Diabetes - CEN Review

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Diabetes Quizzes & Trivia

Diabetes for CEN exam review.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Insulin inhibits the release of _______. 

    • A.

      Glucagon

    • B.

      ADH

    • C.

      Beta cells

    • D.

      Somatostatin

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucagon
    Explanation
    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. It works by promoting the uptake of glucose into cells and inhibiting the release of stored glucose from the liver. Glucagon, on the other hand, is another hormone produced by the pancreas that has the opposite effect of insulin. Glucagon stimulates the release of stored glucose from the liver, raising blood sugar levels. Therefore, insulin inhibits the release of glucagon.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is caused by insulin release?

    • A.

      Increased breakdown of fats

    • B.

      Increase breakdown of proteins

    • C.

      Decreased blood sugar

    • D.

      Causes glucose to be phosphorylated in kidney

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased blood sugar
    Explanation
    Insulin release causes decreased blood sugar because insulin is a hormone that helps regulate glucose levels in the blood. When insulin is released, it signals cells in the body to take up glucose from the blood, which lowers blood sugar levels. This is important for maintaining stable blood sugar levels and preventing hyperglycemia.

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  • 3. 

    Glucagon causes increased blood sugar and causes slow breakdown of glycogen in the liver.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Glucagon actually causes the release of stored glucose from the liver, which increases blood sugar levels. It does not cause a slow breakdown of glycogen in the liver. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 4. 

    As blood glucose decreases glucagon is inhibited.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Glucagon is actually stimulated when blood glucose decreases. Glucagon is a hormone produced by the pancreas that works to increase blood glucose levels by promoting the breakdown of glycogen in the liver and the release of glucose into the bloodstream. Therefore, when blood glucose decreases, glucagon is released to help raise it back to normal levels.

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  • 5. 

    Glucagon increases blood levels of glucose by causing liver to breakdown glycogen.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glucagon is a hormone that is released by the pancreas when blood sugar levels are low. Its main function is to stimulate the liver to break down glycogen, a form of stored glucose, into glucose molecules. These glucose molecules are then released into the bloodstream, increasing blood sugar levels. Therefore, the statement that glucagon increases blood levels of glucose by causing the liver to breakdown glycogen is true.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is not true about Type I DM?

    • A.

      May be linked to autoimmunity

    • B.

      Onset usually prior to age 20

    • C.

      Beta islet cells destroyed

    • D.

      Does not require insulin injections

    Correct Answer
    D. Does not require insulin injections
    Explanation
    Type I DM, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is a condition in which the beta islet cells in the pancreas are destroyed, leading to a lack of insulin production. This results in the need for insulin injections to regulate blood sugar levels. Therefore, the statement "Does not require insulin injections" is not true about Type I DM.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not true about Type II DM?

    • A.

      Considered adult onset diabetes

    • B.

      Cause unknown may be due to genetics

    • C.

      Require insulin 80% of cases

    • D.

      May take a drug that sensitize cells or increase insulin release

    Correct Answer
    C. Require insulin 80% of cases
    Explanation
    Type II DM, also known as adult-onset diabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance and a relative insulin deficiency. It is not true that 80% of cases of Type II DM require insulin. In fact, the majority of individuals with Type II DM can manage their condition through lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise, and oral medications that sensitize cells to insulin or increase insulin release. Insulin therapy is usually reserved for cases where other treatments are ineffective in controlling blood sugar levels.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is not an effect of diabetes?

    • A.

      Small vessel occlusion

    • B.

      Necrosis of extremities

    • C.

      Ketone Body production

    • D.

      Decreased fat metabolism

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased fat metabolism
    Explanation
    Diabetes is a condition characterized by high blood sugar levels. It can cause various effects on the body, such as small vessel occlusion and necrosis of extremities. Ketone body production is also a common effect of diabetes, as the body starts breaking down fats for energy when glucose is not available. However, decreased fat metabolism is not an effect of diabetes. In fact, individuals with diabetes often have impaired glucose metabolism but may still have normal or even increased fat metabolism.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is not an indicator of a hypoglycemic condition?

    • A.

      Fatigue

    • B.

      Poor appetite

    • C.

      Tachycardia

    • D.

      Confusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Poor appetite
    Explanation
    Poor appetite is not an indicator of a hypoglycemic condition because hypoglycemia is characterized by low blood sugar levels, which can cause symptoms such as fatigue, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), and confusion. However, poor appetite is not directly related to blood sugar levels and is therefore not typically associated with hypoglycemia.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is not an adverse effect of oral hypoglycemics?

    • A.

      Hypoglycemia

    • B.

      Headache

    • C.

      Rashes

    • D.

      Projectile vomiting

    Correct Answer
    D. Projectile vomiting
    Explanation
    Projectile vomiting is not an adverse effect of oral hypoglycemics. Adverse effects of oral hypoglycemics may include hypoglycemia, headache, and rashes. Projectile vomiting refers to forceful vomiting that can be a symptom of various underlying conditions, but it is not typically associated with the use of oral hypoglycemic medications.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is not an adverse effect of glucagon?

    • A.

      Allergic reaction

    • B.

      Vomiting

    • C.

      Nausea

    • D.

