# Environmental Science Chapter 8: The Human Population

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This quiz covers material related to human population growth rates, death rates, demography as well as issues related to population growth.

Questions and Answers
• 1.

### The majority of the developed nations are located

• A.

In the Southern hemisphere

• B.

In the Northern Hemisphere

• C.

In Africa

• D.

Near the equator

Correct Answer
B. In the Northern Hemisphere
Explanation
The majority of the developed nations are located in the Northern Hemisphere. This is because the Northern Hemisphere is home to many economically advanced countries such as the United States, Canada, Japan, and most of Europe. These countries have a high standard of living, advanced infrastructure, and strong economies. Additionally, the Northern Hemisphere has a larger landmass compared to the Southern Hemisphere, providing more opportunities for development and growth.

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• 2.

### If the total fertility rate of a nation is less than 2.0 the population is

• A.

Increasing

• B.

Decreasing

• C.

Staying the same

• D.

Increasing but will level off in about 60-70 years

Correct Answer
B. Decreasing
Explanation
If the total fertility rate of a nation is less than 2.0, it means that on average, each woman is having less than two children. This indicates a decline in the population growth rate as there are fewer births compared to the number of deaths. Therefore, the population is decreasing.

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• 3.

### What factors are important to consider when estimating the carrying capacity of the earth?

• A.

Affluence and population only

• B.

Population and technology use only

• C.

Number of females of child-bearing age

• D.

Affluence, population and technology use

Correct Answer
D. Affluence, population and technology use
Explanation
When estimating the carrying capacity of the earth, it is important to consider factors such as affluence, population, and technology use. Affluence refers to the level of wealth and consumption patterns, which can have a significant impact on resource usage and environmental impact. Population size is also crucial, as a larger population requires more resources and puts more strain on the environment. Additionally, technology use plays a role in how efficiently resources are utilized and how much waste is generated. Therefore, all three factors - affluence, population, and technology use - are important considerations for estimating the carrying capacity of the earth.

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• 4.

### The US is curretnly the _________ most populous nation in the world.

• A.

1st

• B.

2nd

• C.

3rd

• D.

4th

Correct Answer
C. 3rd
Explanation
The correct answer is 3rd. This means that the US is currently the third most populous nation in the world.

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• 5.

### A high standard of living is associated with ____________.

• A.

High consumption

• B.

Use of technology

• C.

Sewage treatment

• D.

All of the above

Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
A high standard of living is associated with all of the above options because they are interconnected. High consumption is often seen as a sign of affluence and can provide access to a wide range of goods and services that contribute to a higher standard of living. The use of technology can enhance productivity, efficiency, and convenience, further improving the quality of life. Sewage treatment is an important aspect of public health and environmental sustainability, which are key components of a high standard of living. Therefore, all of these factors contribute to a higher standard of living.

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• 6.

### What factors limit population growth?

• A.

Land for food production

• B.

Forest products

• C.

Energy

• D.

All of the above

Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
The factors that limit population growth include the availability of land for food production, access to forest products, and the availability of energy. These factors are crucial for sustaining a growing population as they directly impact the availability of resources necessary for survival and development. Without sufficient land for agriculture, access to forest products for various needs, and reliable sources of energy, population growth would be constrained. Therefore, all of the above factors play a significant role in limiting population growth.

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• 7.

### Canada, Western Europe and Japan are all examples of __________.

• A.

Low-income, developing nations

• B.

Middle-income nations

• C.

High-income, industralized nations

• D.

Third world nations

Correct Answer
C. High-income, industralized nations
Explanation
Canada, Western Europe, and Japan are all examples of high-income, industrialized nations. These countries have advanced economies, high standards of living, and developed infrastructure. They have strong industrial sectors, high levels of technology, and well-established institutions. These nations typically have high GDP per capita and offer a wide range of social services to their citizens.

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• 8.

### Which of the following are characteristics of developing nations?

• A.

High affluence

• B.

High consumption

• C.

Incomes of less than \$1 a day

• D.

