Eent Quiz: Week 2

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Eent Quiz: Week 2 - Quiz


Everything from the second lecture on Ophthamology!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    TRUE OR FALSE?? In conjuncitivits, the palpebral conjunctiva is reddened more, and out of proportion to the bulbar conjunctiva.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In conjunctivitis, the palpebral conjunctiva refers to the inner lining of the eyelids, while the bulbar conjunctiva refers to the outer surface of the eyeball. The statement suggests that in conjunctivitis, the redness of the palpebral conjunctiva is more pronounced and disproportionate compared to the bulbar conjunctiva. Therefore, the correct answer is true.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is characterized by "the acute onset of copious, purulent, sticky discharge form both eyes that is worse upon awakening?"

    • A.

      Allergic eye disease

    • B.

      Bacterial conjunctivits

    • C.

      Viral conjunctivitis

    • D.

      Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

    • E.

      Pinguecula

    Correct Answer
    B. Bacterial conjunctivits
    Explanation
    Bacterial conjunctivitis is characterized by the acute onset of copious, purulent, sticky discharge from both eyes that is worse upon awakening. This infection is caused by bacteria and can be highly contagious. It is commonly accompanied by redness, swelling, and irritation of the eyes. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments to clear the infection. Allergic eye disease, viral conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and pinguecula do not present with the same symptoms described in the question.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following types of eye infections is usually self-limiting in 10-14 days, but if left untreated, can develop into secondary keratitis?

    • A.

      Viral conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

    • D.

      Allergic eye disease

    • E.

      Pinguecula

    Correct Answer
    B. Bacterial conjunctivitis
    Explanation
    Bacterial conjunctivitis is usually self-limiting in 10-14 days, meaning it resolves on its own without treatment. However, if left untreated, it can progress and develop into secondary keratitis, which is inflammation of the cornea. This is because the bacteria causing the conjunctivitis can invade the cornea and cause further infection and inflammation. Therefore, prompt treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis is important to prevent complications such as keratitis.

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  • 4. 

    Gonococcal conjunctivitis is a type of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by Neisseria gonnorrhoeae. It is manifested by a copious, purulent discharge and is usually acquired through contact with infected ____________secretions.

    • A.

      Genital

    • B.

      Corneal

    • C.

      Pustual

    • D.

      Nasal

    • E.

      Bloody

    Correct Answer
    A. Genital
    Explanation
    Gonococcal conjunctivitis is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacteria that is typically transmitted through contact with infected genital secretions. This type of conjunctivitis is characterized by a copious, purulent discharge.

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  • 5. 

    TRUE OR FALSE?? Gonococcal conjunctivitis is considered an ophthalmologic emergency because of possible corneal involvement and perforation?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Gonococcal conjunctivitis is considered an ophthalmologic emergency because it can lead to corneal involvement and perforation. The infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae can rapidly progress and cause severe damage to the cornea, the transparent front part of the eye. If left untreated, it can result in vision loss or even the need for corneal transplantation. Therefore, immediate medical attention is necessary to prevent complications and preserve vision.

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  • 6. 

    Chlamydial keratoconjunctivitis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and is a major cause of ______________ worldwide!

    • A.

      Eyeball loss

    • B.

      Corneal perforation

    • C.

      Glaucoma

    • D.

      Blindness

    • E.

      Deafness

    Correct Answer
    D. Blindness
    Explanation
    Chlamydial keratoconjunctivitis, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is a major cause of blindness worldwide. This infection affects the cornea and conjunctiva, leading to inflammation and scarring. If left untreated, it can cause irreversible damage to the eyes, resulting in vision loss or complete blindness. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term complications and preserve vision.

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  • 7. 

    Both neisseria gonorrhoeae and chlamydia trachomatis can be caused by which of the following?

    • A.

      Eating certain foods

    • B.

      Swimming in contaminated swimming pools

    • C.

      Showering in contaminated water

    • D.

      Drinking poor quality water

    • E.