      Fever

    Correct Answer
    D. Fever
    Explanation
    Glucagon is a hormone that helps increase blood sugar levels. It is commonly used to treat severe hypoglycemia. While glucagon can cause side effects, such as vomiting, nausea, and allergic reactions, fever is not one of them. Fever is an abnormal increase in body temperature and is not associated with the use of glucagon.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following drugs may be given as an immunosuppressant soon after onset of Type I Diabetes?

    • A.

      Torsemide

    • B.

      Cyclosporine

    • C.

      Clofibrate

    • D.

      Ceftriaxone

    Correct Answer
    B. Cyclosporine
    Explanation
    Cyclosporine may be given as an immunosuppressant soon after the onset of Type I Diabetes. This drug is commonly used to prevent organ rejection in transplant patients, as it suppresses the immune system. In the case of Type I Diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. By suppressing the immune system with cyclosporine, the destruction of these cells can be slowed down or halted, potentially preserving some insulin production and improving blood sugar control.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not considered an endocrine hormone?

    • A.

      Renin

    • B.

      Insulin

    • C.

      Glucagon

    • D.

      Somatostatin

    Correct Answer
    A. Renin
    Explanation
    Renin is not considered an endocrine hormone because it is not secreted by an endocrine gland. Instead, it is produced and released by specialized cells in the kidneys called juxtaglomerular cells. Renin plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure and electrolyte balance by initiating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. While insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin are all endocrine hormones that are secreted by the pancreas and regulate various physiological processes in the body.

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  • 14. 

    What type of cells secrete glucagon?

    • A.

      Beta cells

    • B.

      Alpha cells

    • C.

      Plasma cells

    • D.

      Acinar cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Alpha cells
    Explanation
    Alpha cells secrete glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that raises blood sugar levels by promoting the breakdown of glycogen in the liver. Beta cells, on the other hand, secrete insulin which lowers blood sugar levels. Plasma cells are involved in the immune response and produce antibodies. Acinar cells are found in the pancreas and secrete digestive enzymes.

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  • 15. 

    What type of cells secrete insulin?

    • A.

      Beta cells

    • B.

      Alpha cells

    • C.

      Plasma cells

    • D.

      Acinar cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Beta cells
    Explanation
    Beta cells are the type of cells that secrete insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels in the body. Beta cells are found in the pancreas, specifically in the islets of Langerhans. When blood sugar levels rise, beta cells release insulin into the bloodstream to help cells take in glucose for energy. This process helps to lower blood sugar levels and maintain overall balance in the body.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following would not be considered an acute effect of diabetes mellitus?

    • A.

      Polyuria

    • B.

      Weight gain

    • C.

      Polydipsia

    • D.

      Polyphagia

    Correct Answer
    B. Weight gain
    Explanation
    Weight gain would not be considered an acute effect of diabetes mellitus because diabetes typically results in weight loss rather than weight gain. This is because the body is unable to properly utilize glucose for energy, leading to increased fat breakdown and weight loss. Weight gain is more commonly associated with conditions such as insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not an accurate test for diabetes?

    • A.

      Glucose tolerance test

    • B.

      HbA

    • C.

      Fasting serum glucose

    • D.

      Fasting glucagon test

    Correct Answer
    D. Fasting glucagon test
    Explanation
    The fasting glucagon test is not an accurate test for diabetes because glucagon is a hormone that raises blood sugar levels, while diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels. Therefore, measuring glucagon levels during fasting would not provide accurate information about a person's diabetes status.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is not an indicator of diabetic ketoacidosis?

    • A.

      Hyperthermia

    • B.

      Nausea/Vomiting

    • C.

      Slow and shallow breathing

    • D.

      Psychosis leading to dementia

    Correct Answer
    C. Slow and shallow breathing
    Explanation
    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. Common symptoms of DKA include hyperthermia (high body temperature), nausea/vomiting, and psychosis leading to dementia. However, slow and shallow breathing is not typically associated with DKA. Instead, rapid and deep breathing, known as Kussmaul breathing, is a characteristic sign of DKA. Therefore, slow and shallow breathing is not an indicator of diabetic ketoacidosis.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is not related to a chronic diabetes mellitus condition?

    • A.

      Atherosclerosis

    • B.

      Neuropathy

    • C.

      Glaucoma

    • D.

      Hypotension

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypotension
    Explanation
    Hypotension, or low blood pressure, is not directly related to chronic diabetes mellitus. While diabetes can lead to various complications such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), neuropathy (nerve damage), and glaucoma (eye disease), it does not typically cause hypotension. Hypotension can be caused by other factors such as medication side effects, dehydration, or certain medical conditions, but it is not a direct consequence of chronic diabetes mellitus.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following conditions is not linked to diabetic ketoacidosis?

    • A.

      Cerebral edema

    • B.

      Arrhythmias

    • C.

      Peptic ulcers

    • D.

      Mucormycosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Peptic ulcers
    Explanation
    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body produces excess ketones. It is commonly associated with conditions such as cerebral edema, arrhythmias, and mucormycosis. However, peptic ulcers are not directly linked to DKA. Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or the upper part of the small intestine, and they are typically caused by factors such as infection or the use of certain medications. While peptic ulcers may occur in individuals with diabetes, they are not specifically related to the development of DKA.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 18, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 06, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Rapidresponse
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