Large emitters of greenhouse gases

Correct Answer
C. Incomes of less than \$1 a day
Explanation
Developing nations are typically characterized by low incomes, as indicated by the statement "incomes of less than \$1 a day." This suggests that the majority of individuals in these nations live in poverty and struggle to meet their basic needs. High affluence and high consumption are not typically associated with developing nations, as they often have limited resources and infrastructure. Additionally, developing nations are not typically large emitters of greenhouse gases, as they may have less industrialization and lower levels of energy consumption compared to more developed nations.

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• 9.

### Which continent has the highest fertility rates?

• A.

Asia

• B.

Africa

• C.

Australia

• D.

North America

Correct Answer
B. Africa
Explanation
Africa has the highest fertility rates compared to other continents. This can be attributed to various factors such as high infant mortality rates, lack of access to contraception, cultural and religious beliefs, and limited education and awareness about family planning. These factors contribute to larger family sizes and higher birth rates in Africa, resulting in higher fertility rates compared to other continents.

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• 10.

### What is the estimate of the amount of land and ocean required to provide resources and absorb wastes called?

• A.

Ecological footprint

• B.

Carrying capacity

• C.

Stewardship

• D.

Demography

Correct Answer
A. Ecological footprint
Explanation
The estimate of the amount of land and ocean required to provide resources and absorb wastes is called the ecological footprint. This concept measures the impact of human activities on the environment by calculating the amount of natural resources consumed and waste generated. It helps to understand the sustainability of human lifestyles and the capacity of the Earth to support them.

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• 11.

### Which statement describes the "baby boomers" in the United States?

• A.

Reaching retirement age and will be drawing social security

• B.

Women in the child-bearing years that are having lots of children

• C.

Infants that die before reaching the age of 5

• D.

Middle-aged couples (35-45) that have post-poned having children due to careers and education

Correct Answer
A. Reaching retirement age and will be drawing social security
Explanation
The correct answer describes the "baby boomers" in the United States as reaching retirement age and will be drawing social security. This suggests that the baby boomers are a generation of individuals who were born after World War II, between the years 1946 and 1964, and are now reaching the age at which they are eligible to retire and receive social security benefits. This demographic shift has significant implications for the economy and social welfare programs in the country.

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• 12.

### What is a characteristic that is indicative of a developed nation?

• A.

The transfer of waste to distant locations

• B.

Ozone depletion and excessive wastes

• C.

Makes up 80% of the world's population

• D.

Both A and B

Correct Answer
D. Both A and B
Explanation
Both the transfer of waste to distant locations and ozone depletion and excessive wastes are characteristics that are indicative of a developed nation. The transfer of waste to distant locations suggests that a nation has the resources and infrastructure to handle and dispose of waste in a way that is not detrimental to its own environment. Ozone depletion and excessive wastes indicate that a nation has the technological advancements and industrialization that can lead to these environmental issues. Therefore, both A and B are correct.

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• 13.

### What is a major problem when people migrate to cities?

• A.

Not enough jobs and housing

• B.

Increase in illicit activities

• C.

Increase in disease outbreaks

• D.

All of the above

Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
When people migrate to cities, they often face a major problem of not enough jobs and housing. This is because cities are densely populated and the demand for jobs and housing exceeds the available supply. Additionally, the influx of people into cities can lead to an increase in illicit activities, such as crime and drug trafficking, as the urban environment provides more opportunities for such activities. Moreover, the concentration of people in cities can also lead to an increase in disease outbreaks, as the close proximity and limited access to healthcare facilities can facilitate the spread of diseases. Therefore, all of the above options are major problems faced by people migrating to cities.

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• 14.

### The diagram to the left best illustrates the population profile of ____________.

• A.

USA

• B.

Italy

• C.

Japan

• D.

Kenya

Correct Answer
D. Kenya
Explanation
The diagram to the left best illustrates the population profile of Kenya because it shows a pyramid-shaped graph, which is characteristic of a country with a high birth rate and a young population. This is consistent with Kenya's demographic profile, as it has a relatively high fertility rate and a large proportion of its population is under the age of 30.

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• 15.

### What percent of the poor in developing nations practice subsistence farming?

• A.

20%

• B.

50%

• C.

5%

• D.