      Swimming in non-chlorinated water

    Correct Answer
    E. Swimming in non-chlorinated water
    Explanation
    Swimming in non-chlorinated water can cause both Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections. These infections are sexually transmitted diseases and can be spread through contact with infected genital secretions. Swimming in non-chlorinated water increases the risk of coming into contact with these pathogens if someone with an infection has contaminated the water. Chlorinated water helps kill bacteria and viruses, reducing the risk of transmission. Therefore, swimming in non-chlorinated water can increase the chances of contracting these infections.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is one of the most common causes of viral conjunctivitis?

    • A.

      Adenovirus type 3

    • B.

      Herpes virus

    • C.

      Adenovirus type 7

    • D.

      Epstein-Barr virus

    • E.

      HPV

    Correct Answer
    A. Adenovirus type 3
    Explanation
    Adenovirus type 3 is one of the most common causes of viral conjunctivitis. Viral conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids. Adenovirus type 3 is highly contagious and can easily spread through direct contact with infected individuals, contaminated surfaces, or respiratory droplets. It is known to cause outbreaks in schools, daycare centers, and other crowded environments. Symptoms of viral conjunctivitis include redness, itching, tearing, and discharge from the eyes. Treatment usually involves supportive care and symptom relief.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following describes an eye infection that is usually associated with pharyngitis, fever, malaise, and preauricular adenopathy, and presents with a red palpebral conjunctiva, copious watery discharge, and scanty exudate?

    • A.

      Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

    • B.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Viral conjunctivitis

    • D.

      Allergic eye disease

    • E.

      Pinguecula

    Correct Answer
    C. Viral conjunctivitis
    Explanation
    Viral conjunctivitis is an eye infection that is typically accompanied by symptoms such as pharyngitis, fever, malaise, and preauricular adenopathy. It is characterized by redness of the palpebral conjunctiva, excessive watery discharge, and minimal exudate. This type of conjunctivitis is caused by a viral infection and is highly contagious. It is important to note that the other options listed, such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, bacterial conjunctivitis, allergic eye disease, and pinguecula, do not match the described symptoms and characteristics of viral conjunctivitis.

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  • 10. 

    Children are more often affected by viral conjunctivitis because __________  ___________  _________ are often the source of transmission.

    • A.

      Non-chlorinated swimming water

    • B.

      Contaminated drinking water

    • C.

      Contaminated swimming pools

    • D.

      Direct fomite contact

    • E.

      Contaminated shower water

    Correct Answer
    C. Contaminated swimming pools
    Explanation
    Children are more often affected by viral conjunctivitis because contaminated swimming pools are often the source of transmission.

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  • 11. 

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is a fancy name for what common disorder?

    • A.

      Pink eye

    • B.

      Excess tearing

    • C.

      Dry eyes

    • D.

      Green eye

    • E.

      Hot eyes

    Correct Answer
    C. Dry eyes
    Explanation
    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca refers to the condition commonly known as dry eyes. It is characterized by insufficient tear production or poor tear quality, leading to discomfort, redness, and a gritty sensation in the eyes. The term "fancy name" suggests that keratoconjunctivitis sicca is a more technical term for the common disorder of dry eyes. Pink eye, excess tearing, green eye, and hot eyes are not the correct terms for this condition.

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  • 12. 

    TRUE OR FALSE?? Hormone replacement therapy may increase the risk of dry eyes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can indeed increase the risk of dry eyes. This is because hormonal changes can affect the production of tears and the overall lubrication of the eyes. Estrogen, in particular, plays a role in maintaining the health of the tear film. When estrogen levels decrease during menopause or with the use of HRT, it can lead to dryness and discomfort in the eyes. Therefore, it is important for individuals undergoing HRT to be aware of this potential side effect and seek appropriate treatment if necessary.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following conditions can be due to hypo-function of the lacrimal galnds, loss of aqueous component of the tears, aging, hereditary condition, systemic disease, excessive evaporation of tears due to environmental factors, or mucin deficiency?

    • A.

      Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

    • B.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Viral conjunctivitis

    • D.

      Allergic eye disease

    • E.

      Pinguecula

    Correct Answer
    A. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
    Explanation
    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca can be caused by hypo-function of the lacrimal glands, loss of the aqueous component of tears, aging, hereditary conditions, systemic diseases, excessive evaporation of tears due to environmental factors, or mucin deficiency. This condition, also known as dry eye syndrome, occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly. It can cause discomfort, redness, and a gritty sensation in the eyes.

