Edmonds AP Pre 2010-11

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Edmonds AP Pre 2010-11 - Quiz

2006 AP test


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The "Three-Fifths Compromise" originally contained in the Constitution referred to the

    • A.

      Proportion of states permitted to practice slavery

    • B.

      Rate at which one slave counted toward congressional representation

    • C.

      Number of African Americans who could vote

    • D.

      Number of adult women who could vote

    • E.

      Number of American Indians allowed citizenship

    Correct Answer
    B. Rate at which one slave counted toward congressional representation
    Explanation
    The "Three-Fifths Compromise" referred to the rate at which one slave counted toward congressional representation. Under this compromise, each slave was counted as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of determining a state's population and thus its representation in the House of Representatives. This compromise was reached between the Northern and Southern states during the Constitutional Convention in 1787, as a way to address the issue of slavery and representation in the new federal government.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following best explains why Massa­chusetts Bay officials banished Anne Hutchinson?

    • A.

      She challenged gender roles and Puritan orthodoxy.

    • B.

      She was found guilty of practicing witchcraft.

    • C.

      She preached the doctrine of predestination.

    • D.

      She gave birth to a child out of wedlock.

    • E.

      She opened an unlicensed tavern.

    Correct Answer
    A. She challenged gender roles and Puritan orthodoxy.
    Explanation
    Anne Hutchinson was banished from Massachusetts Bay because she challenged gender roles and Puritan orthodoxy. She held meetings in her home where she discussed religious ideas and criticized the male-dominated religious hierarchy. Her views were seen as a threat to the established order and authority of the Puritan leaders. By challenging gender roles and questioning the religious teachings of the Puritans, Hutchinson posed a significant challenge to the social and religious norms of the time, leading to her banishment.

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  • 3. 

    "Competition is a law of nature . . . and can no more be done away with than gravitation.. . . [I]f we do not like survival of the fittest, we have only one possible alternative, survival of the unfittest.  The former is the law of civilization, the latter is the law of anti-civilization." The quote above is an example of which of the following schools of thought?

    • A.

      Dialectical materialism

    • B.

      Utopian socialism

    • C.

      Social Darwinism

    • D.

      Transcendentalism

    • E.

      Existentialism

    Correct Answer
    C. Social Darwinism
    Explanation
    The quote suggests that competition is a natural law that cannot be eliminated, similar to how gravity cannot be eliminated. It argues that if we do not like the concept of survival of the fittest, the only alternative is survival of the unfittest. This aligns with the principles of Social Darwinism, which is the belief that competition and natural selection are essential for social progress.

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  • 4. 

    Parliament enacted the Stamp Act (1765) primarily to

    • A.

      Regulate trade between the colonies and European nations

    • B.

      Strengthen the communication network within the colonies

    • C.

      Raise revenue to pay for British troops in the colonies

    • D.

      Regulate commercial activity within colonies

    • E.

      Control population movement to the colonial backcountry

    Correct Answer
    C. Raise revenue to pay for British troops in the colonies
    Explanation
    The correct answer is raise revenue to pay for British troops in the colonies. The Stamp Act was enacted by Parliament in 1765 with the purpose of generating revenue from the American colonies to cover the costs of maintaining British troops stationed there. The act imposed a tax on various printed materials, such as newspapers, legal documents, and playing cards, which had to bear a revenue stamp. This tax was highly unpopular among the colonists and led to widespread protests and resistance, ultimately contributing to the growing tensions that would lead to the American Revolution.

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  • 5. 

    Kent State University was the site in 1970 of which of the following events?

    • A.

      A rock concert second only to the Woodstock concert in the number of attendees

    • B.

      A highly publicized sit-in advocating women’s rights

    • C.

      The first even in observance of Earth day, which sought to increase public awareness of environmental degradation

    • D.

      An antiwar demonstration in which fout students were killed by members of the National Guard

    • E.

      A demonstration by African American, Hispanic, and White students in support of affirmative action that helped draw public attention to the issue

    Correct Answer
    D. An antiwar demonstration in which fout students were killed by members of the National Guard
    Explanation
    In 1970, Kent State University was the site of an antiwar demonstration where four students were killed by members of the National Guard. This event gained significant attention and became a symbol of the anti-Vietnam War movement. The tragic incident sparked outrage and protests across the country, highlighting the divide between the government and the youth during that time.

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  • 6. 

    Perfectionism in the mid-nineteenth century is best defined as

    • A.

      Improvement in the manners of the lower classes

    • B.

      Faith in human capacity to achieve a better life on early through conscious acts of will

    • C.

      The rewards of church membership and regular attendance at Sunday services

    • D.

      Allegiance to the political tenets of Jacksonian Democracy

    • E.

      Belief in the inevitability of economic progress

    Correct Answer
    B. Faith in human capacity to achieve a better life on early through conscious acts of will
    Explanation
    Perfectionism in the mid-nineteenth century is best defined as the belief in human capacity to achieve a better life early through conscious acts of will. This suggests that individuals during this time period believed that they had the power to improve their lives through their own efforts and choices. It reflects a sense of optimism and self-determination prevalent during the period.

