# Common Exam - Earth Science Review

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This quiz should give you a good idea of how you will do tomorrow on the Common Exam. I am going to give you a grade to mix in with your MAJOR GRADES which is 60% of your grade in this class. As long as you are doing this quiz on your own you can take it again in class TODAY to get a higher grade.

• 1.

### Why does Earth experience precession?

• A.

Because the Earth revolves around the sun every 365 days

• B.

Because of the movement of the circumpolar stars and Polaris

• C.

Because the Earth is the third planet from the sun

• D.

Because the plane of the moonâ€™s orbit is tilted from the Earthâ€™s elliptical plane

D. Because the plane of the moonâ€™s orbit is tilted from the Earthâ€™s elliptical plane
Explanation
The Earth's rotation axis is not fixed in space. Like a rotating toy top, the direction of the rotation axis executes a slow precession with a period of 26,000 years (see following figure).

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• 2.

• 3.

### Which is true about Earth’s motion through space?

• A.

The Earthâ€™s revolution changes the Sunâ€”Earth gravitational pull.

• B.

The Earthâ€™s rotation causes annual changes in its surface temperatures.

• C.

The tilt of the Earthâ€™s axis and its revolution around the sun produces seasons.

• D.

The Earthâ€™s precession affects the amount of heat reflected from its surface.

C. The tilt of the Earthâ€™s axis and its revolution around the sun produces seasons.
• 4.

### Which of the following chemical reactions produce the sun’s energy?

• A.

Helium nuclei are combined by nuclear fusion.

• B.

Oxygen is present to cause combustion of solar fuel molecules.

• C.

Hydrogen nuclei combine through nuclear fusion into helium.

• D.

Helium and oxygen break down through nuclear fission.

C. Hydrogen nuclei combine through nuclear fusion into helium.
• 5.

### How is solar energy essential to plants?

• A.

The ultraviolet radiation of the sun generates ozone for plants to support all life.

• B.

The wavelengths of visible light stimulate plant cells to produce energy compounds by photosynthesis.

• C.

The microwaves emitted by the sun stimulate animal reproduction in the rainforest.

• D.

The infrared radiation reflected from the Earthâ€™s surface drives the carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen cycles.

B. The wavelengths of visible light stimulate plant cells to produce energy compounds by photosynthesis.
Explanation
Photosynthesis is essential for life on Earth.  It provides oxygen and food for living things and it takes in carbon dioxide.  The Sun provides the necessary energy for photosynthesis to happen.   See diagram below:

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• 6.

### How does the sun’s energy affect food webs on Earth?

• A.

The ultraviolet radiation of the sun generates ozone for plants to support all life.

• B.

The wavelengths of visible light stimulate plant cells to produce energy compounds by photosynthesis.

• C.

The microwaves emitted by the sun stimulate animal reproduction in the rainforest.

• D.

The infrared radiation reflected from the Earthâ€™s surface drives the carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen cycles.

B. The wavelengths of visible light stimulate plant cells to produce energy compounds by photosynthesis.
• 7.

• 8.

### How does the subduction of crustal plates influence the rock cycle?

• A.

The processes of heating and melting of rock layers form the parent material for igneous rock.

• B.

The processes of cementing and compaction form sedimentary rock.

• C.

The parent material is provided for weathering and erosion.

• D.

The intense heat and pressure forms metamorphic rock.

A. The processes of heating and melting of rock layers form the parent material for igneous rock.
• 9.

### Where do most Earthquakes/Volcanoes occur?

• A.

In Japan

• B.

On the mid-ocean ridge

• C.

Around the Ring of Fire

• D.

In Hawaii

C. Around the Ring of Fire
Explanation
The ring of fire is surrounded by plate boundaries causing stress which lead to Earthquakes.

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• 10.

### Why are seismic waves of an earthquake more strongly felt at the epicenter of an earthquake?

• A.

Because millions of small movements of the crust occur here

• B.

Because most faults converge at the epicenter

• C.

Because the epicenter is directly the focus, the place inside the earth where the earthquake starts

• D.

Because crustal plates rise and fall with the ocean tides

C. Because the epicenter is directly the focus, the place inside the earth where the earthquake starts
• 11.

### Approximately when did the fault occur?

• A.

After layer B was deposited

• B.

After layer C was deposited

• C.

After layer D was deposited

• D.

prior to all the deposition of all sedimentary strata

A. After layer B was deposited
Explanation
All of the layers had to have been there first before a fault could develop through them. (Layer A was not an option so layer was the best answer.)

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• 12.

### In which of he following climates will chemical weathering be most rapid?

• A.

Hot and dry

• B.

Hot and humid

• C.

Cool and dry

• D.