75%

Correct Answer
D. 75%
Explanation
Approximately 75% of the poor in developing nations practice subsistence farming. This means that a significant majority of individuals living in poverty in these countries rely on farming for their basic needs, such as food and shelter. Subsistence farming involves cultivating crops and raising livestock primarily for personal consumption, rather than for commercial purposes. This high percentage highlights the importance of agriculture as a means of survival for many impoverished communities in developing nations.

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• 16.

### What disease decimated Europe in the 1300s?

• A.

Small pox

• B.

Polio

• C.

Plague

• D.

Cholera

Correct Answer
C. Plague
Explanation
The correct answer is plague. The disease that decimated Europe in the 1300s was the Black Death, which was caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. It spread rapidly and killed millions of people, leading to significant social and economic consequences. The symptoms included fever, swollen lymph nodes, and the appearance of black patches on the skin, hence the name "plague."

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• 17.

### In what year did the earth's human population reach 1 billion?

• A.

1604

• B.

1704

• C.

1804

• D.

1904

Correct Answer
C. 1804
Explanation
In 1804, the Earth's human population reached 1 billion. This indicates that it took a significant amount of time for the population to grow to this level. The population growth rate was relatively slow before the 19th century due to factors such as limited resources, high mortality rates, and lack of technological advancements. However, with improvements in agriculture, medicine, and industrialization, the population started to increase more rapidly in subsequent years.

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• 18.

### What major advancements helped humans overcome disease?

• A.

Vaccines

• B.

Antibiotics

• C.

Sewage treatment

• D.

All of the above

Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
All of the above options have played significant roles in helping humans overcome disease. Vaccines have been developed to prevent various infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies. Antibiotics have revolutionized the treatment of bacterial infections, effectively killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Sewage treatment has greatly improved public health by removing harmful pathogens from wastewater, preventing the spread of diseases. Together, these advancements have had a major impact on reducing the incidence and severity of diseases, improving overall human health.

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• 19.

### What is the study of the human population called?

• A.

Ecology

• B.

Human population biology

• C.

Demography

• D.

Actuary science

Correct Answer
C. Demography
Explanation
Demography is the study of the human population, including its size, structure, distribution, and changes over time. It analyzes various factors such as birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, and social characteristics to understand population dynamics. Demographers use statistical methods and data to examine population trends, make projections, and inform policies related to population growth, aging, urbanization, and other demographic phenomena. Ecology is the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment, while human population biology is a more specific field within biology that focuses on the genetics and biology of human populations. Actuary science, on the other hand, is the study of risk and uncertainty, particularly in the insurance and financial sectors.

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• 20.

### The first phase in the demographic transition is known as the __________ stage.

• A.

Modern stability

• B.

Epidemiologic transition

• C.

Fertility transiton

• D.

Primitive stability

Correct Answer
D. Primitive stability
Explanation
The correct answer is "primitive stability" because the first phase in the demographic transition is characterized by high birth rates and high death rates, resulting in a stable population. This phase is often associated with pre-industrial societies where there is limited access to healthcare and technology, leading to high mortality rates. Additionally, traditional cultural practices and lack of family planning contribute to high fertility rates. Therefore, "primitive stability" accurately describes this initial phase of the demographic transition.

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• 21.

### Developed nations have reached which phase in the demographic transition?

• A.

Primitive stability

• B.

Epidemiologic

• C.

Fertility

• D.

Modern stability

Correct Answer
D. Modern stability
Explanation
Developed nations have reached the phase of modern stability in the demographic transition. This phase is characterized by low birth rates and low death rates, resulting in a stable population growth. Developed nations have advanced healthcare systems, access to contraception, and high levels of education, which contribute to lower fertility rates. This phase is a result of social and economic development, as well as improved living conditions and quality of life.

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• 22.

### What was the average life expectancy of someone that lived during the year 1927?

• A.

39 years

• B.

95 years

• C.

80 years

• D.

67 years

Correct Answer
A. 39 years
Explanation
During the year 1927, the average life expectancy was 39 years. This means that on average, people who lived during that time could expect to live for around 39 years. This could be due to various factors such as lower healthcare advancements, higher infant mortality rates, and limited access to medical treatments.