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  • 14. 

    What is the best treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca?

    • A.

      Oral antibiotics

    • B.

      Artificial tears

    • C.

      Antibiotic ointment

    • D.

      Antibiotic eyedrops

    • E.

      Biopsy and surgery

    Correct Answer
    B. Artificial tears
    Explanation
    Artificial tears are the best treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca, also known as dry eye syndrome. This condition occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly, leading to dryness, irritation, and discomfort. Artificial tears are lubricating eye drops that help to moisturize and soothe the eyes, providing temporary relief from dryness and reducing symptoms. They do not contain antibiotics or require invasive procedures like biopsies or surgery, making them the most appropriate and effective treatment option for this condition.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following describes a condition with symptoms of itching, tearing, redness, stringy discharge, occasional photophobia and vision loss, and can manifest into atopic asthma, atopic dermatitis, or allergic rhinitis?

    • A.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Viral conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Allergic eye disease

    • D.

      Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

    • E.

      Pinguecula

    Correct Answer
    C. Allergic eye disease
    Explanation
    Allergic eye disease is the correct answer because it describes a condition with symptoms such as itching, tearing, redness, stringy discharge, occasional photophobia, and vision loss. Additionally, it can manifest into other allergic conditions such as atopic asthma, atopic dermatitis, or allergic rhinitis. Bacterial conjunctivitis and viral conjunctivitis are eye infections caused by bacteria and viruses respectively, and do not typically present with the same symptoms as described. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca refers to dry eye syndrome, which does not include symptoms like itching or redness. Pinguecula is a yellowish growth on the conjunctiva and does not match the described symptoms.

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  • 16. 

    The main clinical signs of allergic conjunctivitis are limited to conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis. Chemosis is another word for what?

    • A.

      Abnormal pupillary reaction

    • B.

      Tearing

    • C.

      Redness

    • D.

      Edema

    • E.

      Opaqueness

    Correct Answer
    D. Edema
    Explanation
    The main clinical signs of allergic conjunctivitis are limited to conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis. Chemosis refers to the swelling or edema of the conjunctiva, which is the clear tissue that covers the white part of the eye. Therefore, the correct answer is edema.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following conditions is associated with large "cobblestone" papillae on the everted upper lid conjunctiva?

    • A.

      Atopic keratoconjunctivitis

    • B.

      Vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    • C.

      Allergic conjunctivitis

    • D.

      Allergic eye disease

    • E.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis
    Explanation
    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is associated with large "cobblestone" papillae on the everted upper lid conjunctiva. This condition is a severe form of allergic conjunctivitis that typically affects young males with a history of atopy. It is characterized by intense itching, photophobia, and mucous discharge. The presence of "cobblestone" papillae is a characteristic finding on examination and is caused by chronic inflammation and hypertrophy of the conjunctival tissue. Treatment usually involves topical antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, and corticosteroids to control symptoms and reduce inflammation.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following conditions is associated with both the upper and lower tarsal conjunctivae exhibiting a fine, papillary conjunctivitis with fibrosis, resulting in entropion with trichiasis?

    • A.

      Atopic keratoconjunctivitis

    • B.

      Vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    • C.

      Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

    • D.

      Allergic conjunctivitis

    • E.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis
    Explanation
    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is associated with both the upper and lower tarsal conjunctivae exhibiting a fine, papillary conjunctivitis with fibrosis, resulting in entropion with trichiasis. This condition is commonly seen in individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis or other allergic conditions. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea, leading to symptoms such as itching, redness, tearing, and blurred vision. The fine, papillary conjunctivitis with fibrosis causes the eyelid to turn inward (entropion) and the eyelashes to rub against the cornea (trichiasis), causing further irritation and discomfort.

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  • 19. 

    TRUE OR FALSE?? Vernal keratorconjunctivitis is more of a chronic disorder of adulthood.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is the more chronic condition.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following can be a complication of vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis?

    • A.

      Herpes zoster keratitis

    • B.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • C.

      Staph infection

    • D.

      Herpes type 1

    • E.

