CT CrossTrainer Post Test! Hardest Trivia Quiz

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CT CrossTrainer Post Test! Hardest Trivia Quiz - Quiz

The CT CrossTrainer is a multiple choice post-test which includes questions related to fundamental physical concepts, jargons, and clinical imaging policy of Computed Tomography. This CT CrossTrainer quiz has been created to test and develop practical knowledge in clinical CT imaging. All questions are mandatory. Take your time and feel the pressure of the real exam. Let's take this challenging quiz. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following men was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901?

    • A.

      A. Geoffrey Newton

    • B.

      B. Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield

    • C.

      C. Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen

    • D.

      D. Albert von Kolliker

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen
    Explanation
    Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 for his discovery of X-rays. Rontgen's groundbreaking work revolutionized the field of physics and had significant implications for medical imaging and scientific research. His discovery paved the way for advancements in radiology and contributed to our understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum. Rontgen's achievement was recognized and honored with the prestigious Nobel Prize, establishing him as a pioneer in the field of physics.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following was a reason to develop tomographic imaging techniques? 1. conventional radiographs superimposed anatomy. 2. conventional radiographs are limited in their ability to show the difference between tissues with similar densities. 3. physicians wanted to be able to see inside a patient in a manner similar to surgical exploration.

    • A.

      A. 1&2

    • B.

      B. 1&3

    • C.

      C. 2&3

    • D.

      D. 1,2&3

    Correct Answer
    D. D. 1,2&3
    Explanation
    The development of tomographic imaging techniques was driven by multiple reasons. Firstly, conventional radiographs often superimposed anatomy, making it difficult to differentiate between different structures. Secondly, conventional radiographs had limitations in their ability to distinguish between tissues with similar densities. Lastly, physicians desired a method that would allow them to visualize the internal structures of a patient in a manner similar to surgical exploration. Therefore, all three options (1, 2, and 3) were reasons to develop tomographic imaging techniques.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is a characteristic of the tomographic systems which existed before the first CT scanners?

    • A.

      A. film was used

    • B.

      B. a computer used to reconstruct the images

    • C.

      C. a detector array was used

    • D.

      D. it was used only for extremity imaging

    Correct Answer
    A. A. film was used
    Explanation
    Before the first CT scanners were developed, tomographic systems used film to capture and record the images. This means that the images were captured on photographic film and then developed, similar to traditional photography. This method allowed for the visualization of internal structures and was the primary imaging technique used before the advent of CT scanners.

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  • 4. 

    Conventional tomography was Not clinically useful because: 1. the images were often blurry 2. it took too long to make an image 3. the images lacked detail

    • A.

      A. 1&2

    • B.

      B. 1,2&3

    • C.

      C. 1&3

    • D.

      D. 2&3

    Correct Answer
    B. B. 1,2&3
    Explanation
    Conventional tomography was not clinically useful because the images were often blurry, took too long to make, and lacked detail. This means that the technique was not able to provide clear and detailed images in a timely manner, making it inefficient and ineffective for clinical use.

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  • 5. 

    CT is commonly referred to as all of the following names EXCEPT:

    • A.

      A. digital subtraction angiography

    • B.

      B. computed tomography

    • C.

      C. CAT-scan

    • D.

      D. computerized axial tomography

    Correct Answer
    A. A. digital subtraction angiography
    Explanation
    CT, or computed tomography, is a medical imaging technique that uses X-rays and computer processing to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body. It is commonly referred to as computed tomography or CAT-scan. However, it is not referred to as digital subtraction angiography, which is a different imaging technique used specifically to visualize blood vessels by subtracting a pre-contrast image from a post-contrast image.

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  • 6. 

    The detectors:

    • A.

      A. shield the patient from the x-rays

    • B.

      B. produce the beam of x-rays

    • C.

      C. increase the x-ray exposure of the film

    • D.

      D. measure the x-rays that pass through the patient's body

    Correct Answer
    D. D. measure the x-rays that pass through the patient's body
    Explanation
    Detectors in medical imaging are used to measure the x-rays that pass through the patient's body. They are not involved in shielding the patient from x-rays, producing the beam of x-rays, or increasing the x-ray exposure of the film. Instead, detectors capture the x-rays that have passed through the patient, converting them into an electrical signal that can be used to create an image of the internal structures.

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  • 7. 

    Detectors were incorporated into CT scanner designs to replace film because detectors: 1. are more sensitive than film. 2. converted the x-ray attenuation information into an electrical signal which could be used by a computer. 3. are safer than film.