Cool and humid

B. Hot and humid
• 13.

### Why are wind, water, and gravity major agents of erosion rather than weathering?

• A.

Because weathering is often limited to physical changes in earth materials

• B.

Because weathering is often limited to chemical changes in earth materials

• C.

Because erosion involves the stationary processes that break down rock

• D.

Because erosion involves movement of earth materials from one location to another

D. Because erosion involves movement of earth materials from one location to another
• 14.

### From a scientific perspective, which of the following sequences of action is the best way to solve the problem of wetland erosion?

• A.

• B.

Dredging, sand bags, plantings

• C.

Dredging, hard stabilization, plantings

• D.

Hard stabilization, sediment transport, pesticide treatment

A. Add sediments, plantings, monitor plantings
• 15.

• 16.

### Which is more likely to prevent mass-movement events?

• A.

Constructing buildings in stream drainage paths

• B.

Clear-cutting trees from the side of a mountain

• C.

Paving roads next to sloping hills

• D.

Contour plowing of crop areas

D. Contour plowing of crop areas
Explanation
The more vegetation or roots you have in the ground the less likely the soil will move. See diagram below. The plants will catch the water and hold the soil in place with contour plowing.

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• 17.

### What are some ways to reduce soil erosion?

• A.

No till farming

• B.

Contour plowing

• C.

Crop rotations

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
Contour Plowing
plowing along the slope of the land created ridges between rows that prevent the soil from washing downhill

No-Till Farming
no plowing after harvest between fall and spring use remains of last years crop as organic matter/fertilizer roots hold soil in place

Crop Rotations
rotating what you grow and where you grow them switch back and forth between plants that require a lot of nutrients and those that return nutrients to the soil (cotton/soybeans)

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• 18.

### Which of the following cause soil erosion?

• A.

Plowing

• B.

Overharvesting

• C.

Ranching

• D.

Clearing Forest (Deforestation)

• E.

All of the above

E. All of the above
Explanation
All of the listed activities - plowing, overharvesting, ranching, and clearing forest (deforestation) - contribute to soil erosion. Plowing involves turning the soil, which can lead to the loss of topsoil through wind or water erosion. Overharvesting refers to the excessive removal of vegetation, which leaves the soil exposed and vulnerable to erosion. Ranching involves the removal of natural vegetation for grazing, which can also lead to soil erosion. Clearing forests, or deforestation, removes the protective cover of trees, leading to increased soil erosion due to the loss of root systems that stabilize the soil.

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• 19.

### How does the replacement of large land areas with concrete and asphalt affect the land?

• A.

It changes the bedrock of underlying layers of soil.

• B.

It prevents the dynamics of the rock cycle.

• C.

It increases the amount of groundwater in porous rock.

• D.

It increases erosion of sediments by increasing runoff.

D. It increases erosion of sediments by increasing runoff.
Explanation
First you are taking away soil by covering it in asphalt and then you increase the amount of water that is running off onto the remaining soil increasing erosion. (MOVEMENT of soil particles to another place.)

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• 20.

• 21.

### Why does mining of coal and other natural resources often result in environment pollution?

• A.

Mining pollutes the air near streams.

• B.

Mining produces acid precipitation near streams.

• C.

Mining creates waste material which can flow into streams.

• D.

Mining strips the surface of the land near streams

C. Mining creates waste material which can flow into streams.
Explanation
Mining tailings (parts of the ground that aren't used.) Can eventually runoff from precipitation and end up either in the soil or in the surface water.

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• 22.

### Of the following, which energy source produces the least amount of solid waste?

• A.

Coal

• B.

Natural gas

• C.

Oil

• D.

Peat

B. Natural gas
Explanation
Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel.  It pollutes LESS than coal and oil and it creates less waste in general.

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• 23.

### Which of the following is NOT a fossil fuel?

• A.

Coal

• B.

Oil

• C.

Biomass

• D.

Gas

C. Biomass
Explanation
Biomass is a renewable resource that can include burning wood from trees or creating biofuels like gas made of corn.

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• 24.

### Which of the following is NOT a renewable energy resource?

• A.

Nuclear Energy

• B.

Hydroelectricity

• C.

Wind Power

• D.

Solar Energy

A. Nuclear Energy
Explanation
Nuclear Power comes from the radioactive element Uranium which is a NON renewable resource and our supply will eventually run out.

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• 25.

### The gravitation pull of the Sun and Moon creates what on Earth?

• A.

Waves

• B.

Tides

• C.

Mass Movements

• D.

Wind

B. Tides
• 26.

### How is the balance of heat energy maintained in the oceans?

• A.

The sunâ€™s energy is equally distributed throughout the oceans.

• B.

The tides transfer heat energy across the oceans.

• C.