      Herpes type 2

    Correct Answer
    B. Herpes simplex keratitis
    Explanation
    Vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis are allergic conditions that affect the eyes. One possible complication of these conditions is herpes simplex keratitis, which is an infection of the cornea caused by the herpes simplex virus. This viral infection can cause inflammation, pain, and vision problems. It is a potential complication because the compromised immune response in individuals with vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis can make them more susceptible to viral infections like herpes simplex keratitis.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is NOT a steroid-induced side effect for topical corticosteroids?

    • A.

      Cataracts

    • B.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • C.

      Glaucoma

    • D.

      Dry eyes

    Correct Answer
    D. Dry eyes
    Explanation
    Topical corticosteroids are commonly used to treat inflammation and allergic reactions on the skin. They can cause various side effects, including cataracts, glaucoma, and herpes simplex keratitis. However, dry eyes are not typically associated with the use of topical corticosteroids. This is because these medications primarily affect the skin and do not directly impact the tear production or moisture of the eyes. Therefore, dry eyes are not a steroid-induced side effect for topical corticosteroids.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following describes a degenerative lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva that appears as a yellow-white, amorphous, subepithelial nodule adjacent to the limbus, usually on the nasal side?

    • A.

      Viral conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Pinguecula

    • C.

      Pterygium

    • D.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis

    • E.

      Allergic eye disease

    Correct Answer
    B. Pinguecula
    Explanation
    Pinguecula is the correct answer because it accurately describes a degenerative lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva that appears as a yellow-white, amorphous, subepithelial nodule adjacent to the limbus, usually on the nasal side. Viral conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis, and allergic eye disease do not match this description. Pterygium is a growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea and is not specific to the nasal side.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following describes a benign proliferation of fibro-vascular tissue within the bulbar conjunctiva that extends onto the peripheral cornea?

    • A.

      Pinguecula

    • B.

      Pterygium

    • C.

      Viral conjunctivitis

    • D.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis

    • E.

      Allergic eye disease

    Correct Answer
    B. Pterygium
    Explanation
    A pterygium is a benign growth of fibro-vascular tissue that starts in the bulbar conjunctiva and extends onto the peripheral cornea. It is commonly caused by prolonged exposure to sunlight and wind, and is more common in individuals who live in sunny climates. It can cause discomfort, redness, and blurry vision. Treatment options include artificial tears, steroids, and surgical removal if it causes significant symptoms or affects vision.

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  • 24. 

    Typically, a pterygium assumes a _____________ configuration with the apex of the lesion directed toward the pupil. Growth occurs from this apex onto the limbal cornea.

    • A.

      Circular

    • B.

      Square

    • C.

      Rectangular

    • D.

      Triangular

    • E.

      Octagonal

    Correct Answer
    D. Triangular
    Explanation
    A pterygium is a growth of tissue on the conjunctiva, usually caused by exposure to UV radiation. It typically has a triangular configuration, with the apex of the lesion pointing towards the pupil. The growth of the pterygium starts from this apex and extends onto the limbal cornea.

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  • 25. 

    Both pingueclae and pterygiae are usually ___________ and always in the _____________ meridian.

    • A.

      Bilateral, horizontal

    • B.

      Bilateral, vertical

    • C.

      Unilateral, horizontal

    • D.

      Unilateral, vertical

    Correct Answer
    A. Bilateral, horizontal
    Explanation
    Pingueclae and pterygiae are both conditions that affect the eyes. Pingueclae are yellowish growths on the conjunctiva, while pterygiae are fleshy growths that extend onto the cornea. Both conditions typically occur in both eyes (bilateral) and are usually found in the horizontal meridian, meaning they are more likely to be located on the sides of the eyes rather than the top or bottom.

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  • 26. 

    Both pinguecula and pterygium are more commonly on the ___________ portion of the conjunctiva.

    • A.

      Lateral

    • B.

      Nasal

    • C.

      Bulbar

    • D.

      Palpebral

    • E.

      Upper

    Correct Answer
    B. Nasal
    Explanation
    Both pinguecula and pterygium are more commonly found on the nasal portion of the conjunctiva. This means that they are more likely to occur on the side of the conjunctiva that is closer to the nose. The nasal portion of the conjunctiva refers to the area towards the inner corner of the eye, while the temporal portion refers to the area towards the outer corner of the eye.