    • A.

      A. 1&2

    • B.

      B. 2 only

    • C.

      C. 3 only

    • D.

      D. 1 only

    Correct Answer
    B. B. 2 only
    Explanation
    Detectors were incorporated into CT scanner designs to replace film because they converted the x-ray attenuation information into an electrical signal which could be used by a computer. This allowed for more accurate and precise imaging. The statement that detectors are more sensitive than film is not mentioned as a reason for their incorporation. The statement that detectors are safer than film is not mentioned as a reason for their incorporation. Therefore, the correct answer is b. 2 only.

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  • 8. 

    The first commercial CT scanner was available during the:

    • A.

      A. 1990's

    • B.

      B. 1980's

    • C.

      C. 1960's

    • D.

      D. 1970's

    Correct Answer
    D. D. 1970's
    Explanation
    The first commercial CT scanner was available during the 1970's. This means that the technology for CT scanning was developed and made accessible to the public during this decade. CT scanning, also known as computed tomography, is a medical imaging technique that uses X-rays and computer processing to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body. The availability of commercial CT scanners in the 1970's marked a significant advancement in medical imaging technology, allowing for more accurate diagnoses and improved patient care.

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  • 9. 

    A first-generation scanner:

    • A.

      A. used a curved array of detectors

    • B.

      B. produced an image in less than 5 seconds

    • C.

      C. used multiple detectors

    • D.

      D. used a pencil beam of x-rays

    Correct Answer
    D. D. used a pencil beam of x-rays
    Explanation
    A first-generation scanner used a pencil beam of x-rays. This means that the scanner emitted a thin, focused beam of x-rays that would pass through the body and be detected on the other side. This method allowed for the creation of an image by measuring the amount of x-rays that were able to pass through different tissues.

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  • 10. 

    A detector array:

    • A.

      A. is stationary in all scanner designs commercially avaiable today

    • B.

      B. was first seen on third-generation CT scanners

    • C.

      C. rotates around the patient in all scanner designs

    • D.

      D. allows for much faster data collection than using single detector

    Correct Answer
    D. D. allows for much faster data collection than using single detector
    Explanation
    A detector array allows for much faster data collection than using a single detector because it consists of multiple detectors arranged in a grid pattern. This means that multiple measurements can be taken simultaneously, increasing the speed at which data is collected. In contrast, a single detector would only be able to take one measurement at a time, resulting in slower data collection. Therefore, using a detector array significantly speeds up the scanning process and improves efficiency.

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  • 11. 

    Fourth-generation CT scanner_______________while second-generation CT scanner do not.

    • A.

      A. use multiple detectors

    • B.

      B. have a detector ring which does not rotate

    • C.

      C. have a rotating ring of detectors

    • D.

      D. apply fan beam geometry

    Correct Answer
    B. B. have a detector ring which does not rotate
    Explanation
    The correct answer is b. Fourth-generation CT scanners have a detector ring that does not rotate, while second-generation CT scanners do not. This means that in fourth-generation scanners, the detectors remain stationary while the X-ray tube rotates around the patient. This design allows for faster scanning times and eliminates the need for mechanical motion, resulting in improved image quality and reduced patient discomfort. In contrast, second-generation CT scanners have a rotating ring of detectors, which can limit their efficiency and accuracy compared to fourth-generation scanners.

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  • 12. 

    Fourth-generation CT scanner_______________while third-generation CT scanners do not.

    • A.

      A. have the capability of advanced scanning techniques

    • B.

      B. apply fan beam geometry

    • C.

      C. have detectors which rotate

    • D.

      D. have a detector ring which does not rotate

    Correct Answer
    D. D. have a detector ring which does not rotate
    Explanation
    Fourth-generation CT scanners have a detector ring which does not rotate, while third-generation CT scanners do not. This means that in fourth-generation scanners, the detectors remain stationary while the X-ray tube rotates around the patient, allowing for faster and more efficient scanning. In contrast, third-generation scanners have detectors that rotate with the X-ray tube, resulting in slower scanning times.

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  • 13. 

    The slip ring on a CT scanner: 1.  prevents the high voltage cable from winding up. 2.  advances the patient table. 3. alleviates the need for reversal of the rotating assembly to which the tube is attached.

    • A.

      A. 2&3

    • B.

      B. 3 only

    • C.

      C. 1&3

    • D.

