# Earth Science G/T Midterm Practice

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Questions: 24 | Attempts: 276

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I am a student who made this quiz to study for my midterms.

• 1.

### What is mass?

• A.

Weight under the influence if gravity

• B.

Pounds using a scale

• C.

The amount of matter an object contains

• D.

Amount of space an object occupies

C. The amount of matter an object contains
Explanation
Mass is defined as the amount of matter an object contains. It is a fundamental property of an object and does not depend on its location or the gravitational force acting on it. Mass is different from weight, which is the measure of the gravitational force acting on an object. Therefore, the correct answer is "the amount of matter an object contains."

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• 2.

### If an atom's atomic mass is 18 and there are 10 neutrons, how many protons are there?

• A.

8

• B.

10

• C.

5

• D.

18

A. 8
Explanation
The atomic mass of an atom is equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. In this case, the atomic mass is given as 18 and there are 10 neutrons. Therefore, the number of protons can be calculated by subtracting the number of neutrons from the atomic mass. Thus, the number of protons is 18 - 10 = 8.

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• 3.

### Can an element be broken down into a simpler form?

• A.

Yes, if you use a big laser.

• B.

Not by ordinary chemical means.

• C.

Yes, as long as the element contains LESS than 10 protons.

• D.

No, because elements are made from many things.

B. Not by ordinary chemical means.
Explanation
The correct answer is "Not by ordinary chemical means." This means that an element cannot be broken down into a simpler form through regular chemical reactions. Elements are fundamental substances that cannot be broken down further by chemical means. While other methods like nuclear reactions or using a big laser may be able to break down elements, the answer specifically states that ordinary chemical means cannot achieve this.

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• 4.

### What is an isotope?

• A.

2 elements combined together

• B.

An atom with more/less electrons than protons

• C.

• D.

A simple silicon mixure used to make paint

B. An atom with more/less electrons than protons
Explanation
An isotope is an atom with more or less electrons than protons. Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element, which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. This difference in the number of neutrons results in a different atomic mass for each isotope. The number of electrons in an atom determines its charge and chemical behavior. Therefore, an isotope with more or fewer electrons than protons will have a different charge and chemical properties compared to the normal form of the element.

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• 5.

### Which of these is NOT a characteristic of a mineral?

• A.

Must never be alive

• B.

Must be solid

• C.

Must be natural

• D.

Must be found underground

• E.

Must have a definite chemical compisition

• F.

Must have a crystal structure

D. Must be found underground
Explanation
The statement "must be found underground" is not a characteristic of a mineral. Minerals can be found both underground and on the Earth's surface. The location of a mineral does not determine its classification as a mineral.

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• 6.

### If a mineral formed by rapid magma cooling is found, what is a characteristic of its crystals?

• A.

The crystals are smaller

• B.

The crystals are bigger

• C.

The crystals are brown or black

• D.

The crystals are translucent

A. The crystals are smaller
Explanation
When a mineral is formed by rapid magma cooling, the crystals have less time to grow, resulting in smaller crystal size.

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• 7.

### The most commonly found element on earth is

• A.

Oxygen

• B.

Silicon

• C.

Iron

• D.

Calcium

A. Oxygen
Explanation
Oxygen is the most commonly found element on Earth because it makes up about 47% of the Earth's crust by mass. It is present in the atmosphere, water, and many minerals. Oxygen is essential for the survival of most living organisms and plays a crucial role in various chemical processes, such as respiration and combustion. Additionally, oxygen is a key component of the Earth's ozone layer, which protects life on the planet from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

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• 8.

### What is an ore?

• A.

A metal added to another metal to make a new metal

• B.

A characteristic that makes the metal bend

• C.

A metal that can break into thin sheets

• D.

A mineral that contains an important metal

D. A mineral that contains an important metal
Explanation
An ore is a mineral that contains an important metal. Ores are typically mined and processed to extract the metal they contain. This metal is then used for various purposes, such as making tools, building materials, or even as a component in other metals. Ores can vary in composition and quality, but they are generally valuable because of the metal they contain.

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• 9.

### I am a rock that was formed underground by cooling magma. Because of this, I have visible mineral crystals. This classifies me to be "plutonic". What family/subfamily am I in?

• A.

Igneous-extrusive

• B.

Metamorphic-foliated

• C.

Igneous-instrusive

• D.