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  • 27. 

    TRUE OR FALSE?? Pinguecula are often preceded by pterygia?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Its the other way around! Pterygia are often preceded by pinguecula!

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  • 28. 

    What region are pinguecula and pterygium common in?

    • A.

      Wet, moist, and humid regions

    • B.

      Dry, cold, and arid regions

    • C.

      Sunny, cool, and crisp regions

    • D.

      Wet, cold, and damp regions

    • E.

      Sunny, hot, and dusty regions

    Correct Answer
    E. Sunny, hot, and dusty regions
    Explanation
    Pinguecula and pterygium are common in sunny, hot, and dusty regions because these conditions increase exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and irritants like dust. UV radiation can cause changes in the conjunctiva, leading to the formation of pinguecula and pterygium. Additionally, the dry and dusty environment can cause irritation and inflammation of the conjunctiva, contributing to the development of these conditions.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following best describes an inflammatory and ulcerative condition involving the cornea?

    • A.

      Corneal ulcer

    • B.

      Bacterial keratitis

    • C.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • D.

      Fungal keratitis

    • E.

      Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    Correct Answer
    A. Corneal ulcer
    Explanation
    An inflammatory and ulcerative condition involving the cornea is best described as a corneal ulcer. A corneal ulcer refers to an open sore on the cornea, which is the clear front surface of the eye. It is often caused by an infection, injury, or underlying condition. Symptoms may include eye pain, redness, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. Prompt treatment is necessary to prevent complications and potential vision loss.

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  • 30. 

    Corneal ulcers are most commonly due to __________ involving bacteria, viruses, fungi, or amoebas.

    • A.

      Trauma injuries

    • B.

      Direct contact

    • C.

      Infection

    • D.

      Pterygia

    • E.

      Inflammation

    Correct Answer
    C. Infection
    Explanation
    Corneal ulcers are most commonly caused by infections involving bacteria, viruses, fungi, or amoebas. These microorganisms can invade the cornea, leading to inflammation and the formation of ulcers. Trauma injuries and direct contact can also contribute to the development of corneal ulcers, but the primary cause in most cases is an infection. Pterygia, which are growths on the surface of the eye, and inflammation may contribute to the development of corneal ulcers but are not the main cause.

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  • 31. 

    TRUE OR FALSE? Corneal ulcer is considered an ophthalmologic emergency?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Corneal ulcer is considered an ophthalmologic emergency because it is a serious condition that can lead to vision loss if not promptly treated. A corneal ulcer is an open sore on the cornea, the clear outer layer of the eye. It is usually caused by an infection or injury, and if left untreated, it can cause severe pain, inflammation, and damage to the cornea. Prompt medical attention is necessary to prevent complications and preserve vision.

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  • 32. 

    A patient presents with pain, photophobia, tearing, decreased vision, purulent or watery discharge, and a foreign body sensation. You examine the eye closer and notice a corneal-stromal infiltrate (white spot), conjunctival circum-injection, a miotic pupil, edema, and lid erythema. What condition do you suspect the patient has?

    • A.

      Viral conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis (ophthalmologic emergency!)

    • C.

      Pterygium

    • D.

      Corneal ulcer (ophthalmologic emergency!)

    • E.

      Pinguecula

    Correct Answer
    D. Corneal ulcer (ophthalmologic emergency!)
    Explanation
    Based on the symptoms and findings described, the patient is likely suffering from a corneal ulcer. The presence of pain, photophobia, tearing, decreased vision, and a foreign body sensation are common symptoms of a corneal ulcer. The corneal-stromal infiltrate (white spot), conjunctival circum-injection, miotic pupil, edema, and lid erythema are characteristic signs of a corneal ulcer. Prompt treatment is necessary as corneal ulcers are considered ophthalmologic emergencies.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following conditions is commonly precipitated by the use of contact lenses, especially sleeping in contact lenses overnight?

    • A.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • B.

      Conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Fungal keratitis

    • D.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    • E.