      D. 2 only

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 1&3
    Explanation
    The slip ring on a CT scanner alleviates the need for reversal of the rotating assembly to which the tube is attached. It allows for continuous rotation of the tube and eliminates the need to reverse the rotation, which would disrupt the scanning process. Additionally, the slip ring does not prevent the high voltage cable from winding up, as stated in option 1. Therefore, the correct answer is c. 1&3.

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  • 14. 

    The stationary metal contacts through which electrical signal are transferred to and from the rotating slip ring are known as the:

    • A.

      A. electrical brushes

    • B.

      B. CT x-ray tube

    • C.

      C. power supply

    • D.

      D. detectors

    Correct Answer
    A. A. electrical brushes
    Explanation
    The stationary metal contacts that transfer electrical signals to and from the rotating slip ring are known as electrical brushes. These brushes make direct contact with the slip ring, allowing for the transfer of electrical current. They are typically made of a conductive material such as carbon or graphite, which helps to ensure a good electrical connection. By maintaining contact with the slip ring, the electrical brushes enable the transmission of signals and power between the stationary and rotating parts of a system, such as in motors or generators.

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  • 15. 

    In CT, a thick x-ray beam that not only spreads to the sides of the patient table but also diverges along the length of the patient table is called a __________beam.

    • A.

      A. fan

    • B.

      B. cone

    • C.

      C. spherical

    • D.

      D. pencil

    Correct Answer
    B. B. cone
    Explanation
    A cone beam in CT refers to a thick x-ray beam that spreads to the sides of the patient table and also diverges along the length of the patient table. This type of beam is used to capture a three-dimensional image of the patient's body. The term "cone" accurately describes the shape of the beam as it widens in a cone-like manner.

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  • 16. 

    MDCT scanners: 1. can produce images from more than one anatomical location at a time. 2. were first attempted by EMI in the 1970's. 3. have shorter exam times than single-slice CT scanners.

    • A.

      A. 1&3

    • B.

      B. 1,2&3

    • C.

      C. 1&2

    • D.

      D. 2&3

    Correct Answer
    B. B. 1,2&3
    Explanation
    MDCT scanners are capable of producing images from more than one anatomical location at a time, making them efficient in capturing multiple areas of the body in a single scan. They were first attempted by EMI in the 1970s, indicating their long history in medical imaging technology. Additionally, MDCT scanners have shorter exam times compared to single-slice CT scanners, further highlighting their advantages in terms of speed and efficiency. Therefore, the correct answer is b. 1,2&3.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following CT scanner designs does NOT use an x-ray tube?

    • A.

      A. PET/CT

    • B.

      B. electron beam CT

    • C.

      C. MDCT

    • D.

      D. first-generation CT

    Correct Answer
    B. B. electron beam CT
    Explanation
    Electron beam CT does not use an x-ray tube because it employs a different technology called electron beams to generate the necessary radiation for imaging. Unlike other CT scanner designs that use x-ray tubes to produce the required x-rays, electron beam CT uses a high-speed electron beam that is focused on a target material to create the imaging radiation. This unique design allows for faster imaging and higher temporal resolution compared to traditional x-ray tube-based CT scanners.

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  • 18. 

    The following can be obtained with PET/CT: 1. images with metabolic information. 2. images with high-resolution anatomical information. 3.attenuation correction.

    • A.

      A. 1,2&3

    • B.

      B. 1&3

    • C.

      C. 2&3

    • D.

      D. 1&2

    Correct Answer
    A. A. 1,2&3
    Explanation
    PET/CT combines positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) to provide both metabolic and anatomical information. PET scans measure metabolic activity in the body, while CT scans provide high-resolution anatomical images. Additionally, PET/CT is used for attenuation correction, which is the process of accounting for tissue density variations to improve the accuracy of the PET images. Therefore, all three options - images with metabolic information, images with high-resolution anatomical information, and attenuation correction - can be obtained with PET/CT.

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  • 19. 

    If CT images are reconstructed so that they are aligned perpendicular to the axis which travels from left to right in the patient, they are in__________orientation.

    • A.

      A. a coronal

    • B.

      B. a transverse

    • C.

      C. an oblique

    • D.

      D. a sagittal

    Correct Answer
    D. D. a sagittal
    Explanation
    If CT images are reconstructed so that they are aligned perpendicular to the axis which travels from left to right in the patient, they are in a sagittal orientation. The sagittal orientation is defined by a vertical plane that divides the body into left and right halves. In this case, the images are aligned along the left-right axis, making them sagittal.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following cross-sectional orientations of an abdomen can be directly scanned in CT? 1. sagittal. 2. coronal. 3. transverse.