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  • 7. 

    The Congress of Industrial Organizations was most interested in unionizing which of the following?

    • A.

      Migrant farm workers

    • B.

      White-collar factory managers

    • C.

      Unskilled and semiskilled factory workers

    • D.

      Sailors on American merchant ships

    • E.

      Women clerical workers

    Correct Answer
    C. Unskilled and semiskilled factory workers
    Explanation
    The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was primarily focused on unionizing unskilled and semiskilled factory workers. This was because these workers often faced poor working conditions, low wages, and lack of job security. The CIO aimed to improve their rights and working conditions through collective bargaining and organizing labor strikes. By unionizing these workers, the CIO sought to address the needs and concerns of the largest group of industrial workers in the United States at the time.

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  • 8. 

    The union membership card pictured above is designed to accomplish which of the following? The union membership card pictured above is designed to accomplish which of the following?

    • A.

      Encourage United States workers to unite against foreign competition

    • B.

      Assure the public that strikes and walkouts were not part of the union party

    • C.

      Link union membership with patriotic and religious images

    • D.

      Point out the dangers of working as a longshoreman

    • E.

      Show that membership in the longshoremen’s union was open only to workers born in the United States

    Correct Answer
    C. Link union membership with patriotic and religious images
    Explanation
    The union membership card is designed to link union membership with patriotic and religious images. This can be inferred from the fact that the card features an American flag and a cross, which are symbols associated with patriotism and religion. The purpose of including these symbols is likely to emphasize the union's connection to American values and to appeal to workers who identify strongly with their country and faith.

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  • 9. 

    The Open Door policy in China called for which of the following?

    • A.

      A consortium of nations to govern China

    • B.

      International acknowledgement of China’s right to exclude the trade of any nation

    • C.

      Recognition of Chinese territorial gains in Manchuria

    • D.

      Reduction of foreign tariffs on Chinese goods

    • E.

      Equal commercial access by all nations to the existing spheres of influence in China

    Correct Answer
    E. Equal commercial access by all nations to the existing spheres of influence in China
    Explanation
    The Open Door policy in China called for equal commercial access by all nations to the existing spheres of influence in China. This means that all countries would have the same opportunity to trade and invest in China, without any specific country having exclusive control over certain regions. This policy aimed to promote fair competition and prevent any one country from dominating China's economy.

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  • 10. 

    Shay’s Rebellion frightened many Americans when

    • A.

      City mobs raided flour supplies in Philadelphia

    • B.

      Debit-ridden farmers attached courts in western Massachusetts

    • C.

      Indians raided frontier settlements in Virginia

    • D.

      Squatters terrorized proprietors in New York

    • E.

      Vigilantes in South Carolina patrolled the frontier

    Correct Answer
    B. Debit-ridden farmers attached courts in western Massachusetts
    Explanation
    During Shay's Rebellion, which took place in the late 1780s, debt-ridden farmers in western Massachusetts took up arms and attacked courts. These farmers were frustrated with the economic hardships they were facing, including high taxes and debt, and felt that the courts were not providing them with fair treatment. Their actions were seen as a threat to the stability of the newly formed United States and alarmed many Americans, as it highlighted the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the need for a stronger central government.

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  • 11. 

    Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the New World, was founded by

    • A.

      Three aristocratic proprietors seeking private gain

    • B.

      A joint stock company anxious to return a profit to investors

    • C.

      Sire Walter Raleigh, wishing to gain favor with Elizabeth I

    • D.

      King James I, eager to gain a base for expeditions against Spanish shipping

    • E.

      John Smith, seeking to spread Christianity

    Correct Answer
    B. A joint stock company anxious to return a profit to investors
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a joint stock company anxious to return a profit to investors. This is because Jamestown was founded by the Virginia Company of London, a joint stock company, with the primary goal of making a profit for its investors. The company hoped to establish a successful colony in the New World that could produce valuable resources and trade goods, ultimately generating financial returns for its shareholders.

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  • 12. 

    The 1950s picture above shows what some social critics believed to be

    • A.

      The cause of decreased agricultural production

    • B.

      Tangible evidence of the strength of the nation’s largest cities

    • C.

      A representation of the conformity of postwar culture

    • D.

      The end of social and economic differentiation in housing

    • E.

      A sign that Americans were becoming more tolerant of cultural differences

    Correct Answer
    C. A representation of the conformity of postwar culture
    Explanation
    The 1950s picture above is believed to be a representation of the conformity of postwar culture. This can be inferred from the image, which shows rows of identical houses with similar designs and layouts. This reflects the trend of suburbanization and the mass production of standardized housing during this time period. The uniformity in housing design and the lack of diversity in architecture suggest a conformity to societal norms and a desire for a homogeneous suburban lifestyle.

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  • 13. 

    Around 1920, the number of children aged 10 to 15 in the industrial workforce began to decline for which of the following reasons?