      Bacterial keratitis

    Correct Answer
    E. Bacterial keratitis
    Explanation
    Sleeping in contact lenses overnight can increase the risk of bacterial keratitis. This is because wearing contact lenses for an extended period of time can lead to a buildup of bacteria on the lenses, which can then transfer to the eye and cause an infection. Bacterial keratitis is a serious condition that can cause redness, pain, blurred vision, and even permanent damage to the cornea if left untreated. It is important to follow proper hygiene and care instructions when using contact lenses to minimize the risk of bacterial keratitis.

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  • 34. 

    Which condition is commonly associated with the following bacteria: pseudomonas aeruginosa, streptococcus, moraxella, and staphylococcus?

    • A.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • B.

      Bacterial keratitis

    • C.

      Corneal Ulcer

    • D.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    • E.

      Bacterial Conjunctivitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Bacterial keratitis
    Explanation
    The condition commonly associated with the bacteria mentioned (pseudomonas aeruginosa, streptococcus, moraxella, and staphylococcus) is bacterial keratitis. Bacterial keratitis refers to an infection of the cornea caused by bacteria, and the mentioned bacteria are known to be common causative agents of this condition.

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  • 35. 

    TRUE OR FALSE?? Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of destroying the cornea within 6-12 hours!

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that can cause severe infections, including eye infections. It produces enzymes and toxins that can damage tissues, including the cornea. If left untreated, Pseudomonas keratitis, an infection of the cornea caused by this bacterium, can progress rapidly and lead to corneal destruction within 6-12 hours. Therefore, the statement "Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of destroying the cornea within 6-12 hours" is true.

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  • 36. 

    A patient presents with a thick yellow-green or blue-green micropurulent, tenacious exudate, and ground-glass edema surrounding an ulcer in their eye. Which of the following conditions with an aggressive course do you suspect the patient has?

    • A.

      Bacterial conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Bacterial keratitis

    • C.

      Corneal ulcer

    • D.

      Conjunctival hyperemia

    • E.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Bacterial keratitis
    Explanation
    The patient's presentation of a thick yellow-green or blue-green micropurulent exudate, along with ground-glass edema surrounding an ulcer in their eye, is highly suggestive of bacterial keratitis. Bacterial keratitis is an infection of the cornea caused by bacteria, and it often presents with these characteristic signs and symptoms. Prompt treatment is essential as bacterial keratitis can have an aggressive course and can lead to severe complications if left untreated.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following terms is commonly associated with bacterial keratitis and is defined as "the presence of a layer of white blood cells in the inferior or dependent portion of the anterior chamber of the eye?"

    • A.

      Hyperpyon

    • B.

      Hypopyon

    • C.

      Cheliosis

    • D.

      Moraxella

    • E.

      Corneal luster

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypopyon
    Explanation
    Hypopyon is commonly associated with bacterial keratitis and is defined as "the presence of a layer of white blood cells in the inferior or dependent portion of the anterior chamber of the eye." It is a characteristic sign of severe inflammation and infection in the eye, particularly in cases of bacterial keratitis. This accumulation of white blood cells can cause vision impairment and is typically treated with antibiotics to control the infection and reduce inflammation. Other terms listed in the options, such as Hyperpyon, Cheliosis, Moraxella, and Corneal luster, are not directly associated with this specific condition.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following is an important cause of ocular morbidity in adults and is the most common cause of corneal ulcers?

    • A.

      Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    • B.

      Viral keratitis

    • C.

      Bacterial keratitis

    • D.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • E.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Correct Answer
    D. Herpes simplex keratitis
    Explanation
    Herpes simplex keratitis is an important cause of ocular morbidity in adults and is the most common cause of corneal ulcers. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause inflammation and infection of the cornea, leading to the development of corneal ulcers. This condition can result in significant visual impairment and discomfort if not promptly diagnosed and treated. It is important to differentiate herpes simplex keratitis from other causes of keratitis, such as bacterial or viral keratitis, as the management and treatment approaches may differ.

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  • 39. 

    A patient comes in and presents with pain, irritation, foreign body sensation, redness, photophobia, tearing, and occasionally decreased visual acuity. You suspect a viral condition, and you know that this specific virus has the ability to colonize the trigeminal ganglion leading to recurrences precipitated by fever, excessive exposure to sunlight, trauma, systemic illness, stress, or immunodeficiency. What condition does the patient have?