    • A.

      A. 1&3

    • B.

      B. 1 only

    • C.

      C. 2 only

    • D.

      D. 3 only

    Correct Answer
    D. D. 3 only
    Explanation
    In CT imaging, the cross-sectional orientation of an abdomen that can be directly scanned is the transverse orientation. This means that the CT scanner is able to capture images of the abdomen in a horizontal plane, allowing for detailed visualization of the internal structures. The sagittal and coronal orientations refer to vertical and horizontal planes respectively, and while they can be reconstructed from the transverse images, they are not directly scanned in CT. Therefore, the correct answer is d. 3 only.

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  • 21. 

    In the CT department the term "axial" is frequently used to reference which of the following orientations?

    • A.

      A. sagittal

    • B.

      B. transverse

    • C.

      C. oblique images

    • D.

      D. coronal

    Correct Answer
    B. B. transverse
    Explanation
    The term "axial" in the CT department refers to the transverse orientation. Axial images are obtained by taking slices of the body in a horizontal plane, perpendicular to the long axis of the body. This allows for a cross-sectional view of the structures being imaged. Sagittal refers to a vertical plane dividing the body into left and right halves, transverse refers to a horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower halves, oblique images are taken at an angle, and coronal refers to a vertical plane dividing the body into front and back halves.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is a characteristic of CT but NOT of conventional radiography?

    • A.

      A. cross-sectional slices

    • B.

      B. no ionizing radiation is used

    • C.

      C. magnetization and radio waves are used

    • D.

      D. differentiation of tissues dependent upon x-ray attenuation

    Correct Answer
    A. A. cross-sectional slices
    Explanation
    CT, or computed tomography, is a medical imaging technique that uses x-ray technology to produce cross-sectional images of the body. This allows for a detailed examination of internal structures and the ability to visualize different layers of tissues. Conventional radiography, on the other hand, produces 2D images that do not provide the same level of detail or the ability to view cross-sectional slices. Therefore, the characteristic of CT having cross-sectional slices is unique to CT and not present in conventional radiography.

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  • 23. 

    Arrange MR imaging, CT imaging and plain film x-ray imaging in order from best to worst in their ability to differentiate soft tissues in the body:

    • A.

      A. x-ray is better that CT is better than MRI

    • B.

      B. MRI is better than CT is better than x-ray

    • C.

      C. CT is better than MRI is better than x-ray

    • D.

      D. x-ray is better than MRI is better than CT

    Correct Answer
    B. B. MRI is better than CT is better than x-ray
    Explanation
    MRI imaging is the best among the three options as it provides the highest level of detail and contrast resolution, allowing for excellent differentiation of soft tissues. CT imaging is the second-best option as it also provides good differentiation of soft tissues but with slightly lower resolution compared to MRI. Plain film x-ray imaging is the least effective in differentiating soft tissues as it has the lowest resolution and contrast, making it difficult to distinguish between different types of soft tissues.

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  • 24. 

    Things which are digital: 1. are less accurate than their analog counter parts. 2. can be electronically transported to remote locations. 3. are easily stored on a computer.

    • A.

      A. 2 only

    • B.

      B. 1&2

    • C.

      C. 2&3

    • D.

      D. 1 only

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 2&3
    Explanation
    Digital things can be electronically transported to remote locations because they can be easily converted into electronic signals and transmitted over networks. Additionally, digital things are easily stored on a computer because they can be saved as files or data on a storage device. This allows for convenient access, organization, and retrieval of digital content.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of ionizing radiation?

    • A.

      A. sufficient energy to cause ionization of living tissues

    • B.

      B. repeated exposure has been linked to the development of malignancies

    • C.

      C. must be limited to below the safe level set by the FDA

    • D.

      D. must be limited to levels as low as possible given the clinical goals

    Correct Answer
    C. C. must be limited to below the safe level set by the FDA
    Explanation
    Ionizing radiation refers to radiation that has enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, resulting in the formation of ions. This characteristic enables it to cause ionization of living tissues, which can lead to various health effects, including DNA damage and the development of malignancies with repeated exposure. Therefore, options a and b are valid characteristics of ionizing radiation. On the other hand, option c is incorrect because ionizing radiation must be limited to levels as low as possible given the clinical goals, not necessarily below the safe level set by the FDA. The FDA sets guidelines and regulations to ensure the safe use of ionizing radiation, but the safe level may vary depending on the specific circumstances and medical requirements.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following imaging modalities uses ionizing radiation? 1. conventional radiography. 2. mammography. 3. computed tomography.