    • A.

      The Supreme Court sustained laws barring the interstate sale of goods produced by child labor.

    • B.

      Introduction of the minimum wage made child labor uneconomical

    • C.

      The American birth rate declined, thus reducing the number of children available to work.

    • D.

      Factory owners advocated state child labor laws.

    • E.

      States began to require children to attend school until certain age and to limit the ages at which they could be employed

    Correct Answer
    E. States began to require children to attend school until certain age and to limit the ages at which they could be employed
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that states began to require children to attend school until a certain age and to limit the ages at which they could be employed. This meant that children were no longer able to work in factories and were instead required to attend school, which led to a decline in the number of children in the industrial workforce.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following generalizations can be supported by the information provided in the map above?

    • A.

      Frontier life tended to promote the acceptance of greater political equality for women.

    • B.

      Fewer women lived in the southeastern states than in other parts of the country; therefore, suffrage was less of an issue.

    • C.

      None of the state of the Confederacy granted votes to women before 1920.

    • D.

      The Seneca Falls Movement resulted in gains in the are of political and legal rights for women.

    • E.

      States that made free public education a priority led the way in extending the vote to women.

    Correct Answer
    A. Frontier life tended to promote the acceptance of greater political equality for women.
    Explanation
    The map provided shows the distribution of women's suffrage in the United States before 1920. The areas with higher suffrage rates are located in the western frontier states. This suggests that frontier life tended to promote the acceptance of greater political equality for women. This is supported by the fact that these frontier states, which were less populated and had fewer social and political structures in place, were more open to granting women the right to vote. Therefore, the correct answer is that frontier life tended to promote the acceptance of greater political equality for women.

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  • 15. 

    The purpose of the Lend-Lease Act was to

    • A.

      Create military bases outside the borders of the United States

    • B.

      Lend money to impoverished farmers

    • C.

      Provide military supplies to the Allies

    • D.

      Provide subsidies to railroads and businesses

    • E.

      Exchange scientific information among nation

    Correct Answer
    C. Provide military supplies to the Allies
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to provide military supplies to the Allies. The Lend-Lease Act, passed by the United States in 1941, allowed the country to provide military aid, including weapons, equipment, and supplies, to its allies during World War II. This act was crucial in supporting countries like Britain and the Soviet Union in their fight against the Axis powers. It helped strengthen the military capabilities of the Allies and played a significant role in the eventual victory over the Axis powers.

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  • 16. 

    The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest were similar in that all involved a defense of

    • A.

      Freedom of the seas

    • B.

      Freedom of speech

    • C.

      The institution of slavery

    • D.

      States’ rights

    • E.

      Presidential power in foreign affairs

    Correct Answer
    D. States’ rights
    Explanation
    The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest were all instances where states asserted their rights against the federal government. These events were responses to perceived federal overreach and a defense of states' rights to govern themselves. They were not related to freedom of the seas, freedom of speech, the institution of slavery, or presidential power in foreign affairs.

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  • 17. 

    The United States involvement in Vietnam increased dramatically in the 1950s with the withdrawal of the

    • A.

      Japanese

    • B.

      British

    • C.

      Chinese

    • D.

      French

    • E.

      Soviets

    Correct Answer
    D. French
    Explanation
    In the 1950s, the United States' involvement in Vietnam escalated significantly with the withdrawal of the French. The French had been involved in Vietnam as a colonial power, but after suffering a major defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, they decided to withdraw. This created a power vacuum in Vietnam, which the United States saw as an opportunity to step in and support the South Vietnamese government in its fight against the communist North. Thus, the withdrawal of the French paved the way for increased American involvement in Vietnam.

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  • 18. 

    In an influential 1947 article, diplomat George F. Kennan advocated that the United States should

    • A.

      Invade the Soviet Union to establish democracy

    • B.

      Adopt a more conciliatory policy toward the Soviet Union

    • C.

      Conduct convert activities in underdeveloped countries to undermine communist movements

    • D.

      Grant most-favored-nation status to China

    • E.

      Focus its foreign policy on containing the spread of Soviet communism

    Correct Answer
    E. Focus its foreign policy on containing the spread of Soviet communism
    Explanation
    In his article, George F. Kennan proposed that the United States should focus its foreign policy on containing the spread of Soviet communism. This means that the U.S. should actively work to prevent the expansion of Soviet influence and communism around the world. This approach suggests a defensive stance rather than an offensive one, aiming to limit the reach and impact of Soviet communism rather than directly confronting it through invasion or military action.

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  • 19. 

    One reason early twentieth century muckrakers were able to have a significant impact on society was because

    • A.

      Sales and circulation of newspapers and magazines increased

    • B.

      Most citizens of the United States were already convinced that Jim Crow laws must be overturned

    • C.

      They had the sympathy and support of industrialist like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller

    • D.

      Drought conditions in the Midwest drew attention to social problems

    • E.