    • A.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • B.

      Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    • C.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    • D.

      Fungal keratitis

    • E.

      Bacterial keratitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Herpes simplex keratitis
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms, such as pain, irritation, foreign body sensation, redness, photophobia, tearing, and occasionally decreased visual acuity, are consistent with herpes simplex keratitis. This condition is caused by the herpes simplex virus, which has the ability to colonize the trigeminal ganglion. Recurrences of the condition can be triggered by various factors such as fever, excessive exposure to sunlight, trauma, systemic illness, stress, or immunodeficiency. Therefore, based on the patient's symptoms and the characteristics of the virus, the most likely condition is herpes simplex keratitis.

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  • 40. 

    If you complete fluorescein staining on a patient with Herpes simplex keratitis, there is a classic _____________ branching in the _________ of the cornea, with characteristic _____________  _________ at the end of each branch.

    • A.

      Dendritic, center, terminal thinning

    • B.

      Neuronal, sides, terminal bulbs

    • C.

      Neuronal, center, terminal thinning

    • D.

      Dendritic, center, terminal bulbs

    • E.

      Dendritic, sides, terminal balls

    Correct Answer
    D. Dendritic, center, terminal bulbs
    Explanation
    When fluorescein staining is performed on a patient with Herpes simplex keratitis, a classic dendritic pattern is observed in the center of the cornea. This pattern consists of branching lines, with characteristic terminal bulbs at the end of each branch.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following conditions primarily presents as unilateral blepharitis with vesicles on an erythematous base, conjunctivits, and corneal lesions, but in recurrences of the infection present with keratoconjunctivits, blepharitis, or iritis with more corneal involvement?

    • A.

      Bacterial keratitis

    • B.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • C.

      Kerpes zoster ophthalmicus

    • D.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    • E.

      Fungal keratitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Herpes simplex keratitis
    Explanation
    Herpes simplex keratitis primarily presents as unilateral blepharitis with vesicles on an erythematous base, conjunctivitis, and corneal lesions. During recurrences of the infection, it presents with keratoconjunctivitis, blepharitis, or iritis with more corneal involvement. This is a characteristic presentation of herpes simplex keratitis, which is caused by the herpes simplex virus and affects the cornea. The other conditions listed, such as bacterial keratitis, kerpes zoster ophthalmicus, acanthamoeba keratitis, and fungal keratitis, may have similar symptoms but do not typically present with the specific pattern described in the question.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following conditions develops secondarily to activation of latent varicella zoster within the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve?

    • A.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • B.

      Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    • C.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    • D.

      Herpes zoster keratitis

    • E.

      Bacterial keratitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus
    Explanation
    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is the correct answer because it is a condition that develops secondarily to activation of latent varicella zoster virus within the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is characterized by a painful rash and blisters around the eye, along with other symptoms such as eye redness, tearing, and sensitivity to light. It is important to diagnose and treat herpes zoster ophthalmicus promptly to prevent complications and minimize the risk of vision loss.

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  • 43. 

    Your patient comes in and presents with malaise, fever, headache, and periorbital burning and itching. You know of a condition in which these symptoms are the "prodromes" that precede an eruption of an initially vesicular rash, that becomes pustular and crusty. What condition do you suspect your patient is coming down with?

    • A.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    • B.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • C.

      Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    • D.

      Bacterial keratitis

    • E.

      Fungal keratitis

    Correct Answer
    C. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms of malaise, fever, headache, and periorbital burning and itching are consistent with the prodromal symptoms of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. This condition is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, which initially causes chickenpox. The virus then lies dormant in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate later in life, leading to herpes zoster. In the case of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, the virus affects the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, causing symptoms such as pain, itching, and rash in the eye and surrounding area.

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  • 44. 

    In patient's who are infected with herpes zoster ophthalmicus, lesions on the _______________ (Hutchinson's sign), or lid margin are at a higher risk for ocular involvment.

    • A.

      Sides of the forehead

    • B.

      Bottom of the chin

    • C.

      Eyebrow hairline

    • D.

      Lobule of the ear

    • E.