Metamorphic-non foliated

C. Igneous-instrusive
Explanation
The given question describes a rock that was formed underground by cooling magma, which resulted in visible mineral crystals. This classification falls under the category of plutonic rocks, which are igneous rocks that form deep within the Earth's crust. Therefore, the correct answer is Igneous-instrusive, as it accurately describes the formation process and characteristics of the rock.

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• 10.

### I am a rock that was formed at the surface of the earth by cooling lava. I have no visible crystals and am dark in color. My friend, who is in the same family/subfamily as me, has pores. What family/subfamily am I in?

• A.

Igneous-intrusive

• B.

Igneous-extrusive

• C.

Sedimentary-chemical

• D.

Metamorphic-nonfoliated

B. Igneous-extrusive
Explanation
The given rock is dark in color and formed at the surface of the earth by cooling lava. These characteristics indicate that it is an extrusive igneous rock. The fact that it has no visible crystals suggests that it cooled quickly, preventing crystal growth. Therefore, the correct answer is Igneous-extrusive.

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• 11.

### I am a rock that was formed from cemented sediments. What family/subfamily am I in?

• A.

Sedimentary-Clastic

• B.

Sedimentary-organics

• C.

Sedimentary-chemical

• D.

Igneous-extrusive

A. Sedimentary-Clastic
Explanation
The given question is asking about the family/subfamily of a rock that was formed from cemented sediments. The correct answer is "Sedimentary-Clastic" because sedimentary rocks are classified based on their formation process, and clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and cementation of fragments of pre-existing rocks. This answer accurately describes the formation process of the rock mentioned in the question.

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• 12.

### I am a rock that was formed by the evaporation of solutions. An example of me is rock salt or halite. What family/subfamily am I in?

• A.

Sedimentary-chemical

• B.

Sedimentary-organics

• C.

Metamorphic-clastic

• D.

Metamorphic-nonclastic

A. Sedimentary-chemical
Explanation
The correct answer is "Sedimentary-chemical." This is because the question states that the rock was formed by the evaporation of solutions, which is a characteristic of chemical sedimentary rocks. Rock salt or halite is an example of a chemical sedimentary rock that forms when saline solutions evaporate. Therefore, the rock described in the question belongs to the sedimentary-chemical family/subfamily.

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• 13.

### I am a rock that has visible stripes/bands, thin layers, and mica at my surface. What family/subfamily am I in?

• A.

Metamorphic-nonclastic

• B.

Metamorphic- nonfoliated

• C.

Metamorphic-foliated

• D.

Sedimentary-clastic

C. Metamorphic-foliated
Explanation
The rock described in the question has visible stripes/bands, thin layers, and mica at its surface. These characteristics are typically associated with foliated metamorphic rocks. Foliation refers to the alignment of minerals or the presence of distinct layers in a rock due to intense pressure and heat during the metamorphic process. Therefore, the correct answer is metamorphic-foliated.

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• 14.

### What family of rocks contains fossils?

• A.

Metamorphic

• B.

Igneous

• C.

Sedimentary

• D.

No rocks can contain fossils

C. Sedimentary
Explanation
Sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation of sediments over time. These sediments often contain the remains of plants and animals, which can become preserved as fossils within the rock. Therefore, the correct answer is sedimentary.

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• 15.

### What is contact metamorphism?

• A.

When magma or lava contacts existing rock and morphs it

• B.

When a rock becomes dangerously high in radioactive substances

• C.

When magma is slow moving

• D.

When rocks weather away

A. When magma or lava contacts existing rock and morphs it
Explanation
Contact metamorphism refers to the process in which existing rock is altered or transformed when it comes into contact with magma or lava. This interaction causes changes in the mineral composition, texture, and structure of the rock. The intense heat and pressure from the molten material cause the existing rock to undergo metamorphic changes, resulting in the formation of new minerals and the recrystallization of existing ones. This process typically occurs in localized areas near the intrusion of magma or the eruption of lava, leading to the formation of distinct metamorphic zones around the contact area.

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• 16.

### Crack developing in a rock, water fills crack, freezes, breaks rock. and when abrasion occurs, (rock hitting another rock or water) are examples of...

• A.

Mechanical weathering

• B.

Chemical weathering

• C.

Natural weathering

• D.

Biological weathering

A. Mechanical weathering
Explanation
The given answer, mechanical weathering, is the most appropriate explanation for the given scenario. Mechanical weathering refers to the physical breakdown of rocks into smaller fragments without any change in their chemical composition. In this case, the crack in the rock is filled with water, which then freezes and expands, causing the rock to break. This process is a clear example of physical forces causing the rock to undergo mechanical weathering.