The movement of waves transfers heat energy throughout the oceans.

• D.

Heat energy is cycled by currents between the equator and the polar regions.

D. Heat energy is cycled by currents between the equator and the polar regions.
Explanation
The Poles are cold and they send cold water to the equator and the Equator (O degrees/ center of the Earth) is warm and it sends warm water to the poles which moderates the climate.

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• 27.

• 28.

### When is the subsurface phase of the water cycle complete?

• A.

When groundwater emerges in places where the water table interacts with the ground surface

• B.

When precipitation produces runoff into streams above the surface

• C.

When water remains in the ground as part of the water table

• D.

When water infiltrates the ground after rain, sleet, or snow accumulate

A. When groundwater emerges in places where the water table interacts with the ground surface
Explanation
Subsurface = below the ground.

All ground water will eventually flow into a river or stream, which is above the surface.

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• 29.

### In what type of soil would seepage of groundwater into streams occur the slowest?

• A.

Fine sand

• B.

Gravel

• C.

Clay

• D.

Silt

C. Clay
Explanation
Clay has the smallest particle size and thus when it is put together with other clay particles it will have a low porosity and permeability.

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• 30.

### How would several wells in a given area affect the balance of groundwater recharge and discharge?

• A.

The wells would provide dissolved oxygen.

• B.

The wells would increase the water table level by adding water from runoff.

• C.

The wells would deplete the groundwater which is usually supplied by percolation from rain.

• D.

The wells would provide storage areas for groundwater to maintain the water level.

C. The wells would deplete the groundwater which is usually supplied by percolation from rain.
Explanation
Water from wells comes from groundwater. Taking away water from the ground will lower the water table or the line where the water is underground.

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• 31.

### When a sewer pipe breaks near a stream which would most likely occur?

• A.

Increase in salinity

• B.

Decrease in dissolved nitrogen

• C.

Decrease in dissolved oxygen

• D.

Increase in pesticides

C. Decrease in dissolved oxygen
Explanation
The bacteria that breaks down or "eats" the waste requires a lot of oxygen so there will be less of it in the water and fish will probably either die or leave that area.

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• 32.

### Which of the following is the correct layers of the atmosphere starting with the layer closest to the Earth?

• A.

Troposphere, Thermosphere, Stratosphere, Exosphere, Mesosphere

• B.

Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere

• C.

Exosphere, Stratosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Troposphere

• D.

Mesosphere, Troposphere, Stratosphere, Exosphere, Thermosphere

B. Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere
• 33.

### The earth’s atmosphere is mainly composed of which gases?

• A.

Argon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen

• B.

Carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen and nitrogen

• C.

Argon, methane, CFC's and oxygen

• D.

A. Argon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen
• 34.

### How does a cold front form?

• A.

Warm air advances and replaces cold air.

• B.

Cold air advances, forcing warm air to rise.

• C.

Warm and cold air masses meet and mix.

• D.

Warm and cold air masses have no relative advancement.

B. Cold air advances, forcing warm air to rise.
• 35.

### How are hurricanes and tornadoes related to air masses?

• A.

They form within air masses.

• B.

They form where air masses meet.

• C.

They form where air pressure is the same.

• D.

They form where air temperatures are the same

B. They form where air masses meet.
• 36.

### Which direction is the wind blowing at this weather station?

• A.

Northeast

• B.

Northwest

• C.

Southeast

• D.

Southwest

A. Northeast
Explanation
Winds are named by where they come from. You look for the "staff" which is the line and what direction it is pointing ...in this case NE.

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• 37.

### On an August afternoon in North Carolina, the barometric pressure is 29.92 inches and falling. What weather condition is likely to happen?

• A.

Clearing skies and cooler temperatures

• B.

Continued fair weather

• C.

An imminent storm

• D.

Conditions will slowly improve

C. An imminent storm
Explanation
If the air pressure is falling that means it will be less dense and start to rise. When air rises clouds form and precipitation can happen.

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• 38.

### Where would the highest amounts of acid rain most likely be found?

• A.

Over the ocean

• B.

In the ocean

• C.

In urban areas

• D.

In the mountains

C. In urban areas
Explanation
Acid rain forms from pollution like sulfur or nitrates that comes from factories or cars that are in urban or city areas.

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• 39.

### What is the major difference between weather and climate?

• A.

Air temperature

• B.

Air pressure

• C.

Humidity

• D.

Time

D. Time
Explanation
The major difference between weather and climate is time. Weather refers to the atmospheric conditions in a specific location at a particular moment, such as temperature, air pressure, and humidity. It can change rapidly and is short-term. On the other hand, climate refers to the average weather patterns in a region over a long period, typically 30 years or more. Climate takes into account long-term trends and variations in weather patterns. Therefore, time is the key factor that distinguishes weather and climate.