      Tip of the nose

    Correct Answer
    E. Tip of the nose
    Explanation
    In patients infected with herpes zoster ophthalmicus, lesions on the tip of the nose are at a higher risk for ocular involvement. This is known as Hutchinson's sign. The virus can spread from the nasal branch of the trigeminal nerve to the ophthalmic branch, leading to eye complications such as conjunctivitis, keratitis, and even vision loss. Therefore, identifying lesions on the tip of the nose is important in assessing the severity and potential complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

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  • 45. 

    Your patient comes in presenting with ocular signs that include conjunctivitis, keratitis, episcleritis, anterior uveitis, and often elevated IOP. You do a fluoresceine stain and Wood's lamp exam, and you discover dendritic lesions with branching. What do you suspect your patient is presenting with?

    • A.

      Corneal ulcer

    • B.

      Bacterial keratitis

    • C.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    • D.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • E.

      Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    Correct Answer
    E. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus
    Explanation
    The patient is presenting with ocular signs such as conjunctivitis, keratitis, episcleritis, anterior uveitis, and elevated IOP. The presence of dendritic lesions with branching observed during the fluorescein stain and Wood's lamp exam suggests that the patient is likely presenting with Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. This condition is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. It typically affects the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and can lead to various ocular manifestations, including conjunctivitis, keratitis, and uveitis.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is an important risk factor for herpes zoster ophthalmicus, and increases the likelihood of complications?

    • A.

      High blood pressure

    • B.

      Diabetes

    • C.

      HIV infection

    • D.

      High cholesterol

    • E.

      Viral herpes infection

    Correct Answer
    C. HIV infection
    Explanation
    HIV infection is an important risk factor for herpes zoster ophthalmicus and increases the likelihood of complications. HIV weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and complications. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is a viral infection caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. In individuals with HIV, the risk of developing herpes zoster ophthalmicus is higher, and the infection can be more severe and lead to more complications.

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  • 47. 

    Your patient comes in and tells you that he was trimming his trees this weekend and got whacked in the face by a big branch. Over the past couple of days, his eye has been getting redder and more irritated. Based purely on your patient's history, what do you suspect he is presenting with?

    • A.

      Bacterial keratitis

    • B.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    • C.

      Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    • D.

      Fungal keratitis

    • E.

      Viral keratitis

    Correct Answer
    D. Fungal keratitis
    Explanation
    Based on the patient's history of being hit in the face by a big branch while trimming trees and the subsequent redness and irritation in the eye, it is likely that the patient is presenting with fungal keratitis. Trauma to the eye can introduce fungal spores, which can then grow and cause an infection. The symptoms of redness and irritation are consistent with fungal keratitis.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following ubiquitous protozoa is an important cause of suppurative keratitis in contact lens wearers who use contaminated lens solution or swim with their contacts in?

    • A.

      Moraxella

    • B.

      Acanthamoeba

    • C.

      Staphylococcus aureus

    • D.

      Haemophilus aegyptius

    • E.

      Pseudomonas

    Correct Answer
    B. Acanthamoeba
    Explanation
    Acanthamoeba is a ubiquitous protozoa that can cause suppurative keratitis in contact lens wearers who use contaminated lens solution or swim with their contacts in. This organism can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and air, making it easily accessible to contact lens wearers. When the lens solution is contaminated or when the lenses are exposed to water, Acanthamoeba can adhere to the lenses and cause infection in the cornea, leading to suppurative keratitis. This highlights the importance of proper hygiene and care when using contact lenses to prevent Acanthamoeba infections.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following usually presents with pain out of proportion to the clinical findings?

    • A.

      Bacterial keratitis

    • B.

      Acanthamoeba keratitis

    • C.

      Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    • D.

      Herpes simplex keratitis

    • E.

      Viral keratitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Acanthamoeba keratitis
    Explanation
    Acanthamoeba keratitis usually presents with pain out of proportion to the clinical findings. This is because Acanthamoeba is a parasite that invades the cornea and causes severe inflammation and damage. The pain experienced by the patient is often described as severe and disproportionate to the visible signs of infection. Other symptoms may include redness, blurred vision, and increased sensitivity to light. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent further damage to the cornea and potential vision loss.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Feb 07, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 17, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Saraholson7
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