Do You Know About Cognition? Trivia Quiz

22 Questions | Total Attempts: 284

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Do You Know About Cognition? Trivia Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Connectionist or parallel distributed processing (PDP) models differ from classic associative networks in that connectionism ________.
    • A. 

      Employs distributed processes

    • B. 

      Relies on a central executive to coordinate processing

    • C. 

      Uses local representations rather than distributed representations

    • D. 

      Draws mostly on serial processing

  • 2. 
    The famous patient H.M. is unable to remember events he experienced after his brain surgery. The surgery apparently produced ________.
    • A. 

      Anterograde amnesia

    • B. 

      Repression

    • C. 

      Retrograde amnesia

    • D. 

      Infantile amnesia

  • 3. 
    When presented with a list of words along a theme (e.g., “bed,” “rest,” “slumber,” “dream,” “tired”), participants often (mis)recall the theme word to be part of the list (e.g., “sleep”). This procedure is commonly referred to as the ________.
    • A. 

      Disclusion–Recall–Memory procedure

    • B. 

      Decreased-Remembering-Magniture procedure

    • C. 

      Deese–Roediger–McDermott procedure

    • D. 

      Daily-Reconstructing-Mnemonics procedure

  • 4. 
    4.   Participants viewed a series of slides depicting an automobile accident. Immediately afterward, half of the participants were asked, “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” Other participants were asked, “How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” One week later, all participants were asked more questions about the slides, including whether they had seen any broken glass in the slides. A comparison of the two groups of participants is likely to show that ________.
    • A. 

      Participants who were asked the “smashed” question gave higher estimates of speed and were more likely to remember seeing broken glass

    • B. 

      The groups gave similar estimates of speed, but the “smashed” group was more likely to remember seeing broken glass

    • C. 

      Participants who were asked the “smashed” question gave higher estimates of speed, but the groups gave similar responses to the “broken glass” question

    • D. 

      The minor contrast in how the groups were questioned had no effect on participants’ memories

  • 5. 
    The claim that mental categories have graded membership is the claim that ________.________.
    • A. 

      One cannot specify precisely whether a test case is in the category

    • B. 

      Some category members are better suited than others as category members

    • C. 

      A participant’s belief about a category’s membership shifts as the participant learns more about the category

    • D. 

      Many category members approach the ideal for that category

  • 6. 
    The misinformation effect refers to the fact that false information, presented after a participant has encoded an event, can intrude into the participant’s subsequent recall of the event. This “planting” of memories _______.
    • A. 

      Seems restricted to small memory errors

    • B. 

      Is only possible if done by an authority figure

    • C. 

      Seems possible for remembered actions but not remembered objects

    • D. 

      Can occur outside of the laboratory

  • 7. 
    Information that is perceived as relevant to the self is better remembered. This is referred to as the _______.
    • A. 

      Ego directive

    • B. 

      Autobiographical perspective advantage

    • C. 

      Self-reference effect

    • D. 

      Self-importance law

  • 8. 
    The term “basic-level category” refers to the ________.
    • A. 

      Level of categorization regarded by most participants as indisputable

    • B. 

      Most general level of categorization participants can think of

    • C. 

      Most specific level of categorization participants can think of

    • D. 

      Most natural level of categorization, neither too specific nor too general

  • 9. 
    Our “self-schema” is NOT likely to include ________.
    • A. 

      Knowledge of how we spend our Tuesday nights

    • B. 

      Ideas about our political beliefs when young

    • C. 

      Accurate memories about poor grades

    • D. 

      Our usual behaviors

  • 10. 
    A node’s “response threshold” refers to ________.
    • A. 

      The beginning moments of the node’s response

    • B. 

      How strongly the node has to respond in order to influence other nodes

    • C. 

      The level of activation that will cause the node to fire

    • D. 

      The maximum rate at which the node will respond

  • 11. 
    Participants are better able to remember material learned earlier if they are in the same state at the time of recall that they were in at the time of learning. In network terms, this reflects the fact that nodes for the target materials ________.
    • A. 

