 G-51

    • C.

      A-30.3 T-30.3 C-26.8 G-26.8

    • D.

      A-30.3 T-30.3 G-19.5 C-19.9

    Correct Answer
    D. A-30.3 T-30.3 G-19.5 C-19.9
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A-30.3 T-30.3 G-19.5 C-19.9. This answer is correct because it follows Erwin Chargoff's rule, which states that in DNA, the amount of adenine (A) is equal to the amount of thymine (T), and the amount of guanine (G) is equal to the amount of cytosine (C). Therefore, the percentages of A and T should be the same, and the percentages of G and C should be the same. This answer choice reflects that pattern, with A and T both at 30.3% and G and C both at 19.5% and 19.9%.

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  • 22. 

    If one nucleotide is 0.34 nm then one complete turn of the helix is 3.4 nm.  True or False

    Correct Answer
    True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. If one nucleotide is 0.34 nm, then the distance for one complete turn of the helix can be calculated by multiplying the length of one nucleotide by the total number of nucleotides in a turn. In this case, the total number of nucleotides in a turn is 10 (since 0.34 nm x 10 = 3.4 nm), which means that one complete turn of the helix is 3.4 nm. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 23. 

    The helixes backbone consists of these two things

    Correct Answer
    Phosphates and Sugars
    Phosphate and Sugar
    P and Sugar
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Phosphates and Sugars". The backbone of the helix in DNA consists of alternating phosphate groups and sugar molecules. The phosphate groups provide a negative charge, while the sugar molecules provide a structural support for the DNA molecule. This alternating pattern of phosphates and sugars forms the backbone of the DNA helix. Therefore, the correct answer includes all variations of these two components.

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  • 24. 

    In Semiconservative mechanism, A DNA replicates to produce 2 DNA molecules with _____# parent strands and _____ number newly made strands.

    Correct Answer
    1 parent and 1 newly made
    1 and 1
    Explanation
    In the semiconservative mechanism of DNA replication, the original DNA molecule serves as a template for the synthesis of two new DNA molecules. Each new DNA molecule consists of one parent strand, which is the original template strand, and one newly made strand. This means that one parent strand is conserved in each new DNA molecule, while one newly made strand is added during replication. Therefore, the correct answer is 1 parent and 1 newly made strand, or 1 and 1.

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  • 25. 

    In Conservative mechanism, A DNA replicates to produce 2 DNA molecules with _____# parent strands and _____ number newly made strands.

    Correct Answer
    2 parent and 2 new
    2 and 2
    Explanation
    In the conservative mechanism of DNA replication, the original DNA molecule remains intact and serves as a template for the synthesis of two new DNA molecules. This means that both parent strands are conserved and used as templates for the synthesis of two new strands. Therefore, in conservative replication, two parent strands and two newly made strands are produced.

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  • 26. 

    Which type of mechanism for DNA replication produces DNA strands in which segments of new DNA are interspersed with the parental DNA?

    Correct Answer
    Dispersive
    Explanation
    Dispersive replication is a type of mechanism for DNA replication where segments of new DNA are interspersed with the parental DNA. In this process, the parental DNA strands break into smaller fragments, and each fragment serves as a template for the synthesis of a complementary DNA strand. The resulting DNA strands have segments of new DNA interspersed with segments of the original parental DNA, creating a mixed or "dispersed" pattern. This mechanism was proposed by Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl in 1958 based on their experiments with isotopes of nitrogen.

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  • 27. 

    Which type of chromosome replication is circular?

    • A.

      Bacterial

    • B.

      Eukaryotic

    • C.

      Plantae

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacterial
    Explanation
    Bacterial chromosome replication is circular because bacteria have a single, circular chromosome that replicates in a circular manner. This is in contrast to eukaryotic organisms, which have linear chromosomes that replicate in a linear manner. Plantae is not a type of chromosome replication, but rather a kingdom of organisms that includes plants.

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  • 28. 

    Which type of chromosome replication forms bubbles where the replication takes place?

    • A.

      Bacterial

    • B.

      Eukaryotic

    • C.

      Plantae

    Correct Answer
    B. Eukaryotic
    Explanation
    Eukaryotic chromosome replication forms bubbles where the replication takes place. During replication, the double-stranded DNA unwinds and forms a replication fork. As the replication fork moves along the DNA, new strands are synthesized in both directions. This process creates bubbles, also known as replication bubbles, where the DNA strands separate and replication occurs. In eukaryotic cells, replication bubbles are formed at multiple origins of replication along the chromosome, allowing for efficient and simultaneous replication of the entire genome.