      Radio programs devoted to the problems in cities attracted wide listening audiences

    Correct Answer
    A. Sales and circulation of newspapers and magazines increased
    Explanation
    During the early twentieth century, muckrakers were able to have a significant impact on society because the sales and circulation of newspapers and magazines increased. This increase in readership provided a larger platform for muckrakers to expose corruption, injustices, and social problems. As more people were exposed to their investigative journalism, public awareness and outrage grew, leading to calls for reform and change. The increased sales and circulation of newspapers and magazines helped muckrakers reach a wider audience and amplify their message, thus contributing to their ability to have a significant impact on society.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following best describes the position on slavery of most northerners during the sectional crises of the 1850s?

    • A.

      They were willing to accept slavery where it existed but opposed further expansion to the territories.

    • B.

      They were active supporters of complete abolition.

    • C.

      They favored continued importation of slaves from Africa.

    • D.

      They advocated expansion of the slave system to provide cheap labor for northern factories.

    • E.

      They advocated complete social and political equality for all races in the United States.

    Correct Answer
    A. They were willing to accept slavery where it existed but opposed further expansion to the territories.
    Explanation
    During the sectional crises of the 1850s, most northerners were willing to accept slavery where it already existed but were against its further expansion into the territories. This position reflected a compromise between those who opposed slavery entirely and those who supported its expansion. Northerners recognized the importance of maintaining the delicate balance between free and slave states, and sought to prevent the spread of slavery in order to maintain this balance. They did not advocate for complete abolition or the importation of more slaves, nor did they support the expansion of the slave system for labor purposes.

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  • 21. 

    All of the following contributed to the decline of open-range cattle ranching at the end of the nineteenth century EXCEPT

    • A.

      Excessively cold winters

    • B.

      Federal recognition of American Indian land claims

    • C.

      A drop in cattle prices at stockyards

    • D.

      Overgrazing

    • E.

      Production of crops for distant markets

    Correct Answer
    B. Federal recognition of American Indian land claims
    Explanation
    The decline of open-range cattle ranching at the end of the nineteenth century was caused by various factors. Excessively cold winters could have led to the death of cattle and made it difficult to graze them. A drop in cattle prices at stockyards would have made it less profitable for ranchers to continue their operations. Overgrazing would have depleted the grasslands, making it harder for cattle to find enough food. The production of crops for distant markets would have required the use of land that could have been used for grazing. However, federal recognition of American Indian land claims would not have directly contributed to the decline of open-range cattle ranching.

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  • 22. 

    “In the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies.”   The appeal quoted above was made by

    • A.

      Judith Sargent Murray

    • B.

      Abigail Adams

    • C.

      Philip Freneau

    • D.

      Mercy Otis Warren

    • E.

      Thomas Paine

    Correct Answer
    B. Abigail Adams
    Explanation
    The appeal quoted above, which asks for women to be included in the new Code of Laws, was made by Abigail Adams.

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  • 23. 

    Jacob Riis is best known for his work in the 1890s as a

    • A.

      labor organizer and Socialist Party activist

    • B.

      Leader of the People's Party

    • C.

      Reformer who encouraged new immigrants to homestead

    • D.

      Playwright whose dramas celebrated the assimilation of immigrants into American society

    • E.

      Journalist and photographer who publicized the wretched conditions in which many immigrants lived

    Correct Answer
    E. Journalist and photographer who publicized the wretched conditions in which many immigrants lived
    Explanation
    Jacob Riis is best known for his work as a journalist and photographer who exposed the appalling living conditions of immigrants during the 1890s. Through his photographs and writings, Riis shed light on the overcrowded tenements, poverty, and unsanitary conditions that many immigrants faced in cities like New York. His work helped raise awareness and bring about social and political reforms to improve the lives of immigrants.

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  • 24. 

    The Black Power movement of the late 1960s advocated that African Americans

    • A.

      Organize political parties sympathetic to communism

    • B.

      Establish African American communities in Africa

    • C.

      Seek the racial integration of northeastern cities

    • D.

      Establish control of their political and economic life

    • E.

      Assimilate into White society

    Correct Answer
    D. Establish control of their political and economic life
    Explanation
    The Black Power movement of the late 1960s advocated for African Americans to establish control of their political and economic life. This means that they wanted to have power and influence in decision-making processes and have control over their own economic resources. This was a response to the systemic racism and discrimination that African Americans faced, and it aimed to empower the community and challenge the existing power structures. The movement sought to address issues of inequality and promote self-determination for African Americans.

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  • 25. 

    The major objective of the antipoverty programs of Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society was to

    • A.

      Break the cycle of poverty among poor people through education and job training

    • B.

      Provide temporary benefits to the "new poor" during times of recession

    • C.

      Transfer the federal government's responsibility for welfare back to the states

    • D.

      Simplify welfare by replacing job programs with cash grants for the poor

    • E.

      Build a socialist society in the United States

    Correct Answer
    A. Break the cycle of poverty among poor people through education and job training
    Explanation
    The major objective of the antipoverty programs of Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society was to break the cycle of poverty among poor people through education and job training. This means that the programs aimed to provide opportunities for the poor to gain the necessary skills and knowledge to improve their economic situation and escape poverty. By focusing on education and job training, the intention was to empower individuals and give them the tools they needed to secure better employment and achieve economic stability.