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• 17.

### Can bird poop destroy rock?

• A.

No because there is not enough acid.

• B.

Yes because it's a type of biological weathering and contains acid.

• C.

No because the acid it contains is not the right type if acid

• D.

Yes because bird poop is made from worms, a highly acidic species.

B. Yes because it's a type of biological weathering and contains acid.
Explanation
Bird poop can indeed destroy rock because it is a type of biological weathering and contains acid. Biological weathering refers to the breakdown of rocks by living organisms, and bird poop contains uric acid, which is highly corrosive. When bird droppings come into contact with rocks, the acid in the poop reacts with the minerals in the rock, causing it to weaken and eventually disintegrate. Therefore, bird poop can cause damage to rocks over time.

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• 18.

### What is karst topography?

• A.

A method of building typically used in south america

• B.

The theory that all living things should have limestone beneath them in order to support their legs.

• C.

A type of plate tectonics

• D.

Landscaping in limestone areas

D. Landscaping in limestone areas
Explanation
limestone is dissolved by the acid in water.

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• 19.

### Who proposed the theory of plate tectonics and in what year?

• A.

Benjamin Fraklin-1783

• B.

Robert Weakner-1922

• C.

Alfred Wagner-1912

• D.

Teddy Roosevelt-1918

C. Alfred Wagner-1912
Explanation
Alfred Wagner proposed the theory of plate tectonics in 1912. This theory suggests that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into several large plates that move and interact with each other. Wagner's theory revolutionized our understanding of the Earth's geology and provided explanations for various geological phenomena, such as the formation of mountains, earthquakes, and the distribution of fossils and rocks across different continents. His work laid the foundation for the modern field of plate tectonics and has significantly contributed to our understanding of the Earth's dynamic nature.

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• 20.

### Which of the following is NOT evidence of plate tectonics?

• A.

Ice evidence from various continents that were once connected

• B.

Rocks in south america are the same type age and thickness as in africa

• C.

Africa fits in south america

• D.

Ancient documents

D. Ancient documents
Explanation
Ancient documents are not evidence of plate tectonics because they do not provide direct geological or physical proof of the movement and interaction of tectonic plates. While ancient documents may contain historical or cultural information about past civilizations, they do not provide scientific evidence for the theory of plate tectonics. The other options, such as ice evidence, rock similarities, and continental fit, are all examples of geological evidence that support the theory of plate tectonics.

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• 21.

### What is the driving force of plate tectonics?

• A.

Convection in the mantle

• B.

Diverging plates

• C.

Seismic waves

• D.

Geologic time

A. Convection in the mantle
Explanation
The driving force of plate tectonics is convection in the mantle. Convection is the transfer of heat through the movement of material, and in the mantle, it occurs due to the temperature differences between the hot inner core and the cooler outer layers. This convection causes the movement of the tectonic plates on the Earth's surface, leading to various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains. Diverging plates, seismic waves, and geologic time are not the driving forces of plate tectonics, but rather are related factors or consequences of the movement caused by convection in the mantle.

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• 22.

### What is it called when two plates searate?

• A.

Converging plates

• B.

Subduction zone

• C.

Diverging plates

• D.

Sliding plates

C. Diverging plates
Explanation
When two plates separate, it is referred to as diverging plates. This process occurs at divergent plate boundaries, where the plates move away from each other. As the plates move apart, magma rises from the asthenosphere and fills the gap, creating new crust. This process is responsible for the formation of mid-ocean ridges and the continuous spreading of the ocean floor.

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• 23.

### What is it called when an ocean plate meets an ocean plate or a continental plate meets a continental plate?

• A.

Sliding plates

• B.

Transform boundary

• C.

Diverging plates

• D.

Converging plates

D. Converging plates
Explanation
When an ocean plate meets another ocean plate or a continental plate meets another continental plate, it is called converging plates. This is because the two plates are moving towards each other, resulting in a collision or subduction. This collision can lead to the formation of mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes.

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• 24.

### When plates slide past eachother (sliding plates/transform boundary) what does it form?

• A.

Trench

• B.

Fault

• C.

Mountains

• D.

Mass destruction

B. Fault
Explanation
When plates slide past each other at a transform boundary, it forms a fault. A fault is a fracture or break in the Earth's crust where the rocks on either side have moved relative to each other. This movement can be horizontal or vertical, and it can result in earthquakes. Faults are commonly found along transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault in California.

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