    • A.

      A. 1,2&3

    • B.

      B. 1&3

    • C.

      C. 1&2

    • D.

      D. 2&3

    Correct Answer
    A. A. 1,2&3
    Explanation
    Conventional radiography, mammography, and computed tomography all use ionizing radiation for imaging. Conventional radiography uses X-rays to produce images, mammography uses low-dose X-rays to examine the breasts, and computed tomography uses X-rays to create cross-sectional images of the body. Therefore, the correct answer is a. 1,2&3.

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  • 27. 

    In the oncology department, CT may be used to: 1. collect an image used for therapy planning which is acquired with the patient lying on a flat table. 2. verify patient an tumor position prior to administering therapeutic radiation. 3. initially diagnose the presence of a malignancy.

    • A.

      A. 2&3

    • B.

      B. 1&2

    • C.

      C. 1 only

    • D.

      D. 1&3

    Correct Answer
    B. B. 1&2
    Explanation
    CT scans in the oncology department are used for multiple purposes. Firstly, they are used to collect images that are used for therapy planning. These images are acquired with the patient lying on a flat table, allowing for accurate visualization of the affected area. Secondly, CT scans are used to verify the position of both the patient and the tumor prior to administering therapeutic radiation. This ensures that the radiation is targeted accurately and minimizes damage to healthy tissues. Therefore, the correct answer is b. 1&2.

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  • 28. 

    The_________can be found in the nucleus of an atom. 1. protons. 2. electrons. 3. neutrons.

    • A.

      A. 2&3

    • B.

      B. 1 only

    • C.

      C. 3 only

    • D.

      D. 1&3

    Correct Answer
    D. D. 1&3
    Explanation
    Protons and neutrons can be found in the nucleus of an atom. Protons have a positive charge and neutrons have no charge, but both contribute to the mass of the atom. Electrons, on the other hand, are found in the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus and have a negative charge. Therefore, the correct answer is d. 1&3.

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  • 29. 

    The material in the CT x-ray tube which is bombarded with electrons and which gives off x-rays photons is known as the:

    • A.

      A. detector

    • B.

      B. target

    • C.

      C.electrical brushes

    • D.

      D. power supply

    Correct Answer
    B. B. target
    Explanation
    The material in the CT x-ray tube that is bombarded with electrons and emits x-ray photons is known as the "target." When high-speed electrons collide with the target material, they transfer their energy, causing the emission of x-ray photons. The target material is usually made of a heavy metal, such as tungsten, due to its high atomic number and ability to withstand the heat generated during the process. The x-ray photons produced by the target material are then used for imaging purposes in CT scans.

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  • 30. 

    The CT x-ray tube:

    • A.

      A. measures the x-ray information coming from the patient

    • B.

      B. moves the patient table during the scan

    • C.

      C. produces the beam of x-rays

    • D.

      D. shields the patient from the x-rays

    Correct Answer
    C. C. produces the beam of x-rays
    Explanation
    The CT x-ray tube produces the beam of x-rays used in the scan. It is responsible for generating the x-rays that pass through the patient's body and create the images. The tube contains a heated filament that emits electrons, which are then accelerated towards a metal target. When the electrons collide with the target, they produce x-rays. Therefore, option c is the correct answer as it accurately describes the function of the CT x-ray tube.

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  • 31. 

    Tungsten is used as the target material in a CT tube because it has a_____atomic weight and a_____melting point.

    • A.

      A. high, high

    • B.

      B. low, low

    • C.

      C. high, low

    • D.

      D. low, hig

    Correct Answer
    A. A. high, high
    Explanation
    Tungsten is used as the target material in a CT tube because it has a high atomic weight and a high melting point. The high atomic weight of tungsten allows for efficient x-ray production, as it can effectively interact with the electrons in the target material. Additionally, the high melting point of tungsten allows for the generation of high-energy x-rays without the risk of the target material melting or degrading. Therefore, using tungsten as the target material in a CT tube ensures optimal x-ray production and durability.

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  • 32. 

    Bremsstrahlung radiation results from: 1. collision between an incoming electron and the nucleus of the target atom. 2. slowing down of an incoming electron due to the effect of passing close to the nucleus of the target atom. 3. the ejection of an electron and subsequent filling of the vacancy by another electron in the target atom.

    • A.