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  • 26. 

    Between 1870 and 1900, farmers did all of the following in an attempt to better their condition EXCEPT

    • A.

      Seek state regulation of railways

    • B.

      Limit production of crops

    • C.

      Organize cooperative marketing societies

    • D.

      Form a third political party

    • E.

      Advocate inflation of the currency

    Correct Answer
    B. Limit production of crops
    Explanation
    During the late 19th century, farmers faced numerous challenges and hardships. In their efforts to improve their condition, they sought state regulation of railways to prevent unfair practices and high transportation costs. They organized cooperative marketing societies to collectively sell their products and negotiate better prices. They also formed a third political party, the Populist Party, to advocate for their interests and push for reforms. Additionally, they advocated for inflation of the currency to increase the prices of their crops and ease their debt burden. However, they did not limit the production of crops as a means to improve their condition.

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  • 27. 

    The purpose of the Liberty Loan Campaign illustrated in the drawing above was to  

    • A.

      Encourage young men to enlist in the army

    • B.

      Finance American involvement in the First World War

    • C.

      Support the establishment of Boy Scout troops throughout the nation

    • D.

      Aid in the implementation of New Deal programs

    • E.

      Support funding for Franklin Roosevelt's Lend-Lease program

    Correct Answer
    B. Finance American involvement in the First World War
    Explanation
    The purpose of the Liberty Loan Campaign, as illustrated in the drawing above, was to finance American involvement in the First World War. The campaign was aimed at encouraging citizens to purchase government bonds, known as Liberty Loans, in order to raise funds for the war effort. These bonds were seen as a way for ordinary citizens to contribute to the war and support their country. The funds raised through the Liberty Loan Campaign were used to finance the war and provide the necessary resources for the American military.

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  • 28. 

    The National Organization for Women (NOW) was founded in 1966 in order to  

    • A.

      Encourage women to believe in the "feminine mystique"

    • B.

      Challenge sex discrimination in the workplace oppose the proposed Equal Rights Amendment

    • C.

      Advocate restrictions on access to abortion

    • D.

      Advocate equal access for women to athletic facilities

    Correct Answer
    B. Challenge sex discrimination in the workplace oppose the proposed Equal Rights Amendment
    Explanation
    The National Organization for Women (NOW) was founded in 1966 with the goal of challenging sex discrimination in the workplace and opposing the proposed Equal Rights Amendment. The organization aimed to fight for gender equality and ensure that women were not discriminated against in the workforce. They also opposed the Equal Rights Amendment as they believed it did not adequately protect the rights of women. The organization's mission was to advocate for women's rights and work towards creating a more equal society.

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  • 29. 

    Under the Articles of Confederation the United States central government had no power to

    • A.

      Levy taxes

    • B.

      Make treaties

    • C.

      Declare war

    • D.

      Request troops from states

    • E.

      Amend the Articles

    Correct Answer
    A. Levy taxes
    Explanation
    Under the Articles of Confederation, the United States central government had no power to levy taxes. This meant that the government did not have the authority to collect funds from the states in order to finance its operations and fulfill its responsibilities. This lack of taxation power was a major weakness of the Articles, as it limited the government's ability to effectively govern and carry out its duties.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following is a true statement about the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War?

    • A.

      It resulted in the return of all property confiscated from Loyalists by individual American states during the war.

    • B.

      It recognized United States sovereignty over territory east of the Mississippi, between the Great Lakes and Florida.

    • C.

      It led to the speedy withdrawal of all British troops from American soil.

    • D.

      American negotiators consistently followed the guidelines specified by the Continental Congress.

    • E.

      The only parties to the treaty were Great Britain and the allied nations, the United Slates and France.

    Correct Answer
    B. It recognized United States sovereignty over territory east of the Mississippi, between the Great Lakes and Florida.
    Explanation
    The Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War recognized United States sovereignty over territory east of the Mississippi, between the Great Lakes and Florida. This means that the United States gained control and ownership over this specific territory as a result of the treaty.

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  • 31. 

    The cartoon above portrays President Wilson trying to

    • A.

      Conceal from the public the true reason for United States entry into the First World War

    • B.

      Arouse public support for United States entry into the First World War

    • C.

      Assess the public's support of his bid for a third presidential term

    • D.

      Warn the public that Germany had not been treated fairly at Versailles

    • E.

      Arouse public support for the Treaty of Versailles

    Correct Answer
    E. Arouse public support for the Treaty of Versailles
  • 32. 

          Which of the following was true of women in the five years following the Second World War?

    • A.

      Those working outside the home demanded equality in pay and promotion opportunities.

    • B.

      Large numbers left their industrial jobs to make room for returning soldiers.

    • C.

      They contributed to a sudden decline in the birth rate by employing new family plan­ning techniques.

    • D.