      Are receiving activation from both the nodes representing the learned material and the nodes representing the participants’ state

    • B. 

      Are associated indirectly only with the material that had been learned earlier

    • C. 

      Have higher response thresholds in some states than in others

    • D. 

      Probably have a low degree of fan

  • 12. 
    A great deal of forgetting may reflect a (perhaps temporary) inability to locate the target information in storage. This sort of forgetting is called ________.
    • A. 

      Repression

    • B. 

      Retrieval failure

    • C. 

      Interference

    • D. 

      State dependency

  • 13. 
    In a sentence-verification task, participants respond to these two sentences: “A canary has feathers,” and “A canary is yellow.” We should predict faster response times to the second sentence because ________.
    • A. 

      Participants are slowed by semantic ambiguity

    • B. 

      Participants’ responses are faster to perceptual properties than to conceptual ones

    • C. 

      Participants are faster in judging “isa” associations than they are in judging “hasa” associations

    • D. 

      The property of having feathers is associated with the bird node, not the canary node

  • 14. 
    The concept of “degree of fan” refers to ________.
    • A. 

      The relationship between thoughts and concepts

    • B. 

      The speed with which a node will respond to a given input

    • C. 

      How many associative links radiate out from a node

    • D. 

      The rate at which activation of a node returns to baseline levels

  • 15. 
    Which of the following is an advantage of a winner-takes-all system?
    • A. 

      It allows the largest possible number of nodes to be activated.

    • B. 

      It prevents stronger nodes from excessively inhibiting the input of weaker nodes.

    • C. 

      It provides a selective mechanism so that distracting thoughts do not trigger other distracting thoughts.

    • D. 

      It promotes activation of side-thoughts, which in turn promotes the discovery of novel associations.

  • 16. 
    The notion of associative networks is based on the general idea that memory connections are ________.
    • A. 

      Hard to construct

    • B. 

      Our memories

    • C. 

      Sparse

    • D. 

      Not really important

  • 17. 
    Categorization models based on family resemblance rely on ________.
    • A. 

      The definition of each category

    • B. 

      Feature overlap among the members of a category

    • C. 

      The necessary conditions for membership in a category

    • D. 

      The sufficient conditions for membership in a category

  • 18. 
    In Trial 18 of a sentence-verification task, participants see the sentence “A robin is a bird.” In Trial 42 they see “A penguin is a bird.” According to prototype theory, we should expect ________.
    • A. 

      Faster responses to “robin” because participants more readily see the resemblance between “robin” and the bird prototype

    • B. 

      Faster responses to “penguin” because penguins are a unique bird, thus easily identified

    • C. 

      Faster responses to “robin” because of response priming

    • D. 

      Faster responses to “penguin” because penguins are higher in typicality

  • 19. 
    An important difference between categorization via exemplars and categorization via prototypes is that according to exemplar theory ________.
    • A. 

      The standard used in a particular category can vary from one occasion to the next

    • B. 

      One categorizes objects by comparing them to a mentally represented standard

    • C. 

      Categorization depends on a judgment of resemblance

    • D. 

      Categories are represented in the mind by a relatively concrete illustration of the category

  • 20. 
    The text points out that plums and lawn mowers share many traits. This suggests that
    • A. 

      There is a strong resemblance between plums and lawn mowers

    • B. 

      Resemblance is not influenced by shared traits

    • C. 

      In judging resemblance, we must determine which traits matter and which do not

    • D. 

      Distinctive traits, not shared traits, determine resemblance judgments

  • 21. 
    Abigail saw the stimulus “all_____” and was asked to think of a word that began with these letters. This task is called:
    • A. 

      A lexical decision

    • B. 

      Word-stem completion

    • C. 

      Semantic priming

    • D. 

      Explicit memory

  • 22. 
    In a memory network a connection tying two nodes together is called a(n)__________.
    • A. 

      Associative link

    • B. 

      Nodal highway

    • C. 

      Axon

    • D. 

      Memory tie

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