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• 23.

### In the early 1800s population growth was limited because ________.

• A.

High mortality rates due to infectious diseases

• B.

High birth rates due to lack of birth control

• C.

Low birth rates due to women going to school and work

• D.

Low mortality rates due to the use of vaccines

Correct Answer
A. High mortality rates due to infectious diseases
Explanation
In the early 1800s, population growth was limited due to high mortality rates caused by infectious diseases. This means that a significant number of people were dying at a young age due to illnesses, preventing them from living long enough to reproduce and contribute to population growth. The lack of effective vaccines and medical treatments during that time period meant that infectious diseases could spread easily and cause widespread fatalities, thus limiting population growth.

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• 24.

### Which demographic transition is characterized by declining fertility rates?

• A.

I

• B.

II

• C.

III

• D.

IV

Correct Answer
C. III
Explanation
Demographic transition III is characterized by declining fertility rates. This stage occurs when a society transitions from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. As healthcare improves and living conditions become better, the mortality rate decreases, leading to a population growth. However, the fertility rate starts to decline due to various factors such as increased education, urbanization, and access to contraception. This decline in fertility rates is a significant characteristic of demographic transition III.

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• 25.

### In which developing nation did the majority of the film the Constant Gardener take place?

• A.

Sudan

• B.

UK

• C.

Zambia

• D.

Kenya

Correct Answer
D. Kenya
Explanation
The majority of the film "The Constant Gardener" takes place in Kenya. This can be inferred from the fact that the question asks about the developing nation where the majority of the film was shot, and Kenya is one of the options provided.

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• 26.

### In th movie the Constant Gardener, what was Tessa's relationship with Dr. Blume?

• A.

They were secret lovers

• B.

They were friends working together

• C.

They were enemies--Dr. Blume killed Tessa

• D.

Dr. Blume was Tessa's husband

Correct Answer
B. They were friends working together
Explanation
Tessa's relationship with Dr. Blume in the movie "The Constant Gardener" was that they were friends working together.

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• 27.

### In the movieThe Constant Gardener, what secret project was Tessa working on?

• A.

Trying to make money selling pharmaceuticals

• B.

Trying to expose pharmaceutical companies for altering the results of their drug trials

• C.

She was a spy for British intelligence

• D.

Trying to extort money from large pharmaceutical companies

Correct Answer
B. Trying to expose pharmaceutical companies for altering the results of their drug trials
Explanation
Tessa was working on trying to expose pharmaceutical companies for altering the results of their drug trials. This means that she was investigating and gathering evidence to reveal the unethical practices of these companies, which involved manipulating the results of their drug trials.

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• 28.

### What formula is useful when determining a nation's impact on planet earth?

• A.

I=PT

• B.

I=PAT

• C.

I=AT

• D.

I=PA

Correct Answer
B. I=PAT
Explanation
The correct formula to determine a nation's impact on planet earth is I=PAT. This formula represents the environmental impact (I) as the product of three factors: population (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). It suggests that the impact on the environment is influenced by the size of the population, the level of affluence or consumption, and the technology used. By considering these three factors, the formula provides a comprehensive approach to understanding and quantifying the impact of a nation on the planet.

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• 29.

### True or False-- Nations with the largest populations use the most resources.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement "Nations with the largest populations use the most resources" is false. The size of a nation's population does not necessarily determine its resource consumption. Resource usage depends on various factors such as technological advancements, economic development, and consumption patterns. Some nations with smaller populations may have higher resource consumption due to their industrial activities or higher standards of living. Conversely, larger populations can also adopt sustainable practices and efficient resource management, resulting in lower overall resource usage. Therefore, population size alone is not a reliable indicator of resource consumption.

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• 30.

### True or False-- India's population is projected to surpass that of China in the near future.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
India's population is projected to surpass that of China in the near future. This is because India has a higher population growth rate than China, and it is estimated that India will continue to experience significant population growth while China's population growth is expected to slow down or even decline. Additionally, India's population is already close to that of China, and with its higher growth rate, it is likely to surpass China's population in the near future.

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