      Large numbers were elected to high office because of their contributions to the war effort.

    • E.

      Young women participated in a revolution in manners and morals that challenged the values of their parents.

    Correct Answer
    B. Large numbers left their industrial jobs to make room for returning soldiers.
    Explanation
    Large numbers left their industrial jobs to make room for returning soldiers. After the Second World War, many women who had entered the workforce during the war left their jobs to make space for the returning soldiers. This was due to societal pressure and the expectation that women should return to their traditional roles as homemakers. The reintegration of soldiers into the workforce led to a decline in employment opportunities for women and a return to gender inequality in the workplace.

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  • 33. 

    Theodore Roosevelt was the first President to

    • A.

      Use troops without congressional approval

    • B.

      Balance the federal budget

    • C.

      Advocate an antilynching bill

    • D.

      Pursue an imperialistic foreign policy

    • E.

      Arbitrate a labor dispute

    Correct Answer
    E. Arbitrate a labor dispute
    Explanation
    Theodore Roosevelt was the first President to arbitrate a labor dispute. This means that he intervened in a conflict between labor unions and employers to help settle the dispute and reach a fair agreement. This action demonstrated Roosevelt's commitment to resolving conflicts and promoting fair working conditions for workers. By using arbitration, he aimed to prevent strikes and maintain stability in the labor market. This decision showcased his progressive approach to labor relations and his willingness to take an active role in mediating disputes between different parties.

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  • 34. 

    The LEAST prosperous group in the 1920s consisted of

    • A.

      Workers in older industries like steel and railroads

    • B.

      Workers in newer industries like radio and automobiles

    • C.

      Farmers in the Midwest and the South

    • D.

      Skilled workers threatened by new labor-saving technologies

    • E.

      Workers in service industries

    Correct Answer
    C. Farmers in the Midwest and the South
    Explanation
    During the 1920s, the United States experienced an economic boom known as the "Roaring Twenties." However, this prosperity did not extend to all groups. Farmers in the Midwest and the South were the least prosperous during this time. They faced declining agricultural prices, overproduction, and high debt, leading to financial struggles. This was exacerbated by the Dust Bowl in the 1930s, which caused widespread crop failures and further economic hardship for farmers in these regions.

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  • 35. 

    The "graying" of America since the 1970s is widely seen as threatening which of the following?

    • A.

      The American tourist industry

    • B.

      The consumer culture of American society

    • C.

      The long-term viability of the social security system

    • D.

      Voter turnout in local and national elections

    • E.

      Immigration quotas

    Correct Answer
    C. The long-term viability of the social security system
    Explanation
    The "graying" of America refers to the increasing proportion of older adults in the population. This demographic shift is seen as threatening the long-term viability of the social security system because there will be fewer working-age individuals to support the growing number of retirees. As the number of older adults increases, there will be a strain on the social security system as it tries to provide benefits and support for a larger aging population. This demographic trend raises concerns about the sustainability and financial stability of the social security system in the future.

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  • 36. 

    Marcus Garvey's prominence during the 1920s arose from his

    • A.

      Establishment of a political party focusing on civil rights issues

    • B.

      Emphasis on the importance of Black pride and Black nationalism

    • C.

      Development of a national network of Black-owned businesses

    • D.

      Financial and literary contributions to the Harlem Renaissance

    • E.

      Service as an unofficial adviser to Presidents and cabinet members

    Correct Answer
    B. Emphasis on the importance of Black pride and Black nationalism
    Explanation
    Marcus Garvey's prominence during the 1920s arose from his emphasis on the importance of Black pride and Black nationalism. Garvey was a Jamaican political leader and activist who advocated for the empowerment and unity of Black people. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and promoted the idea of Black pride, encouraging Black people to take pride in their heritage and culture. He also advocated for Black nationalism, promoting the idea of a separate Black nation and self-determination for Black people. Garvey's emphasis on Black pride and Black nationalism resonated with many Black individuals and communities during the 1920s, contributing to his prominence during that time.

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  • 37. 

    The 1979 incident at Three Mile Island had which of the following effects?

    • A.

      It intensified criticism of the Supreme Court.

    • B.

      It intensified American Indian political activism.

    • C.

      It forced the United States to reconsider the policy of "massive retaliation."

    • D.

      It increased public pressure to free the United States from dependence on foreign energy sources.

    • E.

      It increased support for the movement against nuclear power.

    Correct Answer
    E. It increased support for the movement against nuclear power.
    Explanation
    The 1979 incident at Three Mile Island increased support for the movement against nuclear power. This incident was a partial nuclear meltdown at a nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania, which led to a release of radioactive gases and raised concerns about the safety of nuclear power. As a result, public opinion shifted towards opposing nuclear power, with more people supporting alternative energy sources and advocating for stricter regulations on nuclear power plants.

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  • 38. 

    Members of the Hudson River School were best known for their paintings of

    • A.

      Portraits

    • B.

      Battle scenes

    • C.

      Sporting scenes

    • D.

      Landscapes

    • E.