      A. 2&3

    • B.

      B. 2 only

    • C.

      C. 1 only

    • D.

      D. 1&2

    Correct Answer
    D. D. 1&2
    Explanation
    Bremsstrahlung radiation is a type of electromagnetic radiation that is produced when a charged particle, such as an electron, is accelerated or decelerated by the electric field of an atomic nucleus. Option 1 states that Bremsstrahlung radiation results from the collision between an incoming electron and the nucleus of the target atom, which is correct. Option 2 states that it results from the slowing down of an incoming electron due to the effect of passing close to the nucleus of the target atom, which is also correct. Therefore, the correct answer is d. 1&2.

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  • 33. 

    The x-ray beam produced by a CT x-ray tube is composed of:

    • A.

      A. 75% characteristic radiation and 25% bremsstrahlung radiation

    • B.

      B. almost 100% bremsstrahlung radiation

    • C.

      C. almost 100% characteristic radiation

    • D.

      D. 50% characteristic radiation and 50% bremsstrahlung radiation

    Correct Answer
    B. B. almost 100% bremsstrahlung radiation
    Explanation
    The x-ray beam produced by a CT x-ray tube is composed of almost 100% bremsstrahlung radiation. Bremsstrahlung radiation is produced when high-speed electrons from the x-ray tube are slowed down or deflected by the target material. This interaction causes the electrons to lose energy and emit x-rays. In a CT scan, the target material is typically tungsten, which is a high atomic number material that efficiently produces bremsstrahlung radiation. Characteristic radiation, on the other hand, is produced when an electron from the x-ray tube knocks out an inner shell electron in the target material, causing an electron from an outer shell to fill the vacancy and emit an x-ray. However, in a CT scan, the energy of the x-ray beam is typically high, resulting in a minimal production of characteristic radiation. Therefore, the x-ray beam in a CT scan is composed mainly of bremsstrahlung radiation.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following is a factor in determining the attenuation of an x-ray beam? 1. the energy of the x-ray photons. 2. the atomic number of the atoms in the tissues penetrated by the beam. 3. the density of electrons of the atoms in the tissues penetrated by the beam.

    • A.

      1. 1&3

    • B.

      B. 2&3

    • C.

      C. 1,2&3

    • D.

      D. 1&2

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 1,2&3
    Explanation
    The attenuation of an x-ray beam is determined by multiple factors. The energy of the x-ray photons plays a role in determining the attenuation as higher energy photons are less likely to be absorbed by the tissues. The atomic number of the atoms in the tissues penetrated by the beam also affects attenuation as higher atomic number materials are more likely to interact with the x-ray photons. Additionally, the density of electrons of the atoms in the tissues penetrated by the beam influences attenuation as more electrons increase the likelihood of interaction with the x-ray photons. Therefore, all three factors, 1, 2, and 3, contribute to the attenuation of an x-ray beam.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following statements is TRUE?

    • A.

      A. a structure with a low atomic number will attenuate an x-ray beam more than a structure with a high atomic number

    • B.

      B. the density of a structure has nothing to do with how it attenuates an x-ray beam

    • C.

      C. a dense structure will attenuate an x-ray beam less than a structure which is not dense

    • D.

      D. a dense structure will attenuate an x-ray beam more than a structure which is not dense

    Correct Answer
    D. D. a dense structure will attenuate an x-ray beam more than a structure which is not dense
    Explanation
    A dense structure will attenuate an x-ray beam more than a structure which is not dense. This is because the density of a material affects its ability to absorb and scatter x-ray photons. A dense structure, with tightly packed atoms, will have more opportunities for the x-ray photons to interact and be absorbed or scattered, resulting in a greater attenuation of the beam. On the other hand, a structure with a low atomic number will have fewer opportunities for interaction and therefore attenuate the x-ray beam less.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following are the two mechanisms by which x-rays are attenuated?

    • A.

      A. collisions and absorption

    • B.

      B. absorption and characteristic

    • C.

      C. ionizing and scattering

    • D.

      D. absorption and scattering

    Correct Answer
    D. D. absorption and scattering
    Explanation
    X-rays are attenuated through the processes of absorption and scattering. Absorption occurs when the x-ray photons are absorbed by the atoms in the material, transferring their energy to the atoms. Scattering, on the other hand, involves the deflection of x-ray photons by the atoms in the material, changing their direction without being absorbed. Both absorption and scattering contribute to the attenuation of x-rays as they pass through a material, reducing their intensity. Therefore, option d, absorption and scattering, is the correct answer.