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  • 29. 

    What is responsible for covalently linking nucleotides together to form DNA strands?

    Correct Answer
    DNA polymerase
    Explanation
    DNA polymerase is responsible for covalently linking nucleotides together to form DNA strands. DNA polymerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphodiester bonds between adjacent nucleotides during DNA replication. It adds nucleotides to the growing DNA strand according to the complementary base pairing rule. This process ensures the accurate replication of the DNA molecule and the maintenance of its genetic information.

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  • 30. 

    When DNA polymerase identifies a mismatched nucleotide and removes it from the daughter strand this is called _______

    Correct Answer
    proofreading
    Explanation
    When DNA polymerase identifies a mismatched nucleotide and removes it from the daughter strand, this process is known as proofreading. Proofreading is an essential mechanism in DNA replication that helps maintain the accuracy of the genetic code. It allows DNA polymerase to detect and correct errors in the newly synthesized DNA strand by removing the incorrect nucleotide and replacing it with the correct one. This ensures the fidelity of DNA replication and reduces the occurrence of mutations.

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  • 31. 

    30% G = ___% T

    • A.

      65

    • B.

      20

    • C.

      33

    • D.

      48

    • E.

      29

    Correct Answer
    B. 20
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 20. This is because when you have a percentage, you can convert it to a decimal by dividing it by 100. In this case, 30% would be 0.30. To find what percent T is of G, you would multiply G by 0.30. Therefore, 30% G is equal to 0.30G. To find what percent T is of G, you would divide 0.30G by G, which simplifies to 0.30. Multiplying 0.30 by 100 gives you 30, so T is 30% of G. Therefore, if 30% G is 30%, then 30% G is equal to 20% T.

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  • 32. 

    In Bacteria which DNA polymerase is responsible for the majority of DNA replication?

    • A.

      III

    • B.

      I

    • C.

      II, IV, and V

    Correct Answer
    A. III
    Explanation
    DNA polymerase III is responsible for the majority of DNA replication in bacteria. This enzyme is highly processive and has a high fidelity, allowing it to efficiently and accurately replicate the entire bacterial genome. DNA polymerase I is involved in DNA repair and removal of RNA primers during replication, while DNA polymerases II, IV, and V are mainly involved in DNA repair mechanisms. Therefore, DNA polymerase III is the main enzyme responsible for the actual synthesis of new DNA strands during replication in bacteria.

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  • 33. 

    Which Bacteria DNA polymerase removes primers and fills in gaps?

    • A.

      III

    • B.

      I

    • C.

      II, IV, and V

    Correct Answer
    B. I
    Explanation
    DNA polymerase I is responsible for removing RNA primers during DNA replication and filling in the gaps with DNA nucleotides. It has a 5' to 3' exonuclease activity that allows it to remove the RNA primer, and a 5' to 3' polymerase activity that allows it to synthesize DNA in the gap left by the primer removal. This process is known as primer removal and gap filling, and DNA polymerase I is the enzyme that performs this task.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the DNA polymerase for Humans is responsible for the majority of DNA replication AND also proofreads?

    • A.

      Alpha

    • B.

      Beta

    • C.

      Gamma

    • D.

      Sigma

    • E.

      Phi

    Correct Answer
    A. Alpha
  • 35. 

    Which of the DNA polymerase in Humans is responsible for the majority of DNA replication in the mitochondria?

    • A.

      Alpha

    • B.

      Beta

    • C.

      Gamma

    • D.

      Sigma

    • E.

      Phi

    Correct Answer
    C. Gamma
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Gamma because DNA polymerase gamma is the enzyme responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA in humans. This enzyme is specifically designed for the replication of mitochondrial DNA and is not involved in nuclear DNA replication. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the mitochondria, which are essential for energy production in cells.

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  • 36. 

    Who discovered that DNA replication Always goes from 5' to 3'?

    • A.

      Hershey and Chase

    • B.

      Maselson and Stahl

    • C.

      Chargoff

    • D.

      Franklin

    • E.

      Watson and Crick

    Correct Answer
    B. Maselson and Stahl
    Explanation
    Maselson and Stahl did not discover that DNA replication always goes from 5' to 3'. This statement is incorrect. The correct answer is not available.

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