      Still lifes

    Correct Answer
    D. Landscapes
    Explanation
    The members of the Hudson River School were known for their paintings of landscapes. This artistic movement emerged in the mid-19th century in the United States and focused on capturing the beauty and grandeur of the American landscape. Artists associated with this school, such as Thomas Cole and Frederic Edwin Church, sought to depict the natural world in a way that emphasized its spiritual and sublime qualities. Their paintings often featured majestic mountains, serene rivers, and lush forests, showcasing the vastness and diversity of the American wilderness.

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  • 39. 

    The purpose of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 was to

    • A.

      Ease the economic difficulties of sharecroppers and tenant farmers

    • B.

      Provide for the distribution of surplus meat and produce to the poor

    • C.

      Reapportion electoral districts to give farmers greater representation in Congress

    • D.

      Expand agricultural production by subsidizing farmers

    • E.

      Raise farm prices by limiting agricultural production

    Correct Answer
    E. Raise farm prices by limiting agricultural production
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to raise farm prices by limiting agricultural production. The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 aimed to address the economic difficulties faced by farmers during the Great Depression. It sought to increase farm prices by reducing surplus agricultural production. The act provided subsidies to farmers who agreed to reduce their production levels, thereby limiting the supply of agricultural products in the market. This strategy was intended to drive up prices and improve the economic conditions of farmers.

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  • 40. 

    The Supreme Court ruling in Korematsu v. United States upheld the constitutionality of

    • A.

      Flag burning as a form of free speech

    • B.

      The internment of Japanese Americans as a wartime necessity

    • C.

      Prohibiting Japanese workers from immigrating to the United States

    • D.

      Private prayer in public schools

    • E.

      Excluding Japanese American children from California public schools

    Correct Answer
    B. The internment of Japanese Americans as a wartime necessity
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the internment of Japanese Americans as a wartime necessity. The Supreme Court ruling in Korematsu v. United States upheld the constitutionality of the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. The court argued that the need to protect national security during wartime justified the forced relocation and internment of Japanese Americans, despite the violation of their civil liberties. This ruling has since been widely criticized as a grave injustice and a violation of constitutional rights.

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  • 41. 

    The first attempt to apply the doctrine of popular sovereignty in determining the status of slavery occurred in

    • A.

      Texas

    • B.

      California

    • C.

      Kansas

    • D.

      Missouri

    • E.

      Oregon

    Correct Answer
    C. Kansas
    Explanation
    In the mid-19th century, the doctrine of popular sovereignty emerged as a way to determine the status of slavery in new territories. This doctrine allowed the residents of a territory to vote and decide whether or not to allow slavery. The first attempt to apply popular sovereignty in determining the status of slavery occurred in Kansas. In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, which allowed the residents of these territories to decide whether they would be slave or free states. This led to a violent conflict known as "Bleeding Kansas," as pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers clashed over the outcome of the vote.

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  • 42. 

    Immigrants to the United States in the last quarter of the nineteenth century came primarily from

    • A.

      Latin America

    • B.

      Asia

    • C.

      Canada

    • D.

      Middle-class backgrounds

    • E.

      European farms and villages

    Correct Answer
    E. European farms and villages
    Explanation
    During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the majority of immigrants to the United States came from European farms and villages. This was a time when many Europeans were leaving their homes due to economic hardships, political unrest, and the promise of better opportunities in America. These immigrants were primarily from countries such as Italy, Germany, Ireland, and Eastern European nations. They sought a better life and the chance to escape poverty and persecution in their home countries.

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  • 43. 

    During the presidency of William H. Taft, United States policy in Latin America was driven primarily by

    • A.

      The administration's desire to benefit from European colonial inroads in the region

    • B.

      The President's goal of founding an effective Pan-American organization to deal with hemispheric issues

    • C.

      Congress' determination to ameliorate the hostility engendered by Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick policy

    • D.

      Concern for the development of democracy and the protection of civil rights in the region

    • E.

      Concern for United States economic and strategic interests in the region

    Correct Answer
    E. Concern for United States economic and strategic interests in the region
    Explanation
    During the presidency of William H. Taft, United States policy in Latin America was primarily driven by concern for United States economic and strategic interests in the region. This means that the administration prioritized actions and decisions that would benefit the American economy and enhance the country's strategic position in Latin America. This could include policies related to trade, investment, and military presence in the region. The goal was to protect and promote American interests and influence in Latin America, ensuring economic benefits and maintaining a strong position in the region.

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  • 44. 

    When war broke out in Europe in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson established a policy that called for

    • A.

      Immediate American aid to the Allied powers

    • B.

      Acknowledgment of American neutral rights on the high seas

    • C.

      American trade with Europe on a cash-and-carry basis only

    • D.

      A strict embargo on trade with all warring nations

    • E.