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  • 37. 

    The attenuation information measured by the detectors is called the:

    • A.

      A. back projection

    • B.

      B. filtered data

    • C.

      C. CT image

    • D.

      D. raw data

    Correct Answer
    D. D. raw data
    Explanation
    The attenuation information measured by the detectors is referred to as raw data because it represents the unprocessed data captured by the detectors during a CT scan. This data includes the varying levels of X-ray attenuation as it passes through different tissues and structures in the body. Raw data is further processed and reconstructed to generate CT images, which can be used for diagnostic purposes.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following events is responsible for changing the raw data into image data?

    • A.

      A. attenuation

    • B.

      B. ionization

    • C.

      C. reconstruction

    • D.

      D. reconversion

    Correct Answer
    C. C. reconstruction
    Explanation
    Reconstruction is the process responsible for changing raw data into image data. This involves taking the collected raw data, such as X-ray measurements, and using algorithms and mathematical techniques to convert it into a visual representation, such as a medical image. Attenuation refers to the reduction of intensity of a signal, ionization refers to the process of removing electrons from atoms, and reconversion is not a recognized term in this context.

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  • 39. 

    What is the most common type of film used for recording CT images?

    • A.

      A. paper

    • B.

      B. thermal

    • C.

      C. single emulsion

    • D.

      D. double emulsion

    Correct Answer
    C. C. single emulsion
    Explanation
    The most common type of film used for recording CT images is single emulsion. Single emulsion film is a type of photographic film that has a single layer of light-sensitive emulsion on one side. It is commonly used in medical imaging, including CT scans, because it provides high-resolution images with good contrast. Paper is not suitable for recording CT images as it does not have the necessary light-sensitive properties. Thermal film is typically used for thermal printing, not for recording CT images. Double emulsion film is not commonly used in medical imaging.

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  • 40. 

    Archiving refers to which of the following?

    • A.

      A. saving the images for long term storage

    • B.

      B. converting from raw data to CT images

    • C.

      C. a reduction in the number of x-ray photons in the x-ray beam

    • D.

      D. detecting the x-ray photons after they have passed through the patient

    Correct Answer
    A. A. saving the images for long term storage
    Explanation
    Archiving refers to saving the images for long term storage. This means that the images are stored and preserved for future reference or retrieval. Archiving is typically done to ensure that the images are securely stored and can be accessed when needed, even after a long period of time. It allows for the preservation of important medical records and imaging data for patient care, research, and legal purposes.

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  • 41. 

    Through which component are most of the commands from the technologist entered?

    • A.

      A. ADC

    • B.

      B. array processor

    • C.

      C. amplifier

    • D.

      D. operator's console

    Correct Answer
    D. D. operator's console
    Explanation
    Most of the commands from the technologist are entered through the operator's console. The operator's console is a component that allows the technologist to interact with the system and input commands. It provides a user interface where the technologist can control and monitor the system's operations. This component is essential for managing and operating the system effectively.

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  • 42. 

    The operator's console may include which of the following? 1. keyboard. 2. monitor. 3. graphic input device.

    • A.

      A. 1&3

    • B.

      B. 2&3

    • C.

      C. 1&2

    • D.

      D. 1,2&3

    Correct Answer
    D. D. 1,2&3
    Explanation
    The operator's console may include a keyboard, a monitor, and a graphic input device. These components are commonly found in an operator's console to allow the operator to interact with the system. The keyboard is used for inputting commands and data, the monitor displays information and output from the system, and the graphic input device allows the operator to interact with graphical elements on the screen. Therefore, the correct answer is d. 1, 2, and 3.

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  • 43. 

    Which of following could be executed at the operator's console? 1. image viewing. 2. image archiving. 3. patient registration.

    • A.

      A. 2&3

    • B.

      B. 1&2

    • C.

      C. 1&3

    • D.

      D. 1,2&3

    Correct Answer
    D. D. 1,2&3
    Explanation
    All three options could potentially be executed at the operator's console. Image viewing can be done to analyze and interpret medical images. Image archiving can be performed to store and retrieve medical images for future reference. Patient registration can also be done at the operator's console to input and update patient information in the system. Therefore, all options (1, 2, and 3) could be executed at the operator's console.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following is the location of the CT raw data storage device?

    • A.

      A. host computer

    • B.

      B. PACS

    • C.

      C. array processor

    • D.