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• 40.

### Which of the following is an example of climate?

• A.

The current temperature in Pinehurst, NC

• B.

The relative humidity in Raleigh, NC

• C.

The average current temperature in a region

• D.

The average temperature in Raleigh, NC over the past 30 years

D. The average temperature in Raleigh, NC over the past 30 years
Explanation
Climate is the average temperature over 30 years.

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• 41.

### Many of the biomes that exist on Earth can be found in the western parts of North Carolina. What is the primary reason for the existence of such a wide range of biomes in this area?

• A.

The rivers and lakes in the mountain areas

• B.

The wide range of altitudes of the mountains

• C.

They types of rocks that make up the mountains

• D.

The wind and water erosion of the mountains

B. The wide range of altitudes of the mountains
Explanation
Different altitudes equal different temperatures. The higher you go up in altitude the colder the climate. North Carolina has the Appalachian mountains so we have a wide range of biomes. A biome is based on temperature, climate and the plants that live there.

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• 42.

### How is biodiversity essential to the environment?

• A.

Biodiversity decreases the chance that at least some living things will survive in the face of large changes in the environment.

• B.

Biodiversity decreases the stability of the ecosystem.

• C.

Biodiversity adds to the aesthetical value of the environment and reduces the amount of genetic material in the environment.

• D.

Biodiversity adds to the aesthetical value of the environment and increases the amount of genetic material in the environment.

D. Biodiversity adds to the aesthetical value of the environment and increases the amount of genetic material in the environment.
Explanation
Biodiversity is essential to the environment because it adds to the aesthetical value of the environment, making it more visually appealing and diverse. Additionally, biodiversity increases the amount of genetic material in the environment, which is important for the survival and adaptation of different species. This genetic diversity allows for a greater chance of some living things to survive in the face of large changes in the environment, ensuring the stability and resilience of ecosystems.

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• 43.

### Which human activity would be most destructive to the biodiversity of the biosphere?

• A.

the burning of wood and coal in rural areas

• B.

The release of species of freshwater trout in lakes

• C.

The removal of plants from the food webs they support

• D.

The removal of erosion barriers from forest boundaries

C. The removal of plants from the food webs they support
Explanation
Plants are the primary producers and provide food for everything!

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• 44.

### Which alternative energy technology could take advantage of land and sea breezes in coastal North Carolina?

• A.

Biofuels production

• B.

Wind farms

• C.

Solar energy panels

• D.

Nuclear fusion

B. Wind farms
Explanation
We are a coastal state so we live near the ocean and there is different air pressures over the water versus the land and this creates WIND.

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• 45.

### Why should the farming industry adopt sustainable agriculture practices?

• A.

To increase the use of irrigation systems

• B.

To increase the number of non-point sources of water pollution

• C.

To increase the amount of erosion and deposition

• D.

To reduce the environmental degradation and economic losses

D. To reduce the environmental degradation and economic losses
Explanation
Sustainability is using resources responsibly so we have them in the FUTURE.

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• 46.

### Which change would most likely occur as a result of rapid increases in the global population?

• A.

The price of labor to harvest raw food supplies would decrease.

• B.

The price of transporting food would cause lowering of food prices.

• C.

There would be a high demand for limited natural resources.

• D.

The present global management of natural resources would remain the same.

C. There would be a high demand for limited natural resources.
Explanation
The more people there are on Earth the more resources we would use.

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• 47.

### What is the greatest cause for the loss of Biodiversity?

• A.

Habitat Destruction

• B.

Invasive Species

• C.

OverPopulation

• D.

Pollution

A. Habitat Destruction
Explanation
All of the above are reasons for Biodiversity Decline but HABITAT Destruction is number one. Think HIPPO and the H is first!

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• 48.

### If your water source has a pH of 4 what can that mean?

• A.

The lake is basic and no fish can survive

• B.

The lake is acidic and no fish can survive

• C.

Eutrophication has happened

• D.

The lake is polluted with sewage

B. The lake is acidic and no fish can survive
Explanation
A pH of 4 indicates that the water source is acidic. This low pH level can be harmful to fish, as it can disrupt their respiratory and metabolic processes, leading to their inability to survive in the lake.

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• 49.

### The movement that creates day and night is:

• A.

Revolution

• B.

Rotation

• C.

Eccentricity

• D.

Coriolis Effect

B. Rotation
Explanation
ROTATION = Day and Night - sometimes we are facing the sun (Day) and sometimes we are not (Night)

REVOLUTION = YEAR - we revolve around the Sun once a year which is 365 days.... this create our seasons.

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• 50.

• A.

1%

• B.

10%

• C.

50%

• D.

90%