      Strict prohibition of American travel on the ships of belligerents

    Correct Answer
    B. Acknowledgment of American neutral rights on the high seas
    Explanation
    President Woodrow Wilson established a policy that called for the acknowledgment of American neutral rights on the high seas. This means that Wilson wanted to ensure that the United States would be recognized as a neutral party in the war and that its rights, such as freedom of navigation and protection of its citizens, would be respected by all warring nations. This policy aimed to protect American interests and avoid getting involved in the conflict.

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  • 45. 

    The Constitutional Convention designed the electoral college to

    • A.

      Strengthen the legislative branch against the executive branch

    • B.

      Strengthen the executive branch against the legislative branch

    • C.

      Ensure the independence of the judiciary

    • D.

      Protect the sovereignty of the states

    • E.

      Insulate the presidency from the popular will

    Correct Answer
    E. Insulate the presidency from the popular will
    Explanation
    The Constitutional Convention designed the electoral college to insulate the presidency from the popular will. This means that the founding fathers wanted to create a system where the president is not directly elected by the people, but instead by electors who are chosen by the states. This was done to prevent the potential dangers of direct democracy and to ensure that the president is selected by a group of knowledgeable individuals who can make informed decisions. By insulating the presidency from the popular will, the electoral college acts as a safeguard against the potential tyranny of the majority and allows for a more balanced and deliberative selection of the president.

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  • 46. 

    What was the main reason for the major decrease in the number of Europeans immigrating to the United States in the 1920s?

    • A.

      There was widespread prosperity in Europe after the First World War.

    • B.

      Most European countries passed laws forbidding immigration to the United States.

    • C.

      A significant increase in emigration from Latin America left fewer jobs for European immigrants.

    • D.

      Fear of political persecution after the Palmer raids and the Sacco and Vanzetti case dis¬couraged many Europeans from emigrating.

    • E.

      The United States passed the National Origins Act.

    Correct Answer
    E. The United States passed the National Origins Act.
    Explanation
    The main reason for the major decrease in the number of Europeans immigrating to the United States in the 1920s was the passage of the National Origins Act. This act established strict quotas on immigration, favoring immigrants from Northern and Western Europe while severely limiting immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe. This effectively reduced the number of European immigrants allowed into the United States, leading to a significant decrease in immigration from Europe during that time period.

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  • 47. 

    Under Chieve Justice John Marshall, Supreme Court decisions tended to

    • A.

      Promote business enterprise

    • B.

      Restrict federal powers of taxation

    • C.

      Restrict corporate development

    • D.

      Expand state contraol of economic activity

    • E.

      Reduce federal control of the economy

    Correct Answer
    A. Promote business enterprise
    Explanation
    Under Chief Justice John Marshall, Supreme Court decisions tended to promote business enterprise. This can be seen in cases such as Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) and McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), where the Court upheld the sanctity of contracts and expanded the federal government's power to regulate commerce. These decisions provided a favorable environment for business growth and development, supporting the idea of economic expansion and entrepreneurship.

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  • 48. 

    The women's movement in the antebellum period was characterized by all the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Close links with the antislavery and temperance movements

    • B.

      Conventions in the Northeast and the Midwest, but no the South

    • C.

      Involvement of hte middle-class women

    • D.

      A broad-based platofrm of legal and educational rights

    • E.

      Demands for equal compenation for equal work

    Correct Answer
    E. Demands for equal compenation for equal work
    Explanation
    The women's movement in the antebellum period was characterized by close links with the antislavery and temperance movements, conventions in the Northeast and the Midwest, but not the South, involvement of middle-class women, and a broad-based platform of legal and educational rights. However, demands for equal compensation for equal work were not a prominent aspect of the women's movement during this time.

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  • 49. 

    The Supreme Court's decision in the Dred Scott case in 1857 effectively repealed the

    • A.

      Missouri Compromise

    • B.

      Fugitive Slave Act

    • C.

      Ostend Manifesto

    • D.

      Wilmot Proviso

    • E.

      Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution

    Correct Answer
    A. Missouri Compromise
    Explanation
    The Supreme Court's decision in the Dred Scott case in 1857 effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise was a legislation passed in 1820 that prohibited slavery in the northern territories of the United States, while allowing it in the southern territories. However, the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case declared that Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in the territories, effectively overturning the Missouri Compromise and allowing slavery to potentially expand into new territories.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following is an example of Progressive Era Legislation?

    • A.

      The Prue Food and Drug Act

    • B.

      The Hawley-Smoot Tariff

    • C.

      The Comstock Law

    • D.

      The Pendleton Act

    • E.

      The Dawes Severally Act

    Correct Answer
    A. The Prue Food and Drug Act
    Explanation
    The Pure Food and Drug Act is an example of Progressive Era Legislation because it was passed during the Progressive Era in the early 20th century. This act aimed to protect consumers from unsafe and mislabeled food and drugs by regulating the production and sale of these products. It required accurate labeling, prohibited the sale of adulterated or misbranded food and drugs, and established the Bureau of Chemistry to enforce these regulations. The act was a response to concerns about the unsanitary and dangerous conditions in the food and drug industries, and it reflected the progressive movement's focus on social and political reform.

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