      D. scan controller

    Correct Answer
    A. A. host computer
    Explanation
    The CT raw data storage device is located in the host computer. This is where the raw data from the CT scan is stored for further processing and analysis. The host computer serves as the central storage and processing unit for the CT scan data, allowing it to be accessed and manipulated by the radiologist or other medical professionals.

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  • 45. 

    Continuously without stopping and incrementally, stopping at discrete positions, are typical movements of the__________through the gantry.

    • A.

      A. detector array

    • B.

      B. CT tube

    • C.

      C. patient table

    • D.

      D. DAC

    Correct Answer
    C. C. patient table
    Explanation
    The correct answer is c. patient table. The question is asking about the typical movements of something through the gantry. The gantry is a part of a CT scanner that houses the X-ray tube and detector array. The X-ray tube and detector array are stationary and do not move during the scan. The patient table, on the other hand, moves continuously and incrementally through the gantry, stopping at discrete positions to capture images of different sections of the body. Therefore, the patient table is responsible for the continuous and incremental movements through the gantry.

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  • 46. 

    The patient table: 1. aligns the anatomy of interest with the x-ray beam. 2. has its motion controlled by the patient table controller. 3. advances through the opening in the gantry.

    • A.

      A. 2&3

    • B.

      B. 1&2

    • C.

      C. 1,2&3

    • D.

      D. 1&3

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 1,2&3
    Explanation
    The patient table is used in radiology to align the anatomy of interest with the x-ray beam. It is controlled by the patient table controller to ensure precise motion. The table also advances through the opening in the gantry, allowing the patient to be positioned correctly for imaging. Therefore, all three statements are correct, making the answer c. 1,2&3.

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  • 47. 

    CT systems:

    • A.

      A. utilize radio waves

    • B.

      B. utilize ionizing radiation

    • C.

      C. have no moving parts

    • D.

      D. are limited to scanning strictly in the transverse orientation

    Correct Answer
    B. B. utilize ionizing radiation
    Explanation
    CT systems utilize ionizing radiation to create detailed images of the body's internal structures. Ionizing radiation is used because it has the ability to penetrate through the body and interact with the tissues, creating a contrast in the images. This allows for the detection of abnormalities, such as tumors or fractures, that may not be visible with other imaging techniques. However, it is important to note that the use of ionizing radiation carries potential risks, such as an increased risk of cancer, which should be carefully considered and balanced against the potential benefits of the CT scan.

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  • 48. 

    If a patient is positioned on her back perfectly parallel to the patient table with a gantry tilt of 25 degrees, the resulting image is:

    • A.

      A. between coronal and sagittal

    • B.

      B. coronal

    • C.

      C. between transverse and coronal

    • D.

      D. sagittal

    Correct Answer
    C. C. between transverse and coronal
    Explanation
    When a patient is positioned on her back perfectly parallel to the patient table with a gantry tilt of 25 degrees, the resulting image will be between transverse and coronal. This means that the image will show a cross-sectional view of the body, but not exactly in the transverse or coronal plane. The gantry tilt introduces an oblique angle to the image, resulting in a view that is in between the two planes.

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  • 49. 

    CT images which are NOT strictly transverse can be directly acquired by:

    • A.

      A. shielding the patient

    • B.

      B. tilting the gantry

    • C.

      C. collimating the x-ray beam

    • D.

      D. turning the x-ray tube

    Correct Answer
    B. B. tilting the gantry
    Explanation
    CT images are typically acquired in a transverse plane, meaning that the patient is positioned horizontally on the table and the x-ray beam is directed perpendicular to the patient's body. However, in certain cases, it may be necessary to acquire images in a different plane. One way to do this is by tilting the gantry, which allows the x-ray beam to be directed at an angle other than perpendicular. By tilting the gantry, images can be obtained in oblique or coronal planes, providing additional information for diagnosis.

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  • 50. 

    The high voltage generator:

    • A.

      A. may be a stationary component which is not on the gantry

    • B.

      B. is responsible for measuring the attenuated x-ray beam

    • C.

      C. is responsible for the motion of the patient table

    • D.

      D. is always mounted on the rotating assembly of the gantry

    Correct Answer
    A. A. may be a stationary component which is not on the gantry
    Explanation
    The high voltage generator may be a stationary component which is not on the gantry. This means that it is not located on the rotating assembly of the gantry, but rather in a fixed position. The high voltage generator is responsible for generating the high voltage needed to produce the x-ray beam. It is separate from the gantry and is not involved in measuring the attenuated x-ray beam or motion of the patient table.

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